2011-12 General Bulletin

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111 Mather House
http://politicalscience.case.edu
Phone: 216-368-2424; Fax: 216-368-4681
Joseph White, Department Chair

This is an archived copy of the 2011-12 Bulletin. To access the most recent version of the bulletin, please visit http://bulletin.case.edu.

The study of political science is primarily concerned with the state, governmental structures and processes in world societies, citizen-state relations, and the exercise of political power. Faculty specialties in the department include American politics and governmental institutions; elections and political parties in the United States and abroad; violence and civil disorder; public policy analysis, including environmental policy and economic and welfare state issues; international relations conceived broadly; international political economy; religious and ethnic conflict; state-building; the politics of gender; political strategies; research methods; and comparative politics, with various regional concentrations. In its programs leading to the BA, MA, and PhD, the department makes a strong effort to relate the study of politics to students’ needs and concerns and to reflect in its courses both the excitement and seriousness of real-world politics.

The study of political science can build a foundation for many types of future employment. Many political science majors are preparing for graduate study or law school. Others intend to pursue careers in journalism, teaching, or public administration, or in private industry and business. Both the public and private sectors hold career possibilities for the political science major.

Department Faculty

Joseph White, PhD
(University of California, Berkeley)
Luxenberg Family Professor of Public Policy and Chair; Director, Center for Policy Studies and Public Policy Program; Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine
American government; Congress; public policy; health and welfare policy; comparative politics of rich democracies

Karen Beckwith, PhD
(Syracuse University)
Flora Stone Mather Professor
Politics of gender; mass political participation; comparative political movements; democracy and representation

Justin Buchler, PhD
(University of California, Berkeley)
Associate Professor
Congress; redistricting; political strategy; parties and elections

Jessica F. Green, PhD
(Princeton University)
Assistant Professor
Global governance; international environmental law and policy; international law; international organizations; transnational regulation; qualitative methods

Alexander P. Lamis, PhD, JD
(Vanderbilt University; University of Maryland)
Associate Professor
American government; electoral politics; constitutional law

Kathryn C. Lavelle, PhD
(Northwestern University)
Ellen and Dixon Long Professor in World Affairs; Associate Professor
International relations; international organizations; Congress in world politics; politics of stock markets; governing institutions of national and international finance; U.S. foreign economic policy; Congress and banking policy

Vincent E. McHale, PhD
(Pennsylvania State University)
M. A. Hanna Professor of Political Science; Co-Director, International Studies Program
Comparative politics; Europe; political sociology; methodology

Kelly M. McMann, PhD
(University of Michigan)
Associate Professor; Co-Director, International Studies Program
Comparative politics; Central Asia; Russia and former East Bloc; democratization

Peter W. Moore, PhD
(McGill University)
Associate Professor
Comparative politics and political economy of the Middle East and Africa

Elliot Posner, PhD
(University of California, Berkeley)
Associate Professor
International relations; international and comparative political economy; politics of finance; international organizations; European Union

Laura Y. Tartakoff, JD, MA
(Case Western Reserve University School of Law; Tufts University)
Instructor
Constitutional law; civil liberties; comparative constitutionalism


Secondary Faculty

Robert H. Binstock, PhD
(Harvard University)
Henry R. Luce Professor of Aging, Health and Society, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine
American government; public policy; health care and aging

Jonathan L. Entin, JD
(Northwestern University)
Professor, School of Law
American constitutional law; social science and the law


Adjunct Faculty

Lev Gonick, PhD
(York University, Toronto)
Adjunct Professor, CWRU Vice President for Information Technology
Comparative historical international political economy; technology and government

Karl Kaltenthaler, PhD
(Washington University)
Adjunct Professor
Comparative politics, political behavior/public opinion, political extremism and violence, political economy, Europe

Andrew M. Lucker, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor
American government; state politics and government; history of political science

Undergraduate Programs

Major

The major in political science leads to the Bachelor of Arts degree. The degree requires 30 hours of course work, distributed as follows:

Required Courses:
POSC 109The American Political System3
Two POSC courses at the 200 level6
Six POSC courses at the 300 level18
POSC 396Senior Project SAGES Capstone3
Total Units30

Students select courses based on their specific interests, with approval of the faculty advisor. No more than six hours of independent study (i.e., and/or ) may count toward the major. Independent study completed through the Washington Center program is excluded from this limitation.

Departmental Honors

Majors who maintain a grade point average of at least 3.3 overall on completion of senior year and 3.7 in political science courses, and who earn a grade of A in POSC 396, will be eligible to be nominated to receive their degrees “with Honors in Political Science.” To be considered for Honors, POSC 396 must be taken in the penultimate semester of the senior year, with the prospectus submitted no later than the end of the first week of the semester for late Fall registrants. Faculty will use the following semester to vote on honors. The project advisor must nominate (but can refuse) the paper for honors consideration. Two additional readers, who will be appointed by the department chair, must agree with the recommendation for honors. If one reader agrees and the other does not, honors will not be awarded. 

Students who entered the university prior to Fall 2011 have the option of earning honors under an equivalent of the rules previously in effect. Under those rules, honors could be earned with an overall departmental GPA of 3.8 and a grade of A in POSC 396.

Integrated Graduate Studies

Application to the Integrated Graduate Studies (IGS) program in political science must occur no later than the beginning of the second semester of the junior year, but preferably earlier. Upon completion of 90 undergraduate hours, the student must have satisfied all general requirements for the BA, including at least 21 hours in the political science major, the General Education Requirements, and one minor program, and must have a 3.5 grade point average in political science courses and 3.3 overall. If admitted to the IGS program, the student will take 30 hours of graduate-level political science courses during the senior year, adhering to the departmental regulations governing the master’s degree program. If completed successfully, these hours will count simultaneously toward both degrees in political science.

The BA will be awarded upon completion of all requirements for that degree, including total hours. The MA will be awarded upon successful completion of the 30 hours of graduate-level courses and the MA examination.

Minor

A minor in political science consists of 15 hours (five courses) in the department, of which 9 hours must be at the 300 level. An elected minor sequence must be approved by a political science faculty advisor.

A minor in public policy is available to undergraduates in the College of Arts and Sciences and to undergraduates in the economics and management programs in the Weatherhead School of Management.

The public policy minor ordinarily includes:

One of the following:3
Principles of Microeconomics
One of the following:3
Making Public Policy
Health Policy and Politics in the United States
Interest Groups in the Policy Process
One of the following:3
American Political History
America Since 1940
The American Presidency
The Legislative Process
Judicial Politics
U.S. Bureaucratic Politics
Two courses in a specific policy field *6
Total Units15

*

e.g., health care, the environment, business and the economy, science and technology policy, nonprofit and charitable organizations, social policy, etc., as approved by the public policy minor advisor

 

Graduate Programs

Master of Arts

Applicants to the Master of Arts program in political science are required to submit their undergraduate transcripts and three letters of recommendation from former instructors. The admission requirements also include a minimum score of 500 on the verbal and quantitative segments of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and 4.5 on the analytical section. The department strongly prefers that applicants have a minimum GPA of 3.2 overall and a minimum GPA of 3.4 in political science courses. For students from other countries, the requirements are a minimum score of 550 on the paper version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), or at least 215 on the computer version of the TOEFL; the minimum GRE scores indicated above; and transcripts of all undergraduate study, indicating completion of a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree program.

The Master of Arts in political science is a broadly based program in which the student is expected to acquire and exhibit general knowledge and skills. Therefore, within the 30 hours of graduate-level course work (400 level and above) required for the master’s, 12 hours must be distributed as follows:

3 hours in the area of American government and politics3
3 hours in the area of comparative politics3
3 hours in the area of international relations3
POSC 449Political Science Research Methods3
Total Units12

Students who receive permission (due to special circumstances) from the graduate coordinator may take an alternative research methods course outside the department.

