2013-14 General Bulletin

This is an archived copy of the 2013-14 bulletin. To access the most recent version of the bulletin, please visit http://bulletin.case.edu.

frame image
frame image
Room W-G57, School of Medicine
http://epbiwww.case.edu/
Phone: 216.368.5957
Robert C. Elston, PhD, Chair

The Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics draws on the core disciplines of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Public Health to help support students in developing the knowledge, skills and competencies needed to assume positions of leadership with the ultimate goal of advancing the public's health. Through challenging coursework and both independent and collaborative research opportunities, students will develop a thorough understanding of the multiple determinants of population health outcomes; the individual and structural factors that may lead to disparities in those outcomes; and the way in which specific policies and interventions influence the nature and impacts of population health determinants.

The Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics offers the following degrees:

  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
  • Masters (MS)
  • Master of Public Health (MPH)

Faculty and Research

Department faculty are nationally recognized and have more than $9.5 million in grants that support projects including HIV/TB research in Uganda, the search for genes that cause disease, cancer prevention and control, studies of interventions to change human behaviors that promote good health, design of clinical trials, studies to change high-risk behaviors related to AIDS, studies of public policies concerning the health of the elderly, and cost/benefit studies of medical interventions. Many research projects are performed in collaboration with the four affiliated hospitals; the University Hospitals, Metro Health, the Cleveland Clinic and the Veteran Administration. The department has offices in two locations at the university, (Wood Bulding and Wolestein Research Building) and in the Prevention Research Center for Healthy Neighborhoods (PRHCN). The department maintains two scientific computer centers comprised of 14 lab computers and over a dozen servers. Several very large national health care and demographic databases (including Medicare, Medicaid, and Vital Statistics databases) are stored on the servers and are used for faculty and student research and educational projects.

 

Masters Programs

 

Master of Science in Biostatistics

Statistics is the science of data and a discipline that provides tools for making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Biostatistics addresses all aspects of statistics that arise from medical and health-related sciences, and is an essential component of most medical, biological, and health care. The study of biostatistics includes design and analysis of both experimental studies, such as clinical trials, and observational studies; the theory of probability and statistic; mathematical and statistical modeling; and knowledge of the methodology used to evaluate the properties of statistical procedures. It also includes a competency in computing, which encompasses programming, statistical software use, and database management. Modern Biostatistics is a dynamic field of study and an integral part of medical and public health research. Those who earn the MS in Biostatistics are equipped for careers in academia, government, and industry, or to enter doctoral programs in biostatistics.

The mission of the Masters Program in Biostatistics is to enroll and train outstanding students in the core discipline of biostatistics. The faculty and students in this program are committed to teaching and learning the theory, methodology and application of the essential and modern statistical methods used in the biomedical and related sciences.

Courses specific to this program include mathematical statistics, generalized linear models, multivariate statistics, survival analysis, categorical data analysis and non-parametric statistics, among others. In addition, the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics offers a wide array of courses in various concentrations, including global health epidemiology, genetic epidemiology and bioinformatics, health behavior and preventative science, and healthcare organization, outcomes, and policy. Plentiful research opportunities exist within the department and numerous research centers across the university, and extend to the adjoining University Hospitals, to the nearby Cleveland Clinic, to Cleveland’s MetroHealth Medical Center, and to similar entities across the United States and internationally.

Concurrently, students will master the rigorous scientific and analytic methods necessary to be at the forefront of efforts to not only describe, but effectively evaluate and improve the population’s health, and contribute to both the society and the biostatistics profession. Student- and faculty-led seminars provide an ongoing mechanism for keeping abreast of current literature and identifying important areas of research and collaborative opportunities. The Department operates within a strong interdisciplinary framework involving faculty within the department, the school of medicine, and across the entire university, as well as leaders in health care institutions and health oriented organizations and agencies throughout the wider community.

Graduates from accredited universities and colleges will be considered for admission to the department. All applicants must satisfy both CWRU and department requirements for graduate admission. The MS program in Biostatistics consists of a 21-credit core curriculum, plus15 additional credits of electives, and requirements of either a thesis or a comprehensive examination as described below.

 

General Requirements

Students must satisfy the requirements of the School of Graduate Studies as stated here, as well as those outlined by the Biostatistics program. The MS program in Biostatistics offers both "Plan A" and “Plan B”, as defined by the CWRU School of Graduate Studies. For Plan A, the student must obtain a consensus from a primary biostatistics faculty as his/her thesis adviser and pass an oral examination on a thesis (thesis defense). For Plan B, the student must pass a comprehensive examination administered by the faculty of biostatistics; students wishing to complete a project similar to a thesis may do so as an elective under EPBI 499 Independent Study.

