PATH (PATH)

PATH 316. Fundamental Immunology. 4 Units.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, PATH 316 and PATH 416. Prereq: BIOL 215 and BIOL 215L.

PATH 390. Undergraduate Research in Cancer Biology, Immunology, or Pathology. 1 - 3 Units.

Students undertake a research project directly related to ongoing research in the investigator's/instructor's laboratory. Written proposal outlining research topic, a schedule of meetings and format and length of final written report to be prepared prior to registration for credit. Recommended preparation: One year of college chemistry and consent of instructor.

PATH 405. Discussions in Molecular Immunology (Health and Disease). 2 Units.

Targeted student population would be undergraduate (Biology major), PhD, MD, or MD/PhD students interested in emerging research on the mechanisms of molecular immunology and effects on health and defects in disease. Readings will be assigned, and students will come to class prepared for discussions. P/NP grades will be based on these discussions. 5 or fewer students will be selected for this class. Prereq: Undergraduate Biology majors, PhD, MD, or MD/PhD students.

PATH 406. Basic Cancer Biology and the Interface with Clinical Oncology. 3 Units.

This is a graduate-level introductory course in cancer biology taught through the Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology. This course will give students a broad overview of current basic cancer biology, highlight recent advances in cancer therapeutics, and provide a clinical perspective of the pathogenesis and treatment of common cancers. Classes will be of lecture and discussion format, and will also include student discussion of journal research articles to develop critical thinking in cancer research and experimental design as well as presentation/communication skills. About 1 to 3 students per class will be scheduled to lead the presentation and discussion of the selected journal articles. However, all students will be required to read the material in advance and be ready for discussion. Topics will cover growth factor action and signal transduction, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA damage, apoptosis, cancer immunology, cancer stem cells, metastasis, angiogenesis, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapeutics, photodynamic therapy, targeting cancer stem cells, chemoprevention, and clinical aspects of cancers of the breast, prostate, lymphatic tissue, and colon. Course grades for PHRM/PATH 520 (Ph.D. track): will be determined by class participation/presentation (40%), an original research grant proposal (35%) and written and oral critiques of two research proposals (25%). Course grades for PHRM/PATH 406 (M.S. and non-degree track): will be determined by class participation/presentation (40%), a literature review term paper (35%) and oral defense of term paper with course directors (25%). Presentations/Participation: Instructors will complete a standardized evaluation form to provide you uniform feedback in a timely manner. Required Reading: Assigned reviews, original articles (in blackboard) Recommended Reading: The Biology of Cancer (2nd Edition), by Robert A. Weinberg Garland Science, copyright 2014 Recommended Preparation: A course in Cell Biology. A course in Molecular Biology. Offered as PATH 406, PATH 520, PHRM 406 and PHRM 520.

PATH 410. Aging and the Nervous System. 1 Unit.

Lectures and discussion on aspects of neurobiology of aging in model systems; current research on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

PATH 415. Cytoskeleton and Disease. 1 Unit.

Discussion of recent papers that have added to knowledge of normal cytoskeletal functions and their alterations in disease.

PATH 416. Fundamental Immunology. 4 Units.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, PATH 316 and PATH 416. Prereq: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.

PATH 417. Cytokines: Function, Structure, and Signaling. 3 Units.

Regulation of immune responses and differentiation of leukocytes is modulated by proteins (cytokines) secreted and/or expressed by both immune and non-immune cells. Course examines the function, expression, gene organization, structure, receptors, and intracellular signaling of cytokines. Topic include regulatory and inflammatory cytokines, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, cytokine and cytokine receptor gene families, intracellular signaling through STAT proteins and tyrosine phosphorylation, clinical potential, and genetic defects. Lecture format using texts, scientific reviews and research articles. Recommended preparation: PATH 416 or equivalent. Offered as BIOL 417, CLBY 417, and PATH 417.

PATH 418. Tumor Immunology. 3 Units.

Interactions between the immune system and tumor cells. Topics include the historical definition of tumor specific transplantation antigens, immune responses against tumor cells, the effects of tumor cell products on host immune responses, molecular identification of tumor specific transplantation antigens and recent advances in the immunotherapy of human cancers. Prereq: PATH 416.

PATH 420. Topics in Evolution and Medicine. 3 Units.

The course will be based primarily on the textbook, as well as additional readings to supplement this lucide but relatively brief introduction to the field. Topics to be covered include the overview of the relevance of evolution to medicine; human demography, history and disease; basic and evolutionary genetics; cystic fibrosis; life history trade-offs and the evolutionary biology of aging; cancer; host-pathogen interactions and co-evolution; somatic cell mutation, selection, and evolution in health and disease (not in textbook); sexually transmitted diseases; malaria; gene culture co-evolution; and man-made diseases. Recommended Preparation: Undergraduate knowledge of genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, microbiology, and immunology is advisable. Prior consultation and permission from the Course Director is strongly advised.