Among the remaining 18 hours of electives, the student may take courses oriented toward a general Master of Arts, covering the four broad areas listed above. Alternatively, the student may specialize in one area—one of these four or some other—approved by the graduate coordinator. A maximum of 9 hours may be taken outside the Department of Political Science, with prior approval from the graduate coordinator, for specialized work related to the master’s degree for which no political science course is appropriate. A maximum of nine hours of independent study () may count toward the degree.

A minimum grade point average of 3.0 must be maintained throughout the Master of Arts program. A master’s student who fails to maintain a GPA of 3.0 will be placed on academic probation for one semester. If the GPA is not returned to the 3.0 minimum by the end of the probationary semester, the student will be separated from further study in the department.

Upon completion of no fewer than 30 hours and no more than 42 hours of master’s-level course work, the student must request scheduling of the political science Master of Arts examination. The examination will cover the fields of American government and politics, comparative politics, and international relations.

Doctor of Philosophy

Requirements for admission to the Doctor of Philosophy program in political science are the same as for admission to the Master of Arts program, with the following additions. The department strongly prefers that applicants without an MA in political science have a minimum GPA of 3.2 overall and a minimum GPA of 3.4 in undergraduate political science courses, and that applicants with an MA degree in political science have a minimum GPA of 3.4 overall in their MA work. Because the department faculty is small, applicants should determine, prior to applying, whether one or more members of the department faculty are active in the applicant’s field of interest. PhD applications must specify the applicant’s field(s) of interest, as the Graduate Studies Committee will not recommend the admission of an applicant where the department faculty cannot support the applicant’s proposed course of study. Students who are accepted into the department’s MA program and then decide they would like to earn the PhD are expected to apply to the PhD program and meet the admission requirements. All PhD students must complete 45 hours of graduate-level courses, plus at least 18 hours of POSC 701 (Dissertation) credit. The required 45 hours of doctoral courses taken before dissertation credits must be distributed as follows:

12 hours in a primary subfield (American, comparative, or international relations)12
9 hours in secondary subfield (one of the remaining two fields)9
6 hours in the remaining subfield6
6 hours in Research Methods:6
Political Science Research Methods
12 hours of electives12
Total Units45

A maximum of 9 hours of independent study () may be undertaken. University regulations require PhD students to spend at least one academic year in full-time residence (two consecutive regular semesters with a minimum of 9 hours’ registration each semester).

Doctoral students whose MA in political science has been certified, and doctoral students with an MA in political science from Case Western Reserve, need complete only 18 of the 45 hours of doctoral course work. The graduate coordinator will set distribution requirements on an individual basis, reflecting the course work completed for the MA. Doctoral students without a completed MA must pass the MA examination. They must take the examination upon completion of no fewer than 30 hours and no more than 36 hours of course work. A student who does not pass this examination may not continue in the PhD program. See the description of the MA examination above for further information.

Upon completion of 45 hours of course work, the student must pass the PhD comprehensive examinations in his or her primary and secondary subfields. After passing the examinations, a student must complete a dissertation, typically 150-400 pages in length, that draws on the student’s original research to make a contribution to the field of political science.

Dual JD/MA

Students accepted to the School of Law may pursue a Masters of Arts in Political Science in conjunction with their JD degree. Completion of the program requires 97 hours of course work, and so would be expected to require seven semesters. Students wishing to enroll in the dual-degree program must be separately admitted to each program, but the department will waive the GRE requirement and accept the LSAT within the admissions process. Students must complete a total of 21 hours of credit within the political science department, including at least three credit hours in American politics, comparative politics, international relations, and research methods. Dual-degree students will normally begin study in the law school and defer enrollment in the MA program until their second year. They must pass the MA comprehensive examination upon completion of their political science course work.

Courses

POSC 109. The American Political System. 3 Units.

Introduction to the study of American politics, addressing the questions "Who rules?" and "Who benefits?" in the American political system. Explores the nature of constitutional limits, the role of public participation, the impact of pressure groups, and the influence of various governmental institutions on American political life.

POSC 260. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 3 Units.

Comparative politics is the study of processes and institutions within countries. Prompted by real-world puzzles, comparativists investigate broad, theoretical questions: What constitutes a revolution, and why do revolutions occur? How does one country become more democratic than another? Why do relations between some ethnic groups turn violent? This course introduces students to some of the central puzzles and theories of comparative politics in order to help them better understand world events.

POSC 272. Introduction to International Relations. 3 Units.

Survey of the principles of international relations, politics, law and organization; the rise, development and change of the nation-state system; development of international cooperation; methods of studying international relations.

POSC 301. Decision-Making in American Cities. 3 Units.

Localities are the primary interface with government and provide the basic psychological place identification for most Americans. The course will explore this assertion in the context of urban America today. How are decisions made in cities? Who shapes these decisions and why? What role is played by shifting demographics, race, and poverty? What can the individual do to influence local decision-making? Offered as POSC 301 and POSC 401.

POSC 302. State Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

State governments may make more decisions that affect the life of an average citizen than does the federal government. The study of state politics and policy includes the different ways states organize the basic parts of American political systems (such as legislatures, executives, courts and parties); how state cultures, economies, and other factors shape how political institutions work; institutions of state governance that do not exist at the national level (such as the initiative and referendum); and the continual contest between state and federal governments to control policy, shift costs, and avoid blame. Offered as POSC 302 and POSC 402.

POSC 306. Interest Groups in the Policy Process. 3 Units.

Introduction to the institutions and processes that make up the political environment of nonprofit and other organizations in the United States, beginning with an examination of the role of civil society in a democracy and continuing with the framing of issues, role of political entrepreneurs and organized interests, elections, the legislative process and strategies for influencing it, and the roles of executive institutions and the courts. Offered as POSC 306 and POSC 406.

POSC 308. The American Presidency. 3 Units.

The sources of, strategies of, and restraints on presidential leadership in the United States. Emphasis on problems of policy formation, presidential relations with Congress and executive agencies, and the electoral process. Offered as POSC 308 and POSC 408.

POSC 310. The Legislative Process. 3 Units.

Legislative, representative, and other functions of Congress and state legislatures; legislative relations with the executive and with private interests; powers and limitations of the legislature as a policy-making institution. Offered as POSC 310 and POSC 410.

POSC 320B. The U.S. Midterm Elections. 3 Units.

Analysis of the midterm elections in the United States. Covers congressional and state elections in all regions, focusing on the issues, personalities, campaign strategies, and voter trends in this key electoral battle held between presidential elections. Offered every four years in conjunction with the election cycle. Offered as POSC 320B and POSC 420B.

POSC 320C. The Presidential Election. 3 Units.

Analysis of the upcoming presidential election in the United States. Focuses on the issues and personalities, polls and public opinion, campaign strategies, and electoral behavior. Offered every four years in conjunction with the United States presidential election cycle. Offered as POSC 320C and POSC 420C.

POSC 321. News Media and Politics. 3 Units.

Analysis of the political role of the news media in American government and politics. Examines the fascinating relationship between reporters and politicians. Covers the overall structure and legal position of the media as well as the media's impact on the American political system. Offered as POSC 321 and POSC 421.

POSC 322. Political Movements and Political Participation. 3 Units.

Political Movements and Political Participation is concerned with the variety of ways citizens engage in collective activism in the United States and across national boundaries, and with the conditions under which citizens identify common concerns and join together in political movements to bring about change. The course begins with an examination of three general bodies of theory and research on political movements: resource mobilization, political opportunity structures, and cultural framing. We will also investigate frameworks of political participation for understanding the relationships among different expressions of collective activism and representation. In the context of these sometimes competing theories, we will consider 1) the conditions under which political movements are likely to emerge, as well as the circumstances in which collective political action is precluded; 2) how citizens come to recognize collective grievances and shared political identities; 3) the strategies and tactics of organized movements, and their likelihood of political success; and 4) the relationship between political movements, political parties, and the state. Offered as POSC 322 and POSC 422.