Master of Public Health (MPH)

Master of Public Health Program Administrative Director
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue, W-G74
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4945
216.368.3128 - phone
216.368.2286 - fax
info@casemph.org

A Master of Public Health degree is designed to prepare students to address the broad mission of public health, defined as “enhancing health in human populations, through organized community effort,” utilizing education, research and community service. Public health practitioners are prepared to identify and assess the health needs of different populations, and then to plan, implement and evaluate programs to meet those needs. It is the task of the public health practitioner to protect and promote the wellness of humankind. The master of public health program prepares students to enhance health in human populations through organized community effort. Graduates are qualified to work in local and state health departments, universities and colleges, hospitals, ambulatory medical centers, non-profit organizations, and the insurance and pharmaceutical industries. The program seeks to attract a rich mix of students, including those pursuing degrees in medicine, nursing, dentistry, law, social work, bioethics, management and other fields, as well as students holding undergraduate degrees.

The CWRU MPH Program has a two-year curriculum requiring 42 credit hours. Eighteen credits are accumulated in six core required courses, representing the fundamental domains of public health: biostatistics, epidemiology, environmental health sciences, health services administration, public health history and social and behavioral sciences. Students receive nine credits for three courses in the major of their choice, six credits for two elective courses, and nine credits for the “Culminating Experience,” a 3 credit public health field practicum and a 6 credit capstone project. The MPH seminar program, a two-semester sequence, is taken for no credit. Previous experience or education pertaining to public health may increase the student’s flexibility in course selection. Students may also enroll part-time and take courses over a three to five year period.

NOTE: Students who matriculated prior to fall 2007 are still held to the 36 credit hour curriculum.

Requirements: Course List

Core required courses (18 credits)
MPHP 405Statistical Methods in Public Health 13
MPHP 406History and Philosophy of Public Health3
MPHP 411Introduction to Health Behavior3
MPHP 429Introduction to Environmental Health3
MPHP 439Public Health Management and Policy3
MPHP 483Introduction to Epidemiology for Public Health Practice3
Culminating Experience
MPHP 652Public Health Capstone Experience6
MPHP 650Public Health Practicum3
Complete 9 credits within chosen major 29
Electives6
The Future of Public Health
Building a Public Health Project
Total Units42

1

 Students in the Population Health Research major may take MPHP 431 Statistical Methods I in place of MPHP 405.

2

 Choices for major are Population Health Research, Global Health, Health Policy & Administration, or Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

 

 

MPH Sample Plan of Study (full-time):

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Statistical Methods in Public Health (MPHP 405)3  
The Future of Public Health (MPHP 506)3  
History and Philosophy of Public Health (MPHP 406)3  
Introduction to Epidemiology for Public Health Practice (MPHP 483)3  
Major course 1  3
Introduction to Health Behavior (MPHP 411)  3
Introduction to Environmental Health (MPHP 429)  3
Public Health Management and Policy (MPHP 439)  3
Building a Public Health Project (MPHP 507)  3
Year Total: 12 15
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Major course 33  
Major course 23  
Elective course3  
Elective course3  
Public Health Practicum (MPHP 650) (Public Health Capstone Experience)3  
Public Health Capstone Experience (MPHP 652) (Public Health Capstone Experience)  6
Year Total: 15 6
 
Total Units in Sequence:  48

 

 

Majors

Currently, four different majors (a.k.a. tracks) are offered by the CWRU MPH Program: Population Health Research, Global Health, Health Policy & Administration, and Health Promotion & Disease Prevention. Each major has a required course or courses (in addition to the core required courses), plus selective offerings to be combined for a total of 9 credit hours in major coursework. Students develop a Capstone project relevant to the major area to expand and apply the knowledge of the subject. Individual emphasis will differ from student to student within each major.

MPH students can also choose to expand the emphasis and depth of their program of study by electing to do a double major plan of study. For the double major, the student chooses two areas (two majors) of equal emphasis and takes 3 courses in each area (this requires the student to take a minimum of 45 credit hours). The student’s Capstone project must embrace and integrate both emphases, and no double-counting of credits can take place. Students choosing to do the double major plan of study should also work closely with an advisor to ensure optimal course selection and foster the evolution of a successful Capstone project.