PATH 422. Current Topics in Cancer. 3 Units.

The concept of cancer hallmarks has provided a useful guiding principle in our understanding of the complexity of cancer. The hallmarks include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, enabling replicative immortality, activating invasion and metastasis, inducing angiogenesis, resisting cell death, deregulating cellular energetics, avoiding immune destruction, tumor-promoting inflammation, and genome instability and mutation. The objectives of this course are to (1) examine the principles of some of these hallmarks, and (2) explore potential therapies developed based on these hallmarks of cancer. This is a student-driven and discussion-based graduate course. Students should have had some background on the related subjects and have read scientific papers in their prior coursework. Students will be called on to present and discuss experimental design, data and conclusions from assigned publications. There will be no exams or comprehensive papers but students will submit a one-page critique (strengths and weaknesses) of one of the assigned papers prior to each class meeting. The course will end with a full-day student-run symposium on topics to be decided jointly by students and the course director. Grades will be based on class participation, written critiques, and symposium presentations. Offered as BIOC 420, MBIO 420, PATH 422, and PHRM 420. Prereq: CBIO 453 and CBIO 455.

PATH 430. Oxidative Stress and Disease Pathogenesis. 1 Unit.

Oxidative stress and free radicals are implicated in a number of disease processes including aging, arthritis, emphysema, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Lecture course with discussion of recent studies concerning the formation and destructive mechanisms of free radicals in the context of various disease processes. Students read assigned papers and discuss these in class.

PATH 432. Current Topics in Vision Research. 3 Units.

Vision research is an exciting and multidisciplinary area that draws on the disciplines of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, structural biology, neuroscience, and pathology. This graduate level course will provide the student with broad exposure to the most recent and relevant research currently being conducted in the field. Topics will cover a variety of diseases and fundamental biological processes occurring in the eye. Regions of the eye that will be discussed include the cornea, lens, and retina. Vision disorders discussed include age-related macular degeneration, retinal ciliopathies, and diabetic retinopathy. Instructors in the course are experts in their field and are members of the multidisciplinary visual sciences research community here at Case Western Reserve University. Students will be exposed to the experimental approaches and instrumentation currently being used in the laboratory and in clinical settings. Topics will be covered by traditional lectures, demonstrations in the laboratory and the clinic, and journal club presentations. Students will be graded on their performance in journal club presentations (40%), research proposal (40%), and class participation (20%). Offered as NEUR 432, PATH 432, PHRM 432 and BIOC 432.

PATH 444. Neurodegenerative Diseases:Pathological,Cell. & Molecular Perspectives. 3 Units.

This course, taught by several faculty members, encompasses the full range of factors that contribute to the development of neurodegeneration. Subjects include pathological aspects, neurodegeneration, genetic aspects, protein conformation and cell biology in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion diseases. Students read assigned primary literature and present and discuss these in class.

PATH 450. Interdisciplinary Muscoloskeletal Research: Selected Topics and Grant Writing Workshop. 3 Units.

This is an introductory graduate course in MSK research topics, grant writing, and reviewing skills. During this course, each student will be introduced to diverse multidisciplinary topics in MSK research and will write a research grant on a MSK topic of his/her choice that is not regurgitation of their mentor's grant. Students will also participate in editing and reviewing the proposals of their classmates. Proposals can form the basis of fellowship applications (F30/F31). For predocs, your department/program may allow the proposal to form the basis for the written component of your preliminary examination. Recommended Preparation: Current engagement in musculoskeletal research.

PATH 460. Introduction to Microarrays. 3 Units.

Microarray technology is an exciting new technique that is used to analyze gene expression in a wide variety of organisms. The goal of this course is to give participants a hands-on introduction to this technology. The course is intended for individuals who are preparing to use this technique, including students, fellows, and other investigators. This is a hands-on computer-based course, which will enable participants to conduct meaningful analyses of microarray data. Participants will gain an understanding of the principles underlying microarray technologies, including: theory of sample preparation, sample processing on microarrays, familiarity with the use of Affymetrix Microarray Suite software and generation of data sets. Transferring data among software packages to manipulate data will also be discussed. Importation of data into other software (GeneSpring and DecisionSite) will enable participants to mine the data for higher-order patterns. Participants will learn about the rationale behind the choice of normalization and data filtering strategies, distance metrics, use of appropriate clustering choices such as K-means, Hierarchical, and Self Organizing Maps. Offered as BIOC 460, PATH 460 and CNCR 460.

PATH 465. Advanced Immunobiology. 4 Units.