POSC 323. Judicial Politics. 3 Units.

Rejecting the view that judges mechanically apply the law, the study of judicial politics seeks to understand the behavior of judges as political actors with policy goals. Topics include judicial selection and socialization, judicial policy change, judicial strategy (especially the strategic interaction of judges on multi-judge panels), the interaction of courts in hierarchical judicial systems, the policy impact of judicial decisions, and the courts' interactions with coordinate branches of government (the executive, Congress, state governments, state courts). Primary focus will be on the federal judiciary, with some discussion of state judicial systems. Offered as POSC 323 and POSC 423.

POSC 325. American Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

An introductory survey of U.S. constitutional law. Special attention given to the historical, philosophical, and political dimensions of landmark Supreme Court cases. Judicial review, federalism, separation of powers, due process, and equal protection. Supreme Court's involvement in major political controversies: the New Deal, abortion, physician-assisted suicide, school desegregation, and affirmative action. Offered as POSC 325 and POSC 425.

POSC 326. Constitutions in Practical Politics. 3 Units.

Overview of ancient Greek and Roman constitution-making, medieval principles, emergence of modern constitutionalism, and the constitutionalist vision of the American and French Revolutions. Examination of contemporary constitutional issues and developments in countries such as Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ethiopia, India, and the United States. Offered as POSC 326 and POSC 426.

POSC 327. Civil Liberties in America. 3 Units.

Supreme Court's interpretation of the First Amendment: liberty of religion through the establishment and free exercise clauses, freedoms of speech and the press, of assembly and association. The "pure tolerance" view examined against subversive speech, "fighting words," libel, and obscenity. Survey of content-neutral regulation, symbolic expression, and current efforts to limit expression (campus speech codes and the feminist anti-pornography movement). Offered as POSC 327 and POSC 427.

POSC 328. Topics in Civil Liberties. 3 Units.

Rights of the accused as outlined in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Topics covered are (1) arrests, searches, and seizures, (2) the privilege against compelled self-incrimination, (3) the rights to counsel, confrontation, and jury trial, and (4) the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments. Case-specific approach but presents interplay of history, philosophy, and politics as background of each topic. Offered as POSC 328 and POSC 428.

POSC 334. Violence and the Political System. 3 Units.

Empirical analysis of various theories advanced in the cross-cultural explanation of factors which cause and mediate the occurrence of violence--revolutions, terrorism, and civil disorder--within the political system. Offered as POSC 334 and POSC 434.

POSC 341. Elections, Voters, and Political Parties. 3 Units.

Examination of American political parties, their activities, organization, characteristics, and functions. Candidate strategies and electoral history viewed within the context of voter orientations and predispositions, stressing linkages between citizen and party and between party and government. Offered as POSC 341 and POSC 441.

POSC 342. Water. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water. Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342, POSC 442.

POSC 343. Public Opinion and American Democracy. 3 Units.

Examination of theories, concepts and empirical research related to attitudes and the political behavior of mass publics. Offered as POSC 343 and POSC 443.

POSC 346. Women and Politics. 3 Units.

Women and Politics involves a critical examination of the impact of gender on the forms and distributions of power and politics, with primary reference to the experience of women in the United States. Major concerns of the course include what we mean by "sex," "gender," and "politics"; the relationship between women and the state; how women organize collectively to influence state policies; and how the state facilitates and constrains women's access to and exercise of political power. The course is organized around four foci central to the study of women and politics. The first section of the course focuses on what we mean by "women," "gender," and "politics." In this section, we will consider how these concepts intersect and the ways in which each may be used to deepen our understanding of the workings of governments and political systems, and of women's relative political powerlessness. The second section of the course employs these concepts to understand the (re) emergence of the US feminist movement, its meanings, practices, and goals, and its transformation across US political history. In the third section, we turn to conventional electoral politics, focusing on women's candidacies, their campaigns, and women's voting behavior. In the final section of the course, we consider those general factors that might provide for increased gender equality and improved life status for women, in global, comparative perspective. Offered as POSC 346 and POSC 446 and WGST 346.

POSC 348. History of Modern Political and Social Thought. 3 Units.

This course explores the responses of philosophers, economic theorists, culture critics, and public policy makers to changes in western society wrought by industrialization by focusing on their concerns with technological change. Offered as HSTY 348 and HSTY 448 and POSC 348.

POSC 349. Political Science Research Methods. 3 Units.

This course examines approaches that political scientists use to understand events and processes. In doing so, the course provides students with skills helpful to completing senior projects, such as the ability to evaluate and conduct research. Through exercises and projects, students will take part in the research process from constructing a question to developing a research design to interpreting results. Students will learn and apply key techniques, including inductive and deductive reasoning, hypothesis construction, operationalization of concepts, measurements, sampling and probability, causal inference, and the logic of controls. They will produce materials common to the discipline, such as research designs. Offered as POSC 349 and POSC 449.

POSC 351. Modern Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of a limited topic in the study of modern political thought. Topics vary. Offered as POSC 351 and POSC 451.

POSC 352. American Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of the unique contribution to the science of government made by American political thinkers. Offered as POSC 352 and POSC 452.

POSC 354. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

POSC 355. Modern Political Ideologies. 3 Units.

Substance and nature of ideological thinking in the contemporary world via a survey of political "isms"--for example, liberalism, libertarianism, conservatism, fascism, socialism, and even more recent trends such as feminism, environmentalism, etc. Offered as POSC 355 and POSC 455.

POSC 357. Democratic Politics: Theory and Practice. 3 Units.

Study of the theory and application of democracy. The concept of democracy will be examined from the Athenian model to contemporary debates over participatory and deliberative models. Then the concept will be applied to understanding issues of democratic practice and the study of politics in American, comparative, and international arenas. Finally, the course will address the potential effects, both good and ill, of technological innovation on democratic practices, such as "distance" participation, the Internet, and other communication technology. Offered as POSC 357 and POSC 457.

POSC 358. Political Strategy. 3 Units.

This course examines practical applications of prominent political science theories. It is partly a how-to course covering a broad range of political activities, but the primary objective is to link practical issues with theories to help you understand why events happen the way they do. The course focuses on American politics, but the materials will be applicable to a wide range of situations. The course is a seminar requiring regular student presentations that will generate discussion about the readings and current events. Papers consist of analysis of current events, and require students to analyze the strategies used by prominent figures in the context of the theories we discuss in class. Offered as POSC 358 and POSC 458.

POSC 361. State-Building and State Collapse. 3 Units.

Are nation-states the most effective means of organizing society? This course explores this question by examining the historical rationales behind the development of the nation-state, contemporary challenges to the nation-state, and potential alternatives to the nation-state. Possible challenges to the nation-state include multinational corporations, international humanitarian intervention, and regional integration. Alternative providers of state services include charities, companies, and mercenaries. Offered as POSC 361 and POSC 461.

POSC 362. Politics of Central Asia. 3 Units.

Once an unfamiliar region to many people of the world, Central Asia took center stage in the fall of 2001 as a result of the U.S. campaign against terrorism. This course will introduce students to the politics of Central Asia, focusing on the region today composed of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgiszstan, and Kazakkhstan. We will review the nationalism, foreign relations, religion, ethnicity, and economics of the region. Offered as ETHS 362, POSC 362, and POSC 462.

POSC 363. Comparative Analysis of Elections and Electoral Systems. 3 Units.

Elections involve more than a simple act of voting to express individual preferences. The rules under which worldwide elections are held determine who controls the executive and how votes are converted into legislative seats. The mechanics of various electoral arrangements will be examined in detail and the consequences for the political system discussed in terms of strategies and desired outcomes on the part of contestants. Students will research individual countries and analyze recent elections from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives, including introduction to geospatial data for mapping variations in electoral behavior. Offered as POSC 363 and POSC 463.