Population Health Research Major

Coordinator - Mendel Singer, PhD

Learning Objectives:

  • Working knowledge of epidemiologic principles, terminology, and tools
  • Working knowledge of the primary analytic methods employed in both prospective and retrospective studies relating to population health
  • Understand the most common study designs used in public health and/or clinical research
  • Gain familiarity with some of the key advanced concepts in one of the subspecialties of population health (e.g. epidemiology, health services research, outcomes research.
Required major course:
MPHP 491Epidemiology: Case-Control Study Design and Analysis3
Select other courses from the list below:
MPHP 421Health Economics and Strategy3
MPHP 432Statistical Methods II3
MPHP 450Clinical Trials and Intervention Studies3
MPHP 458Statistical Methods for Clinical Trials3
MPHP 460Introduction to Health Services Research3
MPHP 467Comparative and Cost Effectiveness Research1
MPHP 474Principles of Practice-Based Network Research3
MPHP 484Geographic Medicine and Epidemiology1 - 3
MPHP 492Epidemiology: Cohort Study Design and Analysis3
EPBI 414Introduction to Statistical Computing3
EPBI 451Principles of Genetic Epidemiology3
EPBI 452Statistical Methods for Genetic Epidemiology3
EPBI 459Longitudinal Data Analysis3
EPBI 461Health Services Research Methods3
EPBI 515Secondary Analysis of Large Health Care Data Bases3
NURS 631Advanced Statistics: Multivariate Analysis3
 

Global Health Major

Coordinator - Daniel Tisch, PhD, MPH

Learning Objectives:

  • Develop a global perspective on health and diseases
  • Learn to design, execute, analyze, and evaluate global health research or projects
  • Acquire skills to understanding and communicate meaningfully with colleagues from distant fields of global health
  • Learn to integrate multiple objectives in global health across academic and applied disciplines
  • Understand ethical and regulatory issues for global health research
Select two out of the following three courses as required major courses:
INTH 401Fundamentals of Global Health3
MPHP 447Global Health: Outbreak Investigation in Real-Time3
MPHP 484Geographic Medicine and Epidemiology1 - 3
Select remaining major course from below:
MPHP 467Comparative and Cost Effectiveness Research1
MPHP 475Management of Disasters Due to Nature, War, or Terror3
MPHP 491Epidemiology: Case-Control Study Design and Analysis3
MPHP 492Epidemiology: Cohort Study Design and Analysis3
MPHP 508Ethics, Law, and Epidemiology3
MPHP 510Health Disparities3
ANTH 461Urban Health3
ANTH 480Medical Anthropology and Global Health I3
ANTH 481Medical Anthropology and Global Health II3
ANTH 511Seminar in Anthropology and Global Health: Topics3
LAWS 4101International Law2
LAWS 5123International Trade Law and Policy3
MGMT 460Managing in a Global Economy3
 

Health Care Policy & Administration Major

Coordinator - Jessica Berg, JD, MPH

Learning Objectives:

To improve population health through leadership by developing knowledge, ability and skills to lead care improvement, including:

  • Knowledge of social science through theories and how they can be used to understand the organization of health care (health economics, sociology, organization theory, social psychology)
  • To understand the role of the manager, organizational control and design, relationships with professional workers, adaptation to change and public accountability
  • To understand and be able to use management techniques including quality improvement, small group leadership, budgeting, cost effectiveness, and decision supports
  • Able to analyze a public health problem, recommend solutions, make a public presentation, and carry out improvements
Required major course:
MPHP 468The Continual Improvement of Healthcare: An Interdisciplinary Course3
Select remaining major courses from the list below:
MPHP 421Health Economics and Strategy3
MPHP 456Health Policy and Management Decisions3
MPHP 467Comparative and Cost Effectiveness Research1
MPHP 475Management of Disasters Due to Nature, War, or Terror3
MPHP 508Ethics, Law, and Epidemiology3
MPHP 510Health Disparities3
MPHP 532Health Care Information Systems3
POSC 483Health Policy and Politics in the United States3
HSMC 420Health Finance3
EPBI 592Special Topics in Epidemiology1 - 10
LAWS 5205Public Health Law2
BETH 417Introduction to Public Health Ethics3
 

Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Major

Coordinator - Erika Trapl, PhD

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe models and theories of health behavior as they relate to health promotion and disease prevention
  • Identify multi-factorial causes of health behavior and disease
  • Demonstrate knowledge and skills necessary to support behavior change
  • Apply principles and practice of effective health communication
  • Describe development, implementation, and evaluation of programs that promote healthy lifestyle and behaviors
Required major course:
MPHP 433Community Interventions and Program Evaluation3
Select remaining major courses from the list below:
MPHP 413Health Education, Communication, and Advocacy3
MPHP 464Obesity and Cancer: Views from Molecules to Health Policy3
MPHP 474Principles of Practice-Based Network Research3
MPHP 475Management of Disasters Due to Nature, War, or Terror3
MPHP 485Adolescent Development3
MPHP 508Ethics, Law, and Epidemiology3
MPHP 510Health Disparities3
ANTH 461Urban Health3


PhD Epidemiology and Biostatistics

The PhD Program in Epidemiology and Biostatistics draws on the core disciplines of biostatistics and epidemiology to support students in developing the knowledge, skills and competencies needed to assume positions of leadership with the ultimate goal of advancing the public’s health. Students accepted into the PhD program will master the rigorous scientific and analytic methods necessary to be at the forefront of efforts to not only describe, but effectively evaluate and improve the public’s health. The Department operates within a strong interdisciplinary framework involving faculty within the department, the school of medicine, and across the entire university, as well as leaders in health care institutions and health oriented organizations and agencies throughout the wider community.