This course will cover fundamental (innate and adaptive responses, antigen recognition, cell activation, etc.) and applied (immune evasion, autoimmunity, allergy, transplantation, vaccines, etc.) immunology topics, highlighting the most important and recent advancements found in the primary literature. Lectures will be derived largely from the primary literature, but will also include modern techniques and fundamental background knowledge to enhance the learning environment for the immunology concepts presented. Course organization consists of two lectures per week by the immunology faculty, midterm and final examinations, and an oral presentation. Enrolled students have the option of concurrent enrollment in PATH 466 Writing for Immunologists. Prereq: PATH 416

PATH 466. Proposal Writing for Immunologists. 1 Unit.

This course is an introduction to research proposal writing and evaluation for immunology graduate students. One of the most important aspects of being an active investigator in academia, biotechnology, or pharmaceutical industries is being a skilled communicator of one's ideas. This course is designed to teach these practical writing skills and will include lectures and discussions of key writing strategies. Throughout the semester, students will write a research proposal on a topic outside of their thesis research focus (but it can be related), present their ideas in front of the class, and take part in an end-of-semester review panel of the proposals of their classmates. Enrollment requires concurrent enrollment in PATH 465 Advanced Immunobiology and instructor permission. Prereq: PATH 416. Coreq: PATH 465.

PATH 475. Cell and Molecular Foundations of Pathology. 3 Units.

This course is designed for M.S. students in the Pathology Graduate Program, and is an introductory course covering normal cell and molecular biology as well as cell physiology. Additional topics to be discussed in the course will include cell structure and function, as well as correlates to cellular and molecular pathology. Recommended Preparation: Should have undergrad-level cell biology and biochemistry.

PATH 480. Logical Dissection of Biomedical Investigations. 3 Units.

PATH 480 is an upper level graduate course encompassing discussion and critical appraisal of both published and pre-published research papers, book chapters, commentaries and review articles. Emphasis will be placed on evaluating the logical relationships connecting hypotheses to experimental design and experimental data to conclusions drawn. Thus, the course will aim to develop students' capacities for independent thinking and critical analysis. Half of the course will be devoted to an analysis of fundamental conceptual issues pertaining to immunology, but this material will be applicable to a wide variety of fields. The other half of the course will be devoted to the analysis of papers that have been submitted for publication ( with the students acting as primary reviewers of these papers). Our expectation is that this course will have practical relevance for students by providing them with methods to review their own prepublication manuscripts and eliminate common errors. It should also give students the tools to question widely held beliefs in diverse biomedical fields. Recommended preparation is completion of the C3MB curriculum and 2nd year or higher graduate school training. Previous exposure to immunology and molecular biology will be helpful but not required.

PATH 481. Immunology of Infectious Diseases. 3 Units.

This course centers on mechanisms of immune defense, immune escape and disease pathogenesis caused by important human pathogens. Some of the infectious diseases covered in this course include AIDS, TB and Malaria. Most topics focus on immunology of viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal infections. Topics will also include aspects of epidemiology and global health. Classes will consist of literature review of current scientific articles, faculty lectures and student presentations. Grades will be determined by exams, class presentations, participation, and short reports. Graduate students will also be asked to write a brief research proposal. PATH 481 involves faculty from: Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Center for Global Health & Diseases, Department of Pathology. Prereq: PATH 416.

PATH 488. Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar course provides an introduction to the genetics and molecular biology of the yeasts S. cerevisiae and S. pombe by a discussion of current literature focusing primarily on topics in yeast cell biology. Students are first introduced to the tools of molecular genetics and special features of yeasts that make them important model eukaryotic organisms. Some selected topics include cell polarity, cell cycle, secretory pathways, vesicular and nuclear/cytoplasmic transport, mitochondrial import and biogenesis, chromosome segregation, cytoskeleton, mating response and signal transduction. Offered as CLBY 488, GENE 488, MBIO 488, and PATH 488.

PATH 510. Basic Pathologic Mechanisms. 4 Units.

An interdisciplinary introduction to the fundamental principles of molecular and cellular biology as they relate to the pathologic basis of disease. Lectures, laboratories, conferences.

PATH 511. Experimental Pathology Seminar I. 1 Unit.

Weekly discussions of current topics and research by students, staff and distinguished visitors.

PATH 512. Experimental Pathology Seminar II. 1 Unit.

Weekly discussions of current topics and research by students, staff and distinguished visitors.

PATH 520. Basic Cancer Biology and the Interface with Clinical Oncology. 3 Units.