POSC 364. Dictatorship and Democracy in Modern Latin America. 3 Units.

Examination of political leadership in 20th-century Latin America, exploring the nature, causes, and consequences of dictatorship and democracy in the region, moving from the collapse of oligarchic rule and the emergence of populism in the 1930s and 1940s, to the end of democracy and establishment of military regimes in the 1960s and 1970s, and ultimately to the contemporary processes of democratization and economic liberalization. Offered as ETHS 364, POSC 364, and POSC 464.

POSC 365. Science, Technology, and Government. 3 Units.

Traces the development and influence of federal technology and science policies from colonial times to the present, with emphasis on the 20th century. Offered as HSTY 366 and POSC 365.

POSC 366. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of the political forces and organizations currently functioning in Africa, as well as a survey of the formal government institutions. Special emphasis on single-party rule, military rule, and the political ramifications of African socialism, tribalism and the problems of national integration. Offered as ETHS 366, POSC 366, and POSC 466.

POSC 367. Western European Political Systems. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of sociopolitical systems of selected Western European industrial democracies, using North American systems as a point of comparison. Offered as POSC 367 and POSC 467.

POSC 369. Current Controversies in Latin American Politics and Society. 3 Units.

In addition to questions about race, religion, abortion, the drug industry, immigration, democracy, private property, and free trade, the course will tackle Latin America's apparent shift to the political and ideological left, Chavez's "Imperialism," and Cuba's humanitarian aid. Offered as ETHS 369, POSC 369 and POSC 469.

POSC 370A. Political Economy. 3 Units.

Focus on debates concerning the proper relationship between political and economic systems, including conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives. The politics of international economics and the economics of international politics receive separate attention. The course concludes with study of "modern" political economy and the application of economic theory to the study of political systems. Offered as POSC 370A and POSC 470A.

POSC 370C. The United States and Asia. 3 Units.

Survey and analysis of U.S.-Asia relations in the post-World War II period. Focus specifically is on the interaction of politics and economics in the United States' relations with Japan, China, and Southeast Asian countries. Topics will include the role of Asia in U.S. Cold War policies, the dynamics of U.S.-Japan alliance politics, post-Cold War issues involving U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, a history and analysis of economic conflict cooperation, and an examination of the move toward Asia-Pacific "regionalism." Offered as POSC 370C and POSC 470C.

POSC 370D. The Politics of China. 3 Units.

Now more than ever, the Chinese state and society are facing tremendous economic, social, and political challenges. This course presents an overview of current issues facing the People's Republic, including a changing (or not) political culture, policy processes and outcomes at the national and local levels, reform and economic growth, the resultant societal changes and pressures, and the consequent challenges the Communist Party faces as demand for political reform grows. The class involves a mixture of lectures and discussions and draws on a combination of primary and secondary sources, including current news reports and films. Offered as POSC 370D and POSC 470D.

POSC 370F. Financial Politics in the United States and the World. 3 Units.

This course explores how political institutions make policy in the financial area with particular emphasis on the United States. Using a bureaucratic politics framework, it examines money, banks and the securities industry by integrating a wide range of literature in economics and political science. Specific objectives include familiarizing students with different approaches to the political economy of finance from different disciplines, exploring the historical evolution of finance, examining the changing relationship between public and private authority within the financial system, considering how politics operates in a crisis, and evaluating the role of international financial institutions in the global economy. By taking this course, students will equip themselves for further research into politics and economics, as well as offer them tools to analyze future policy developments as they unfold. Offered as POSC 370F and POSC 470F.

POSC 370G. U.S. Intelligence and National Security. 3 Units.

Examination of the impact of the intelligence process on foreign policy making and superpower relations. Covers the life cycle of United States strategic intelligence from the collection of data to formulation of analytic judgments and the policy-level uses of intelligence. Emphasis on contemporary intelligence issues and processes, but includes the formative period of modern American intelligence in the World War II era. Offered as POSC 370G and POSC 470G.

POSC 370H. China's Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

The rise of China is evident in the country's more forward and robust foreign policy that began in 1979. At every turn, nations throughout the world must now consider China wherever their interests are at stake, be it Korea and Northeast Asia, Indochina and Southeast Asia, India/Pakistan and South Asia, or Afghanistan and Iran in the Middle East, not to mention the many African states that welcome Chinese investment but chafe at China's presence. Further, China is increasingly aggressive in international trade, a major determinant of its foreign policy. This course describes the key factors that make up Chinese foreign policy, including its cultural tradition, policy-making institutions, the role of the military, and domestic determinants of foreign policy. The course also examines China's ever-changing foreign policy strategies, from an aggressive posture to charming its neighbors only to become more strident once again. The course will also examine China's role involving possible mercantilism, currency manipulation, and the hunt for traditional and alternative energy sources. Throughout the course, we will pay attention to how China's foreign policy relates to international relations theories and what strategies might be used to manage China's growing role in international affairs. Offered as POSC 370H and POSC 470H.

POSC 370J. International Law and Organizations. 3 Units.

Study of international organizations and international law as two means for regulating and coordinating nation-state behavior. History of the two techniques will be traced, covering 19th century efforts at cooperation, the League of Nations and the United Nations, regional and specialized global organization. The functions of international law in global politics will be stressed, with primary focus on the evolving role of law in dealing with global problems, e.g., war, the environment, economic cooperation, and human rights. Offered as POSC 370J and POSC 470J.

POSC 370K. Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Religion in World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the post-Cold War surge in conflicts among nationalisms, ethnic groups, and religions with particular attention to the former Yugoslavia, Ireland, India, Africa, and the Middle East. Offered as ETHS 370K, POSC 370K, and POSC 470K.

POSC 371. Natural Resources and World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the political causes and ramifications of the uneven distribution of the valuable natural resources for modern industrial societies. Strategic and military issues and the exploitation of the sea bed. Examination in some detail of selected commodity issues, including petroleum, copper and uranium. Offered as POSC 371 and POSC 471.

POSC 372. The United Nations in the Post-Cold War World. 3 Units.

The United Nations has become the focus of a debate over its effectiveness as a global organization dedicated to promoting world peace. Some critics believe it is time for the U.N. to move forward in this regard, while others see the U.N. as an anachronistic, bloated bureaucracy sorely in need of reform. This course will consider the United Nations from the perspective of powerful states such as the United States, as well as from the perspective of weaker ones, and also will consider areas such as peacekeeping, human rights, economic development, political reform, and the U.N.'s involvement with non-state actors such as terrorists. Offered as POSC 372 and POSC 472.

POSC 373. Politics of the European Union. 3 Units.

Study of the origins, operations, and prospects for the European Union. This can include the historical context for the effort to restrict national rivalries (which fueled two world wars) and create common interests; the diplomatic challenges in finding common ground; the tasks and processes of governance within the EU, including its governing institutions, enforcement of terms for European Monetary Union and the operations of its bureaucracies; the social pressures that create policy challenges (such as agriculture policy and immigration); broad tensions within the enterprise (e.g., "broadening" vs. "deepening"), and the EU's potential place in international politics, especially the efforts to create a common foreign and security policy and the possible implications of the Euro for international political economy. Offered as POSC 373 and POSC 473.

POSC 374. Politics of Development in the Global South. 3 Units.

Exploration of the post-World War II emergence of the Global South nations of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Eastern Europe arena. Offered as ETHS 374, POSC 374, and POSC 474.

POSC 375. Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control. 3 Units.

National and international problems concerning nuclear weapons, and the past and present attempts both to control their spread and to prevent their use. Topics covered include the science and technology of fission and fusion warheads and delivery vehicles; history, domestic policies, and international relations concerning nuclear weapons; and arms control treaties and their verification. Offered as HSTY 377 and POSC 375.