Student- and faculty-led seminars provide an ongoing mechanism for keeping abreast of current literature and identifying important areas of research and collaborative opportunities. Students are considered junior colleagues of the faculty who will develop the capacity to work independently in a supportive environment. The Department operates within a strong interdisciplinary framework involving faculty within the department, the school of medicine, and across the entire university, as well as leaders in health care institutions and health oriented organizations and agencies throughout the wider community.

Graduates from accredited universities and colleges will be considered for admission to the department. All applicants must satisfy both CWRU and department requirements for graduate admission. Upon acceptance into the PhD program, each student will be assigned an academic advisor, who will guide the student through department and graduate school regulations, assist him or her in designing the initial planned program of study, and track the student’s progress toward degree completion.

All incoming PhD students take a required 36-credit core curriculum, which includes a 24-credit common core, 12-credit concentration core, and 6-credits of electives from one of five areas of concentration: Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics, Global Health Epidemiology, Health Behavior and Prevention Science, Health Care Organizations, Outcomes and Policy, and Modern Biostatistics (see descriptions below).

On completion of all core requirements, students take a qualifying examination that leads to advancement to candidacy. When ready to embark upon the Doctoral dissertation, the student must choose a research advisor to have the major responsibility for facilitating, guiding, and advising the student in his or her research.

Curriculum

The Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics comprises the following components:

  • Basic Core Curriculum (24 credits)
  • Specialization/Concentration Core Curriculum (12 credits)
  • Electives (6 credits)
  • Seminar Requirements (501 & 502, 503, 504, 505, or 506)
  • Passing the Qualifying Exam
  • Portfolio Presentation
  • Dissertation (18 credits)

Basic Core Curriculum (24 credits)

The basic core curriculum is designed to provide PhD students with a strong foundation in epidemiology and biostatistics, together with health service research - the fields that comprise population health sciences - and the methodological and analytic training to conduct a rigorous, high quality dissertation in the student’s selected specialization or concentration.

Specialization/Concentrations (12 credits)

The PhD coursework requirement also consists of concentrated studies within one of four substantive areas offered within the department: Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics, Global Health Epidemiology, Health Behavior and Prevention Science, and Health Care Organizations, Outcomes and Policy.

Most PhD students will specify a concentration when they apply to the program; those who do so will have better chance of acceptance. Students who do not directly specify a concentration when applying for admission to the program, must do so by no later than the end of the second semester (for full-time students) or 18 credit hours of core coursework, and meet all the requirements of the chosen concentration. Applying to a concentration after matriculation OR changing concentrations after initial admission does not guarantee acceptance into the concentration. Some concentrations may have additional prerequisites beyond those required for entrance into the PhD program (i.e., at least one course in calculus), or additional non-coursework requirements (i.e., applied research experience).

Electives (6 credits)

Electives are chosen in conjunction with consultation with the student’s academic advisor.

Seminars (0 credits)

Attending research seminars is integral to our graduate program and your professional development. Students are required to attend weekly research seminars. These seminars provide a forum for students to develop skills in scientific presentation, thought and communication, and balance general and concentration-specific speakers and topics. Meeting locations may vary from week to week depending upon the speaker.

Portfolio Presentation

The purpose of the portfolio presentation is to give the doctoral student, faculty and other doctoral students an opportunity to consider the progress, achievements and goals of the presenting student. However, it is neither an examination nor a formal checklist of activity. The presentation is an opportunity for the presenting student to review her/his study and career goals and for the faculty to offer feedback and advice to the student regarding progress toward her/his goals. One way for the student to think about the portfolio presentation is to imagine that (s)he is being interviewed for an academic or research position. In such a circumstance, the student would explain why (s)he has the background and skills that would qualify her/him for the position.

Generally, the Portfolio Presentation is given after Advancement to Candidacy but prior to the dissertation proposal defense.

Dissertation (18 credits)

After passing the qualifying examination and completing all course work, the student should choose a dissertation topic and find a faculty member with an appointment in the Department who is willing to be his/her research advisor.

PhD Epidemiology & Biostatistics Sample Plan of Study

Please also see Graduate Studies Academic Requirements for Doctoral Degrees.