This is a graduate-level introductory course in cancer biology taught through the Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology. This course will give students a broad overview of current basic cancer biology, highlight recent advances in cancer therapeutics, and provide a clinical perspective of the pathogenesis and treatment of common cancers. Classes will be of lecture and discussion format, and will also include student discussion of journal research articles to develop critical thinking in cancer research and experimental design as well as presentation/communication skills. About 1 to 3 students per class will be scheduled to lead the presentation and discussion of the selected journal articles. However, all students will be required to read the material in advance and be ready for discussion. Topics will cover growth factor action and signal transduction, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA damage, apoptosis, cancer immunology, cancer stem cells, metastasis, angiogenesis, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapeutics, photodynamic therapy, targeting cancer stem cells, chemoprevention, and clinical aspects of cancers of the breast, prostate, lymphatic tissue, and colon. Course grades for PHRM/PATH 520 (Ph.D. track): will be determined by class participation/presentation (40%), an original research grant proposal (35%) and written and oral critiques of two research proposals (25%). Course grades for PHRM/PATH 406 (M.S. and non-degree track): will be determined by class participation/presentation (40%), a literature review term paper (35%) and oral defense of term paper with course directors (25%). Presentations/Participation: Instructors will complete a standardized evaluation form to provide you uniform feedback in a timely manner. Required Reading: Assigned reviews, original articles (in blackboard) Recommended Reading: The Biology of Cancer (2nd Edition), by Robert A. Weinberg Garland Science, copyright 2014 Recommended Preparation: A course in Cell Biology. A course in Molecular Biology. Offered as PATH 406, PATH 520, PHRM 406 and PHRM 520.

PATH 521. Special Topics in Cancer Biology and Clinical Oncology. 1 Unit.

This one credit hour course in Cancer Biology is intended to give students an opportunity to do independent literature research while enrolled in PHRM 520/PATH 520. Students must attend weekly Hematology/Oncology seminar series and write a brief summary of each of the lectures attended. In addition, students must select one of the seminar topics to write a term paper which fully reviews the background related to the topic and scientific and clinical advances in that field. This term paper must also focus of Clinical Oncology, have a translational research component, and integrate with concepts learned in PHRM 520/PATH 520. Pharmacology students must provide a strong discussion on Therapeutics, while Pathology students must provide a strong component on Pathophysiology of the disease. Recommended preparation: CBIO 453 and CBIO 455, or concurrent enrollment in PHRM 520 or PATH 520. Offered as PATH 521 and PHRM 521.

PATH 523. Histopathology of Organ Systems. 3 Units.

Comprehensive course covering the underlying basic mechanisms of injury and cell death, inflammation, immunity, infection, and neoplasia followed by pathology of specific organ systems. Material will include histological ('structure') and physiological ('function') aspects related to pathology (human emphasis). Recommended preparation: ANAT 412 or permission of instructor. Offered as ANAT 523 and PATH 523.

PATH 524. Cell Biology of Neurodegenerative Disorders. 3 Units.

PATH 524 is a 3 credit hour introductory course on neurodegenerative disorders intended for Master's and first and second-year medical students. This course attempts to bridge the gap between molecular mechanisms at the cellular level with disease presentation and therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders of protein mis-folding and metal mis-metabolism. The course will cover topics related to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Prion diseases, disorders of iron and copper metabolism, and other disorders of interest to the students. The class will meet once every week, and following an introductory lecture, the students will discuss relevant scientific reports from recent literature. Students are expected to participate actively in class discussion, and write a 5-6 page research proposal following NIH guidelines for the final exam. The students are expected to present and defend their proposal in class. Grading criteria: Class participation (70%), final paper and presentation (30%).

PATH 525. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease: Molecular Basis and Clinical Implications. 3 Units.

This is a graduate-level seminar course that familiarizes the students with human diseases resulting from aberrations in protein folding, processing, and turnover. Contribution of associated inflammation and heavy metal mis-metabolism will be discussed where appropriate. Specific examples include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Prion disorders multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's Disease, and others based on popular demand. The students will be expected to discuss relevant research publications in an interactive format. Grading will be based on class participation and an R21 grant proposal on the subject of their choice that does not overlap with their current area of research. Recommended Preparation: Concurrent enrollment in PATH 526, on grant-writing skills, is highly recommended but not required. Offered as PATH 525 and CLBY 525.

PATH 526. Introduction to Scientific Grant Writing. 1 Unit.

PATH 526 is a graduate-level course that will familiarize students with grant writing and reviewing skills. The students will be exposed to material pertaining to different grant opportunities, the grant review process, and strategies to maximize your chances of success. Grading will be based on class participation and step-wise preparation of a R21 grant proposal on a topic of your choice that does not overlap with your current area of research. Coreq: PATH 525.

PATH 601. Special Problems. 1 - 18 Units.

Research on the nature and causation of disease and on host factors which tend to protect against disease. Special courses and tutorials in subspecialty areas of general and/or systemic anatomic and/or clinical pathology.

PATH 650. Independent Study. 1 - 9 Units.

Laboratory rotation experience in a selected faculty research laboratory designed to introduce the M.S. student to all aspects of modern laboratory research including the design, execution and analysis of original experimental work.

PATH 651. Thesis M.S.. 1 - 18 Units.


PATH 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 9 Units.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.