POSC 376. United States Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

Focus on U.S. foreign policy making with a dynamic network of executive and congressional actors and organizations; analysis of traditional and contemporary U.S. foreign policies from nuclear defense to current economic resource issues; future role of the United States in world affairs. Offered as POSC 376 and POSC 476.

POSC 377. Politics of Russia. 3 Units.

Russia faces three problems: the creation of a sovereign state, the development of a new political system, and the restructuring of its economy. In this course we will challenge the assumption that the outcome of these three transitions will be a strong, democratic, capitalist country. We will ask whether civil war, organized crime, an immature party system, poor social services, and nomenklatura privatization bode poorly for these three transformations. Offered as POSC 377 and POSC 477.

POSC 378. International Relations Theory. 3 Units.

This course is a seminar in international relations theory. As such, we will bring a wide range of theoretical perspectives to bear on issues and debates in the area of international relations by systematically studying the evolution of the world system. The seminar is roughly divided into a first half focusing on war and the political system, and a second half focusing on trade, finance and the economic system. Each section devotes particular attention to ethical problems associated with political and economic issues. This course should develop students' ability to read and critically evaluate academic literature in the field of international relations, and enable students to produce a scholarly paper on one substantive area of the field. Offered as POSC 378 and POSC 478.

POSC 379. Introduction to Middle East Politics. 3 Units.

This is an introductory course about Middle East Politics, in regional as well as international aspects. In this course we will explore broad social, economic, and political themes that have defined the region since the end of World War Two. Since this is an introductory course, a major goal will be to gain comparative knowledge about the region's states and peoples. The countries that comprise the modern Middle East are quire diverse; therefore, we will only be able to focus on a few cases in depth. A second goal is to use the tools and theories social scientists employ to answer broad questions related to the region, such as: How have colonial legacies shaped political and economic development in the Middle East? How do oil, religion, and identity interact with politics? How have external powers affected the region's political development? What do the uprisings of 2011 hold for the region's future? Offered as POSC 379 and POSC 479.

POSC 380. State and War in Africa and the Middle East. 3 Units.

The Middle East, North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa remain the most volatile and conflict prone regions of the world. Traditional approaches to war and state conflict have emphasized systemic variables, such as balance of power, military capabilities, perceptions, the security dilemma, and of course anarchy. While these concepts have generated much academic interest, their ability to explain and understand conflict in the developing world is severely limited. This is due to the basic fact that nearly all conflict in the world today is not between states but is taking place within state boundaries. What drives these conflicts? Are the common factors and patterns within the Middle East and Africa? How does sub-state conflict affect political and economic development? What are the most likely resolution strategies?

POSC 381. City as Classroom. 3 Units.

In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles. Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481.

POSC 383. Health Policy and Politics in the United States. 3 Units.

Overview of the principal institutions, processes, social forces, and ideas shaping the U.S. health system. Historical, political, economic, and sociological perspectives on the health system are explored as well as the intellectual context of recent policy changes, challenges, and developments. Students will acquire a sense of how health services are financed and delivered in the U.S. They will also learn how to assess its performance compared to that of other similar countries. Offered as POSC 383 and POSC 483.

POSC 384. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as POSC 384 and POSC 484.

POSC 385. U.S. Bureaucratic Politics. 3 Units.

Bureaucracy is one of civilization's most important inventions. It is a way of coordinating very large numbers of people so as to do work, make decisions, and exercise power. Without it, much of modern life would be impossible. Yet "bureaucracy" is normally seen, in public discussion, as a problem, instead of as a solution. This course will consider both the reasons for and pathologies of bureaucratic organization. Its special focus is bureaucracy in American government. The course therefore will provide some introduction to the study of American public administration, but with special emphasis on how the work and performance of public bureaucracies in the United States is shaped by the specific tasks they are given and the distribution of power in the American political arena. Offered as POSC 385 and POSC 485.

POSC 386. Making Public Policy. 3 Units.

Politics is about who wins, who loses, and why. Policy, by contrast, is often depicted as more "neutral"; policies are the means through which political decisions are carried out. In this class, we examine the notion that policy is the rational, impartial counterpart to the political arena. We will ask: How are public policies made? Why do some issues make it on to the agenda, while others do not? Can we separate facts from values, or are both always contested? We will examine how decision-making in a group introduces distinct challenges for policymaking. The course focuses on widely applicable themes of policymaking, drawing on both domestic and international examples. Offered as POSC 386 and POSC 486.

POSC 387. Comparative Public Policy in Advanced Industrial Societies. 3 Units.

The study of comparative public policy focuses on three obvious questions: First, how do policies differ among countries? Second, why do policies differ? For example, what explains the differences in policies about health or the environment or energy or pensions? Third, what difference does it make? Is one set of policies better or worse than others? How can we tell? This course will consider each of these questions, focusing especially on the differences between the United States and other advanced industrial countries, and how these questions affect political and social life in those countries. Offered as POSC 387 and POSC 487.

POSC 388. Politics, Policy, and the Global Environment. 3 Units.

This course examines the law, politics and policy surrounding global environmental challenges such as climate change. The course aims to provide a broad overview of the key concepts, actors, debates, and issues in global environmental politics. It aims to illustrate the complexities of addressing environmental problems-from the proliferation of global institutions and international actors, to the absence of central enforcement mechanisms. We examine the causes of environmental degradation and competing views on the gravity of the problem. Using concepts from political science and economics, we investigate the challenges in getting states to act jointly to address environmental problems. We examine the actors and institutions of global environmental politics, to understand how conditions are defined as problems and responses are chosen and implemented. The course concludes by applying the tools and concepts to the case of climate change. Offered as POSC 388, ESTD 388, POSC 488.

POSC 389. Special Topics in American Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

Specific topic will vary but will consist of an in-depth investigation of a particular policy area or political phenomenon. Topics will involve policy controversies of some current interest. Offered as POSC 389 and POSC 489.

POSC 395. Special Projects. 1 - 6 Unit.

Study of a topic of particular interest, or an approved internship. The student must submit to the departmental office a project prospectus form, approved and signed by the faculty supervisor, no later than the end of the second week of classes. The prospectus must outline the goals of the project and the research methodology to be used and is part of the basis for grading. The prospectus form is available from the departmental office. Open to juniors and seniors majoring in political science. Open to majors in other departments with consent of faculty. Recommended preparation: Departmental prospectus form.

POSC 396. Senior Project SAGES Capstone. 3 Units.

Capstone experience for political science majors or senior POSC minors as part of the SAGES program, providing opportunity to do an in-depth paper on a topic of particular interest to them. Students must obtain approval from a faculty project advisor and list that advisor on the registration form. The advisor must sign and student submit to department a prospectus including goals, schedule, and research methodology. This paper should demonstrate, and ideally even extend, the skills and expertise developed over the course of study in the department. Upon completion of the capstone, students will be expected to present their work in a public forum. Recommended preparation: Junior or Senior political science major or senior political science minor and departmental prospectus form.

POSC 401. Decision-Making in American Cities. 3 Units.

Localities are the primary interface with government and provide the basic psychological place identification for most Americans. The course will explore this assertion in the context of urban America today. How are decisions made in cities? Who shapes these decisions and why? What role is played by shifting demographics, race, and poverty? What can the individual do to influence local decision-making? Offered as POSC 301 and POSC 401.

POSC 402. State Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

State governments may make more decisions that affect the life of an average citizen than does the federal government. The study of state politics and policy includes the different ways states organize the basic parts of American political systems (such as legislatures, executives, courts and parties); how state cultures, economies, and other factors shape how political institutions work; institutions of state governance that do not exist at the national level (such as the initiative and referendum); and the continual contest between state and federal governments to control policy, shift costs, and avoid blame. Offered as POSC 302 and POSC 402.

POSC 406. Interest Groups in the Policy Process. 3 Units.