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Epidemiology: Introduction to Theory and Methods (EPBI 490)3  
Research Seminar (EPBI 501)0  
Statistical Methods I (EPBI 431)3  
Introduction to Population Health (EPBI 440)3  
One of the following:0  
Seminar in Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics (EPBI 502)
Seminar in Biostatistics (EPBI 503)
Seminar in Health Care Organization, Outcomes and Policy (EPBI 504)
Seminar in Global Health Epidemiology (EPBI 505)
Seminar in Health Behavior and Prevention Research (EPBI 506)
Statistical Methods II (EPBI 432)  3
Communicating in Population Health Science Research (EPBI 444)  2
Research Ethics in Population Health Sciences (EPBI 445)  1
Introduction to Health Services Research (EPBI 460)  3
Research Seminar (EPBI 501)  0
One of the following:  0
Seminar in Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics (EPBI 502)
Seminar in Biostatistics (EPBI 503)
Seminar in Health Care Organization, Outcomes and Policy (EPBI 504)
Seminar in Global Health Epidemiology (EPBI 505)
Seminar in Health Behavior and Prevention Research (EPBI 506)
Year Total: 9 9
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Concentration core or elective3  
Essence of Multilevel Statistical Modeling, Including Repeated Measures Analysis (EPBI 436)1  
Essence of Classical Multivariate Analysis (EPBI 437)1  
Essence of Structural Equation Modeling (EPBI 438)1  
Design and Measurement in Population Health Sciences (EPBI 465)3  
Research Seminar (EPBI 501)0  
After completing the core courses, students take a comprehensive and a qualifying exam to advance to candidacy.
Concentration coursework  9
Year Total: 9 9
 
Total Units in Sequence:  36
 

Year 3 + : Complete remaining hours of elective coursework, Portfolio, and 18 hours of Dissertation Research

Areas of Concentration

 

Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics

Students enrolled in the Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics Concentration will learn to design and conduct epidemiological studies investigating the genetic and environmental influences on disease. Genetic epidemiology combines genetics, epidemiology, and biostatistics. Bioinformatics involves the use of sophisticated statistical and data mining tools to analyze genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data.

Special study designs and statistical methods are required to explore genetic influences in epidemiologic studies, and this field continues to evolve as molecular and computational technology evolves. Furthermore, studies have moved beyond associations strictly between trait and DNA sequence, and now incorporate gene-environment interaction, RNA/gene expression, copy number variants, epigenetics, and proteomics. Thus, today’s genetic epidemiologists must be able to take multidisciplinary approaches to the evaluation of genetics in disease pathogenesis.

Researchers in many diverse areas are interested in incorporating genetics into their studies of disease pathogenesis, so this field is in demand. Currently the area is moving towards the development of predictive models incorporating genetic polymorphisms, so this field is central to translational and personalized medicine. After finishing training in this concentration, students may become collaborators with other basic and clinical scientists who are interested in examining genetic effects on their respective phenotypes, may become methodologists and develop new statistical/bioinformatic approaches appropriate for obtaining genetic information, or may lead their own research related to the genetics of specific complex traits.

Global Health Epidemiology 

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines Global Health as “health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions”. We believe that, at its core, Global Health (and more broadly, population health sciences) is built upon the disciplines of epidemiology and biostatistics. The unifying theme of this concentration is the relatedness of health across diverse geographic areas and communities and the application of epidemiology in the context of related disciplines to define, quantify, and address health determinants, measurements, and trends.

CWRU is a recognized leader in Global Health research and education. Academic opportunities in the field of Global Health are extensive and have been formally organized through the CWRU Framework for Global Health with nine departments, five schools and The Center for Global Health and Diseases at CWRU. Recognizing that Global Health is not limited to international settings or “developing countries”, the concentration also recognizes neglected diseases and vulnerable populations within the USA that transcend cultural boundaries.

The spirit of this concentration is advanced, innovative training to invite and strengthen the brightest new researchers in the field of global health. To accomplish this to the highest degree possible, we take advantage of our own connections within the University and our deep resources in Global Health professionals. Since the focus of this concentration is the development of research impact in a global perspective of health, prior or current experience in cultural settings from which these populations arise is strongly encouraged.

Health Behavior and Prevention Science

Health behavior and prevention research involves the systematic study of factors that modify behaviors related to disease risk and health promotion. This involves the development and testing of intervention programs designed to change behavior and reduce the onset and impact of various diseases, and programs designed to improve quality of life. Students enrolled in a concentration in Health Behavior and Prevention Science (HBPS) will train and conduct research on the psychological, social and ecological influences of health-related behaviors linked to the prevention of chronic disease, focusing not only on individual-level health and health behavior change, but more broadly to include multi-level, socio-ecological influences from interpersonal relationships and families, to organizations (school, work, religion), neighborhoods and communities, and policy.

Research opportunities for HBPS students are plentiful across campus, both with EPBI faculty and through established research centers within the university, such as the Prevention Research Center for Healthy Neighborhoods, Center for Reducing Health Disparities, Practice-Based Research Networks, Swetland Center for Environmental Health, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Prevention and Control Program), and the Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development.