Introduction to the institutions and processes that make up the political environment of nonprofit and other organizations in the United States, beginning with an examination of the role of civil society in a democracy and continuing with the framing of issues, role of political entrepreneurs and organized interests, elections, the legislative process and strategies for influencing it, and the roles of executive institutions and the courts. Offered as POSC 306 and POSC 406.

POSC 408. The American Presidency. 3 Units.

The sources of, strategies of, and restraints on presidential leadership in the United States. Emphasis on problems of policy formation, presidential relations with Congress and executive agencies, and the electoral process. Offered as POSC 308 and POSC 408.

POSC 410. The Legislative Process. 3 Units.

Legislative, representative, and other functions of Congress and state legislatures; legislative relations with the executive and with private interests; powers and limitations of the legislature as a policy-making institution. Offered as POSC 310 and POSC 410.

POSC 420B. The U.S. Midterm Elections. 3 Units.

Analysis of the midterm elections in the United States. Covers congressional and state elections in all regions, focusing on the issues, personalities, campaign strategies, and voter trends in this key electoral battle held between presidential elections. Offered every four years in conjunction with the election cycle. Offered as POSC 320B and POSC 420B.

POSC 420C. The Presidential Election. 3 Units.

Analysis of the upcoming presidential election in the United States. Focuses on the issues and personalities, polls and public opinion, campaign strategies, and electoral behavior. Offered every four years in conjunction with the United States presidential election cycle. Offered as POSC 320C and POSC 420C.

POSC 421. News Media and Politics. 3 Units.

Analysis of the political role of the news media in American government and politics. Examines the fascinating relationship between reporters and politicians. Covers the overall structure and legal position of the media as well as the media's impact on the American political system. Offered as POSC 321 and POSC 421.

POSC 422. Political Movements and Political Participation. 3 Units.

Political Movements and Political Participation is concerned with the variety of ways citizens engage in collective activism in the United States and across national boundaries, and with the conditions under which citizens identify common concerns and join together in political movements to bring about change. The course begins with an examination of three general bodies of theory and research on political movements: resource mobilization, political opportunity structures, and cultural framing. We will also investigate frameworks of political participation for understanding the relationships among different expressions of collective activism and representation. In the context of these sometimes competing theories, we will consider 1) the conditions under which political movements are likely to emerge, as well as the circumstances in which collective political action is precluded; 2) how citizens come to recognize collective grievances and shared political identities; 3) the strategies and tactics of organized movements, and their likelihood of political success; and 4) the relationship between political movements, political parties, and the state. Offered as POSC 322 and POSC 422.

POSC 423. Judicial Politics. 3 Units.

Rejecting the view that judges mechanically apply the law, the study of judicial politics seeks to understand the behavior of judges as political actors with policy goals. Topics include judicial selection and socialization, judicial policy change, judicial strategy (especially the strategic interaction of judges on multi-judge panels), the interaction of courts in hierarchical judicial systems, the policy impact of judicial decisions, and the courts' interactions with coordinate branches of government (the executive, Congress, state governments, state courts). Primary focus will be on the federal judiciary, with some discussion of state judicial systems. Offered as POSC 323 and POSC 423.

POSC 425. American Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

An introductory survey of U.S. constitutional law. Special attention given to the historical, philosophical, and political dimensions of landmark Supreme Court cases. Judicial review, federalism, separation of powers, due process, and equal protection. Supreme Court's involvement in major political controversies: the New Deal, abortion, physician-assisted suicide, school desegregation, and affirmative action. Offered as POSC 325 and POSC 425.

POSC 426. Constitutions in Practical Politics. 3 Units.

Overview of ancient Greek and Roman constitution-making, medieval principles, emergence of modern constitutionalism, and the constitutionalist vision of the American and French Revolutions. Examination of contemporary constitutional issues and developments in countries such as Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ethiopia, India, and the United States. Offered as POSC 326 and POSC 426.

POSC 427. Civil Liberties in America. 3 Units.

Supreme Court's interpretation of the First Amendment: liberty of religion through the establishment and free exercise clauses, freedoms of speech and the press, of assembly and association. The "pure tolerance" view examined against subversive speech, "fighting words," libel, and obscenity. Survey of content-neutral regulation, symbolic expression, and current efforts to limit expression (campus speech codes and the feminist anti-pornography movement). Offered as POSC 327 and POSC 427.

POSC 428. Topics in Civil Liberties. 3 Units.

Rights of the accused as outlined in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Topics covered are (1) arrests, searches, and seizures, (2) the privilege against compelled self-incrimination, (3) the rights to counsel, confrontation, and jury trial, and (4) the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments. Case-specific approach but presents interplay of history, philosophy, and politics as background of each topic. Offered as POSC 328 and POSC 428.

POSC 429. Courts, Public Policy, and Social Change. 2 Units.

Examines the social impact of law and use of social research in the legal process, assesses efforts to use law to effect social reform, and empirical studies of legal processes and institutions. Recommended preparation: Graduate standing or consent of department. Offered as LAWS 285 and POSC 429.

POSC 434. Violence and the Political System. 3 Units.

Empirical analysis of various theories advanced in the cross-cultural explanation of factors which cause and mediate the occurrence of violence--revolutions, terrorism, and civil disorder--within the political system. Offered as POSC 334 and POSC 434.

POSC 441. Elections, Voters, and Political Parties. 3 Units.

Examination of American political parties, their activities, organization, characteristics, and functions. Candidate strategies and electoral history viewed within the context of voter orientations and predispositions, stressing linkages between citizen and party and between party and government. Offered as POSC 341 and POSC 441.

POSC 442. Water. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water. Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342, POSC 442.

POSC 443. Public Opinion and American Democracy. 3 Units.

Examination of theories, concepts and empirical research related to attitudes and the political behavior of mass publics. Offered as POSC 343 and POSC 443.

POSC 446. Women and Politics. 3 Units.

Women and Politics involves a critical examination of the impact of gender on the forms and distributions of power and politics, with primary reference to the experience of women in the United States. Major concerns of the course include what we mean by "sex," "gender," and "politics"; the relationship between women and the state; how women organize collectively to influence state policies; and how the state facilitates and constrains women's access to and exercise of political power. The course is organized around four foci central to the study of women and politics. The first section of the course focuses on what we mean by "women," "gender," and "politics." In this section, we will consider how these concepts intersect and the ways in which each may be used to deepen our understanding of the workings of governments and political systems, and of women's relative political powerlessness. The second section of the course employs these concepts to understand the (re) emergence of the US feminist movement, its meanings, practices, and goals, and its transformation across US political history. In the third section, we turn to conventional electoral politics, focusing on women's candidacies, their campaigns, and women's voting behavior. In the final section of the course, we consider those general factors that might provide for increased gender equality and improved life status for women, in global, comparative perspective. Offered as POSC 346 and POSC 446 and WGST 346.

POSC 449. Political Science Research Methods. 3 Units.

This course examines approaches that political scientists use to understand events and processes. In doing so, the course provides students with skills helpful to completing senior projects, such as the ability to evaluate and conduct research. Through exercises and projects, students will take part in the research process from constructing a question to developing a research design to interpreting results. Students will learn and apply key techniques, including inductive and deductive reasoning, hypothesis construction, operationalization of concepts, measurements, sampling and probability, causal inference, and the logic of controls. They will produce materials common to the discipline, such as research designs. Offered as POSC 349 and POSC 449.

POSC 451. Modern Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of a limited topic in the study of modern political thought. Topics vary. Offered as POSC 351 and POSC 451.

POSC 452. American Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of the unique contribution to the science of government made by American political thinkers. Offered as POSC 352 and POSC 452.

POSC 454. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

POSC 455. Modern Political Ideologies. 3 Units.

Substance and nature of ideological thinking in the contemporary world via a survey of political "isms"--for example, liberalism, libertarianism, conservatism, fascism, socialism, and even more recent trends such as feminism, environmentalism, etc. Offered as POSC 355 and POSC 455.

POSC 457. Democratic Politics: Theory and Practice. 3 Units.

Study of the theory and application of democracy. The concept of democracy will be examined from the Athenian model to contemporary debates over participatory and deliberative models. Then the concept will be applied to understanding issues of democratic practice and the study of politics in American, comparative, and international arenas. Finally, the course will address the potential effects, both good and ill, of technological innovation on democratic practices, such as "distance" participation, the Internet, and other communication technology. Offered as POSC 357 and POSC 457.

POSC 458. Political Strategy. 3 Units.

This course examines practical applications of prominent political science theories. It is partly a how-to course covering a broad range of political activities, but the primary objective is to link practical issues with theories to help you understand why events happen the way they do. The course focuses on American politics, but the materials will be applicable to a wide range of situations. The course is a seminar requiring regular student presentations that will generate discussion about the readings and current events. Papers consist of analysis of current events, and require students to analyze the strategies used by prominent figures in the context of the theories we discuss in class. Offered as POSC 358 and POSC 458.

POSC 461. State-Building and State Collapse. 3 Units.

Are nation-states the most effective means of organizing society? This course explores this question by examining the historical rationales behind the development of the nation-state, contemporary challenges to the nation-state, and potential alternatives to the nation-state. Possible challenges to the nation-state include multinational corporations, international humanitarian intervention, and regional integration. Alternative providers of state services include charities, companies, and mercenaries. Offered as POSC 361 and POSC 461.

POSC 462. Politics of Central Asia. 3 Units.

Once an unfamiliar region to many people of the world, Central Asia took center stage in the fall of 2001 as a result of the U.S. campaign against terrorism. This course will introduce students to the politics of Central Asia, focusing on the region today composed of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgiszstan, and Kazakkhstan. We will review the nationalism, foreign relations, religion, ethnicity, and economics of the region. Offered as ETHS 362, POSC 362, and POSC 462.

POSC 463. Comparative Analysis of Elections and Electoral Systems. 3 Units.

Elections involve more than a simple act of voting to express individual preferences. The rules under which worldwide elections are held determine who controls the executive and how votes are converted into legislative seats. The mechanics of various electoral arrangements will be examined in detail and the consequences for the political system discussed in terms of strategies and desired outcomes on the part of contestants. Students will research individual countries and analyze recent elections from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives, including introduction to geospatial data for mapping variations in electoral behavior. Offered as POSC 363 and POSC 463.

POSC 464. Dictatorship and Democracy in Modern Latin America. 3 Units.

Examination of political leadership in 20th-century Latin America, exploring the nature, causes, and consequences of dictatorship and democracy in the region, moving from the collapse of oligarchic rule and the emergence of populism in the 1930s and 1940s, to the end of democracy and establishment of military regimes in the 1960s and 1970s, and ultimately to the contemporary processes of democratization and economic liberalization. Offered as ETHS 364, POSC 364, and POSC 464.

POSC 466. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of the political forces and organizations currently functioning in Africa, as well as a survey of the formal government institutions. Special emphasis on single-party rule, military rule, and the political ramifications of African socialism, tribalism and the problems of national integration. Offered as ETHS 366, POSC 366, and POSC 466.

POSC 467. Western European Political Systems. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of sociopolitical systems of selected Western European industrial democracies, using North American systems as a point of comparison. Offered as POSC 367 and POSC 467.

POSC 469. Current Controversies in Latin American Politics and Society. 3 Units.

In addition to questions about race, religion, abortion, the drug industry, immigration, democracy, private property, and free trade, the course will tackle Latin America's apparent shift to the political and ideological left, Chavez's "Imperialism," and Cuba's humanitarian aid. Offered as ETHS 369, POSC 369 and POSC 469.

POSC 470A. Political Economy. 3 Units.

Focus on debates concerning the proper relationship between political and economic systems, including conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives. The politics of international economics and the economics of international politics receive separate attention. The course concludes with study of "modern" political economy and the application of economic theory to the study of political systems. Offered as POSC 370A and POSC 470A.

POSC 470C. The United States and Asia. 3 Units.

Survey and analysis of U.S.-Asia relations in the post-World War II period. Focus specifically is on the interaction of politics and economics in the United States' relations with Japan, China, and Southeast Asian countries. Topics will include the role of Asia in U.S. Cold War policies, the dynamics of U.S.-Japan alliance politics, post-Cold War issues involving U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, a history and analysis of economic conflict cooperation, and an examination of the move toward Asia-Pacific "regionalism." Offered as POSC 370C and POSC 470C.

POSC 470D. The Politics of China. 3 Units.

Now more than ever, the Chinese state and society are facing tremendous economic, social, and political challenges. This course presents an overview of current issues facing the People's Republic, including a changing (or not) political culture, policy processes and outcomes at the national and local levels, reform and economic growth, the resultant societal changes and pressures, and the consequent challenges the Communist Party faces as demand for political reform grows. The class involves a mixture of lectures and discussions and draws on a combination of primary and secondary sources, including current news reports and films. Offered as POSC 370D and POSC 470D.

POSC 470F. Financial Politics in the United States and the World. 3 Units.

This course explores how political institutions make policy in the financial area with particular emphasis on the United States. Using a bureaucratic politics framework, it examines money, banks and the securities industry by integrating a wide range of literature in economics and political science. Specific objectives include familiarizing students with different approaches to the political economy of finance from different disciplines, exploring the historical evolution of finance, examining the changing relationship between public and private authority within the financial system, considering how politics operates in a crisis, and evaluating the role of international financial institutions in the global economy. By taking this course, students will equip themselves for further research into politics and economics, as well as offer them tools to analyze future policy developments as they unfold. Offered as POSC 370F and POSC 470F.

POSC 470G. U.S. Intelligence and National Security. 3 Units.

Examination of the impact of the intelligence process on foreign policy making and superpower relations. Covers the life cycle of United States strategic intelligence from the collection of data to formulation of analytic judgments and the policy-level uses of intelligence. Emphasis on contemporary intelligence issues and processes, but includes the formative period of modern American intelligence in the World War II era. Offered as POSC 370G and POSC 470G.

POSC 470H. China's Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

The rise of China is evident in the country's more forward and robust foreign policy that began in 1979. At every turn, nations throughout the world must now consider China wherever their interests are at stake, be it Korea and Northeast Asia, Indochina and Southeast Asia, India/Pakistan and South Asia, or Afghanistan and Iran in the Middle East, not to mention the many African states that welcome Chinese investment but chafe at China's presence. Further, China is increasingly aggressive in international trade, a major determinant of its foreign policy. This course describes the key factors that make up Chinese foreign policy, including its cultural tradition, policy-making institutions, the role of the military, and domestic determinants of foreign policy. The course also examines China's ever-changing foreign policy strategies, from an aggressive posture to charming its neighbors only to become more strident once again. The course will also examine China's role involving possible mercantilism, currency manipulation, and the hunt for traditional and alternative energy sources. Throughout the course, we will pay attention to how China's foreign policy relates to international relations theories and what strategies might be used to manage China's growing role in international affairs. Offered as POSC 370H and POSC 470H.

POSC 470J. International Law and Organizations. 3 Units.

Study of international organizations and international law as two means for regulating and coordinating nation-state behavior. History of the two techniques will be traced, covering 19th century efforts at cooperation, the League of Nations and the United Nations, regional and specialized global organization. The functions of international law in global politics will be stressed, with primary focus on the evolving role of law in dealing with global problems, e.g., war, the environment, economic cooperation, and human rights. Offered as POSC 370J and POSC 470J.

POSC 470K. Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Religion in World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the post-Cold War surge in conflicts among nationalisms, ethnic groups, and religions with particular attention to the former Yugoslavia, Ireland, India, Africa, and the Middle East. Offered as ETHS 370K, POSC 370K, and POSC 470K.