The Prevention Research Center for Healthy Neighborhoods, through its Training and Mentoring and Research Development Cores, have built-in opportunities for students to become part of research teams, attend seminars, brown-bag discussions and participate in collaborative exchanges with community research partners.

Health Care Organization, Outcomes, and Policy

Students in the Health Care Organization, Outcomes, and Policy concentration will be prepared to design and carry out research in alternative models for the organization and delivery of care; quality, cost-effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of care; disparities in receipt or outcomes of care; translation of evidence-based practice into guidelines and evaluation of their real-world applications; and health policy analysis and implementation. Students in this concentration will acquire a solid grounding in the conduct of rigorous multidisciplinary studies applying quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods, and specialized competencies in key areas, viz., large database analysis; cost-effectiveness and comparative effectiveness analysis; health economics; health policy and management; and other advanced methods such as hierarchical linear modeling; structural equation modeling; instrumental variable analysis; analysis of weighted survey data; and spatial analysis of data.

There is a nationally recognized need for researchers prepared to lead or collaborate on the types of studies students in this concentration would be prepared to conduct. Placements of past graduates of our department who focused their studies in this area indicate that a variety of employment opportunities exist in academia, industry, and government. This concentration is closely related to research in comparative effectiveness, disparities, and health care quality, all three of which reflect national funding priorities. For example, over one billion in federal research dollars has recently been devoted to the funding of comparative effectiveness research.

Modern Biostatistics

Modern biostatistics is the science of designing experiments, analyzing and interpreting data from both experimental and observational studies, and making predictions. Appropriate planning and designing of a study is critical to ensure the quality and relevancy of its data to a scientific enquiry. Sound statistical analyses require consideration of multiple and perhaps previously unconsidered factors, knowledge and skills in modern statistics, computation and relevant sciences. Data mining and modern statistical learning techniques are important for knowledge discovery from large or massive data.

Modern biostatistics addresses all aspects of statistics that arise from medical and health-related sciences, including challenges in nanomedicine, microarray experiments, next generation sequencing, preclinical and clinical trials, complex health policies, biomedical engineering and other new/emerging areas. It involves the application and development of statistical methods for the advancement of medical science, health care and related areas. Thus, modern biostatistical scientists develop new statistical methods, play a key role in the effective communication of quantitative information, collaborate with medical scientists in disease prevention and treatments, and contribute to the rational formulation of health policies and interventions.

The concentration in modern biostatistics provides both theoretical and practical biostatistical training integrated with the core requirements in epidemiology and health sciences, facilitated by the involvement of faculty in cutting-edge biomedical and health research across the medical school and university. This concentration aims to develop students as modern biostatisticians with knowledge of the determinants of population health and/or another scientific area of applications (of the student’s choice), as well as in statistical theory, methods and computing which naturally have applications beyond a particular substantive area. This program provides unique biostatistical training designed to prepare students for today’s rewarding careers in academia, government, and industry. Modern biostatisticians are highly sought after in the job market.

EPBI Courses

EPBI 400. Statistics As Integral to the Scientific Method. 3 Units.

Modern statistical thinking and methods and how they are integral to the scientific method. Designing studies (statistical planning), analyzing data, interpreting results, and presenting statistical material effectively and truthfully, often via graphics far more informative and truthful than those still commonly appearing in scientific publications. Mathematically, only ordinary algebra is needed to understand the key statistical concepts and models. Extensive use of R (via RStudio), an open-source (free) system that runs under Windows, Mac OS, and Linux, and is now a standard environment used widely throughout the scientific world. All R programs used in the lectures are provided to students, so they can modify them to conduct their own analyses. However, this course does not focus on the technical details underlying those computations. Almost all student work is based on using R to apply the methods to real/realistic problems in their own research areas and then develop and give oral presentations. This includes learning that sticks. Grading is P/NP; auditing is allowed (if space available). May not be used to satisfy course requirements in MS or PhD programs in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

EPBI 408. Public Policy and Aging. 3 Units.

Overview of aging and the aged. Concepts in the study of public policy. Policies on aging and conditions that they address. The politics of policies on aging. Emergent trends and issues. Offered as ANTH 498, BETH 496, EPBI 408, GERO 496, HSTY 480, MPHP 408, NURS 479, NURS 579, POSC 480, and SOCI 496.

EPBI 411. Introduction to Health Behavior. 3 Units.

Using a biopsychosocial perspective, an overview of the measurement and modeling of behavioral, social, psychological, and environmental factors related to disease prevention, disease management, and health promotion is provided. Offered as EPBI 411 and MPHP 411. Prereq: Enrollment limited to MPH students (Plan A or Plan B) and EPBI students or consent.

EPBI 414. Introduction to Statistical Computing. 3 Units.