POSC 471. Natural Resources and World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the political causes and ramifications of the uneven distribution of the valuable natural resources for modern industrial societies. Strategic and military issues and the exploitation of the sea bed. Examination in some detail of selected commodity issues, including petroleum, copper and uranium. Offered as POSC 371 and POSC 471.

POSC 472. The United Nations in the Post-Cold War World. 3 Units.

The United Nations has become the focus of a debate over its effectiveness as a global organization dedicated to promoting world peace. Some critics believe it is time for the U.N. to move forward in this regard, while others see the U.N. as an anachronistic, bloated bureaucracy sorely in need of reform. This course will consider the United Nations from the perspective of powerful states such as the United States, as well as from the perspective of weaker ones, and also will consider areas such as peacekeeping, human rights, economic development, political reform, and the U.N.'s involvement with non-state actors such as terrorists. Offered as POSC 372 and POSC 472.

POSC 473. Politics of the European Union. 3 Units.

Study of the origins, operations, and prospects for the European Union. This can include the historical context for the effort to restrict national rivalries (which fueled two world wars) and create common interests; the diplomatic challenges in finding common ground; the tasks and processes of governance within the EU, including its governing institutions, enforcement of terms for European Monetary Union and the operations of its bureaucracies; the social pressures that create policy challenges (such as agriculture policy and immigration); broad tensions within the enterprise (e.g., "broadening" vs. "deepening"), and the EU's potential place in international politics, especially the efforts to create a common foreign and security policy and the possible implications of the Euro for international political economy. Offered as POSC 373 and POSC 473.

POSC 474. Politics of Development in the Global South. 3 Units.

Exploration of the post-World War II emergence of the Global South nations of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Eastern Europe arena. Offered as ETHS 374, POSC 374, and POSC 474.

POSC 476. United States Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

Focus on U.S. foreign policy making with a dynamic network of executive and congressional actors and organizations; analysis of traditional and contemporary U.S. foreign policies from nuclear defense to current economic resource issues; future role of the United States in world affairs. Offered as POSC 376 and POSC 476.

POSC 477. Politics of Russia. 3 Units.

Russia faces three problems: the creation of a sovereign state, the development of a new political system, and the restructuring of its economy. In this course we will challenge the assumption that the outcome of these three transitions will be a strong, democratic, capitalist country. We will ask whether civil war, organized crime, an immature party system, poor social services, and nomenklatura privatization bode poorly for these three transformations. Offered as POSC 377 and POSC 477.

POSC 478. International Relations Theory. 3 Units.

This course is a seminar in international relations theory. As such, we will bring a wide range of theoretical perspectives to bear on issues and debates in the area of international relations by systematically studying the evolution of the world system. The seminar is roughly divided into a first half focusing on war and the political system, and a second half focusing on trade, finance and the economic system. Each section devotes particular attention to ethical problems associated with political and economic issues. This course should develop students' ability to read and critically evaluate academic literature in the field of international relations, and enable students to produce a scholarly paper on one substantive area of the field. Offered as POSC 378 and POSC 478.

POSC 479. Introduction to Middle East Politics. 3 Units.

This is an introductory course about Middle East Politics, in regional as well as international aspects. In this course we will explore broad social, economic, and political themes that have defined the region since the end of World War Two. Since this is an introductory course, a major goal will be to gain comparative knowledge about the region's states and peoples. The countries that comprise the modern Middle East are quire diverse; therefore, we will only be able to focus on a few cases in depth. A second goal is to use the tools and theories social scientists employ to answer broad questions related to the region, such as: How have colonial legacies shaped political and economic development in the Middle East? How do oil, religion, and identity interact with politics? How have external powers affected the region's political development? What do the uprisings of 2011 hold for the region's future? Offered as POSC 379 and POSC 479.

POSC 480. Public Policy and Aging. 3 Units.

Overview of aging and the aged. Concepts in the study of public policy. Policies on aging and conditions that they address. The politics of policies on aging. Emergent trends and issues. Offered as ANTH 498, BETH 496, EPBI 408, GERO 496, HSTY 480, MPHP 408, NURS 479, NURS 579, POSC 480, and SOCI 496.

POSC 481. City as Classroom. 3 Units.

In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles. Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481.

POSC 483. Health Policy and Politics in the United States. 3 Units.

Overview of the principal institutions, processes, social forces, and ideas shaping the U.S. health system. Historical, political, economic, and sociological perspectives on the health system are explored as well as the intellectual context of recent policy changes, challenges, and developments. Students will acquire a sense of how health services are financed and delivered in the U.S. They will also learn how to assess its performance compared to that of other similar countries. Offered as POSC 383 and POSC 483.

POSC 484. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as POSC 384 and POSC 484.

POSC 485. U.S. Bureaucratic Politics. 3 Units.

Bureaucracy is one of civilization's most important inventions. It is a way of coordinating very large numbers of people so as to do work, make decisions, and exercise power. Without it, much of modern life would be impossible. Yet "bureaucracy" is normally seen, in public discussion, as a problem, instead of as a solution. This course will consider both the reasons for and pathologies of bureaucratic organization. Its special focus is bureaucracy in American government. The course therefore will provide some introduction to the study of American public administration, but with special emphasis on how the work and performance of public bureaucracies in the United States is shaped by the specific tasks they are given and the distribution of power in the American political arena. Offered as POSC 385 and POSC 485.

POSC 486. Making Public Policy. 3 Units.

Politics is about who wins, who loses, and why. Policy, by contrast, is often depicted as more "neutral"; policies are the means through which political decisions are carried out. In this class, we examine the notion that policy is the rational, impartial counterpart to the political arena. We will ask: How are public policies made? Why do some issues make it on to the agenda, while others do not? Can we separate facts from values, or are both always contested? We will examine how decision-making in a group introduces distinct challenges for policymaking. The course focuses on widely applicable themes of policymaking, drawing on both domestic and international examples. Offered as POSC 386 and POSC 486.

POSC 487. Comparative Public Policy in Advanced Industrial Societies. 3 Units.

The study of comparative public policy focuses on three obvious questions: First, how do policies differ among countries? Second, why do policies differ? For example, what explains the differences in policies about health or the environment or energy or pensions? Third, what difference does it make? Is one set of policies better or worse than others? How can we tell? This course will consider each of these questions, focusing especially on the differences between the United States and other advanced industrial countries, and how these questions affect political and social life in those countries. Offered as POSC 387 and POSC 487.

POSC 488. Politics, Policy, and the Global Environment. 3 Units.

This course examines the law, politics and policy surrounding global environmental challenges such as climate change. The course aims to provide a broad overview of the key concepts, actors, debates, and issues in global environmental politics. It aims to illustrate the complexities of addressing environmental problems-from the proliferation of global institutions and international actors, to the absence of central enforcement mechanisms. We examine the causes of environmental degradation and competing views on the gravity of the problem. Using concepts from political science and economics, we investigate the challenges in getting states to act jointly to address environmental problems. We examine the actors and institutions of global environmental politics, to understand how conditions are defined as problems and responses are chosen and implemented. The course concludes by applying the tools and concepts to the case of climate change. Offered as POSC 388, ESTD 388, POSC 488.

POSC 489. Special Topics in American Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

Specific topic will vary but will consist of an in-depth investigation of a particular policy area or political phenomenon. Topics will involve policy controversies of some current interest. Offered as POSC 389 and POSC 489.

POSC 495. Independent Study. 3 Units.

Graduate level independent study taken for a grade.

POSC 601. Individual Investigation. 1 - 6 Unit.

The student must submit to the departmental office a project prospectus form, approved and signed by the faculty project supervisor, no later than the end of the second week of classes. The prospectus must outline the goals of the project and the research methodology to be used and is part of the basis for grading. The prospectus form is available from the departmental office. Prereq: Departmental prospectus form, graduate standing, and consent of department.

POSC 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 9 Unit.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.