This course introduces the use of computers in epidemiologic investigations and biostatistical applications. Topics covered include the use of the Internet to access and obtain publicly available databases, database and spreadsheet concepts, and developing a sound approach to analysis planning and implementation. The majority of the course will focus on instruction in the use of SAS software for advanced database management and manipulation and basic statistical analyses, with parallel applications in R to exploit its features. Primary emphasis is on developing the knowledge and familiarity required for running these particular programs in connection with data collection, analysis, and presentation of results in clinical studies. Students will be required to complete assignments using personal computers using Windows operating systems and/or computer systems maintained by the department. Students should expect weekly assignments to reinforce lecture concepts. Knowledge of basic statistics in beneficial, as this course does not teach inferential statistical analysis in detail; but it is not vital to learning the material in this course.

EPBI 415. Statistical Programming. 3 Units.

Programming with R, this course emphasizes sound practices and numerical methods commonly used in statistical science. R is a high-level, open-source platform now vital in statistical computing, especially for creating and sharing applications that implement new and customized methods. Topics include effective programming style and structure, R for customized graphics, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrapping, and numerical optimization. Previous experience in R is advised, but students literate in other languages (e.g., C++) are encouraged to enroll. Prereq: EPBI 431.

EPBI 419. Topics in Urban Health in the United States. 3 Units.

This course examines patterns of urban health and disease across the life course among marginalized populations and communities. We will examine the socio-environmental contexts that impact health status (i.e., racism, health disparities, neighborhood context, and environmental stressors). Readings from epidemiology, sociology, and public health literature will provide a foundation for the multiple factors and processes that impact health. Offered as EPBI 419 and MPHP 419.

EPBI 430. Design and Analysis of High-Dimensional Data. 3 Units.

High-dimensional, high-throughput data are often encountered in the fields of genomics, proteomics, systems biology and bioinformatics. Through this course, students will learn how to design high-throughput studies and analyze the high-dimensional genomic data necessary for precision medicine when the number of measures far exceeds the number of subjects ("high-dimensional data"). Topics include (but are not limited to) design of high-throughput studies, sample size estimation, power analysis, low-level preprocessing of microarrays, basic exploratory genomics and proteomics data analyses, multiple comparison (p>>n problem), supervised and unsupervised learning methods. These statistical methods will be applied to gene and protein expression data, and next generation sequencing data. The course will use an interdisciplinary approach that combine statistics, computer science, molecular biology, and genomics. While this particular course will focus mostly on statistical methods for designing and analyzing molecular studies, those who take it will come from a wide variety of disciplines. Therefore, relevant multivariate methods and molecular biology will be reviewed. Recommended Preparation: At least one advanced undergraduate or graduate statistical course experience.

EPBI 431. Statistical Methods I. 3 Units.

Application of statistical techniques with particular emphasis on problems in the biomedical sciences. Basic probability theory, random variables, and distribution functions. Point and interval estimation, regression, and correlation. Problems whose solution involves using packaged statistical programs. First part of year-long sequence. Offered as ANAT 431, BIOL 431, EPBI 431, and MPHP 431.

EPBI 432. Statistical Methods II. 3 Units.

Methods of analysis of variance, regression and analysis of quantitative data. Emphasis on computer solution of problems drawn from the biomedical sciences. Design of experiments, power of tests, and adequacy of models. Offered as BIOL 432, EPBI 432, and MPHP 432. Prereq: EPBI 431 or equivalent.

EPBI 433. Community Interventions and Program Evaluation. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to design, conduct, and assess community-based health interventions and program evaluation. Topics include assessment of need, evaluator/stakeholder relationship, process vs. outcome-based objectives, data collection, assessment of program objective achievement based on process and impact, cost-benefit analyses, and preparing the evaluation report to stakeholders. Recommended preparation: EPBI 490, EPBI 431, or MPHP 405. Offered as EPBI 433 and MPHP 433.

EPBI 434. Community Engaged Research: Principles, Methods and Applications. 3 Units.

Community-engaged research is a partnership approach to research that equitably involves community members, organization representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of the research process. This course is designed to provide an overview of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and will familiarize students with the core principles, concepts and methods as it applies to health-related outcomes. Using a class format that includes lectures, discussion, case studies, small group exercises and fieldwork projects, we will examine and discuss key methodological considerations in each phase of the research process from partnering with communities to planning for research, data gathering, and dissemination of results. Examples of applications in both public health and clinical settings will be highlighted.

EPBI 435. Survival Data Analysis. 3 Units.

Basic concepts of survival analysis including hazard function, survival function, types of censoring; non-parametric models; extended Cox models: time dependent variables, piece-wise Cox model, etc.; sample size requirements for survival studies. Prereq: EPBI 432.

EPBI 436. Essence of Multilevel Statistical Modeling, Including Repeated Measures Analysis. 1 Unit.

A brief introduction to statistical models to handle studies having observational units (cases) at multiple levels (hierarchies). In particular, cases are often nested within groups, such as distinct communities, healthcare centers, or schools. Because the cases are not independent, ordinary statistical models (EPBI 432) are not appropriate. In addition, some research questions suggest case-level analyses; others suggest group-level analyses. Longitudinal and other repeated measures analyses can be formed by taking the measurements to be nested within independent cases. Methods include the basic "summary measure" approach and mixed linear model methods, such as random coefficient regression models. Examples and wise use of software (R and SAS) are stressed in order to develop a strong conceptual understanding of the models. This course joins EPBI 437 and 438 as the three-step "essence" series in advanced statistical methods required for the PhD in Population Health Science. Prereq: EPBI 432 or requisites not met permission.

EPBI 437. Essence of Classical Multivariate Analysis. 1 Unit.

A brief introduction to classical multivariate analysis methods: data visualization, two-group discriminant analysis via Hotelling's test, principal components and exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis. Examples and wise use of software R are stressed in order to develop a strong conceptual understanding of the methods. This course joins EPBI 436 and 438 as the three-step "essence" series in advanced statistical methods required for the PhD in Population Health Science. Prereq: EPBI 432 or requisites not met permission.

EPBI 438. Essence of Structural Equation Modeling. 1 Unit.

Brief introduction to classic "linear structural relations" (LISREL) formulation of structural equation models: Building them to address specific research aims. Fitting and assessing the goodness of the fit. Prudent interpretations. Examples and wise use of software are stressed in order to develop a strong conceptual understanding. This course joins EPBI 436 and 437 as the three-step "essence" series in advanced statistical methods required for the PhD in Population Health Science. Prereq: EPBI 432 or requisites not met permission.

EPBI 440. Introduction to Population Health. 3 Units.

Introduces graduate students to the multiple determinants of health including the social, economic and physical environment, health services, individual behavior, genetics and their interactions. It aims to provide students with the broad understanding of the research development and design for studying population health, the prevention and intervention strategies for improving population health and the disparities that exist in morbidity, mortality, functional and quality of life. Format is primarily group discussion around current readings in the field; significant reading is required.

EPBI 441. Theory of Linear Models, with Applications. 3 Units.

The linear statistical model. Matrix algebra, random vectors and matrices, the multivariate normal distributions of quadratic forms. Estimation, testing, and diagnostics in regression models. Fixed and random predictors. Applications using SAS. Recommended preparation: EPBI 432.

EPBI 442. Biostatistics II. 3 Units.

This course deals with the basic concepts and applications of nonparametric statistics. Topics will include distribution-free statistics, one sample rank test, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests, one sample and two sample U-statistics, asymptotic relative efficiency of tests, distribution-free confidence intervals, point estimation and linear rank statistics. Recommended preparation: EPBI 441. Offered as EPBI 442 and MPHP 442.

EPBI 443. Multivariate and High Dimensional Data. 3 Units.

Contemporary multivariate analysis, including statistical learning and inference methods when the number of measures far exceeds the number of subjects ("high-dimensional data"). Topics include (but not limited to) classical modeling and inference under multivariate normal theory, principal components, descriptive and confirmatory factor analysis, partial least squares, classification and supervised learning, cluster analysis, unsupervised learning methods, and next generation sequencing data analysis. This course stresses how the core modeling principles, computing tools, and visualization strategies are used to address complex scientific aims powerfully and efficiently, and to communicate those findings effectively to content researchers who may have little or no experience in these methods. Recommended preparation: Advanced graduate students in Biostatistics or other quantitative sciences with background and adequate preparation in graduate-level classical statistical theory and a course experience in regression analysis. Some programming experience. Knowledge in mathematical computing or statistical software package is helpful. We aim to use SAS, R, STATA, and JMP Genomics for analyzing data.

EPBI 444. Communicating in Population Health Science Research. 2 Units.

Doctoral seminar on writing journal articles to report original research, and preparing and making oral and poster presentations. The end products are ready-to-submit manuscripts and related slide and poster presentations for the required first-year research project in the PhD program in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. While this course provides a nucleus for this endeavor, students work intensively under the supervision of their research mentors, who guide all stages of the work including providing rigorous editorial support. Seminar sessions are devoted to rigorous peer critiques of every stage of the projects and to in-depth discussions of assigned readings. Recommended preparation: PhD students in the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology. Non-PhD EPBI students permitted if space available. Fluency in English writing (e.g., in accord with the Harbrace College Handbook). Prereq: EPBI 431 and EPBI 490. Coreq: EPBI 432.

EPBI 445. Research Ethics in Population Health Sciences. 1 Unit.

This one-credit hour course is designed to address key elements in research ethics as they apply to the Population Health Sciences. The course includes readings, lectures, discussions and peer presentations in the following areas: personal, professional and financial conflict of interest; policies regarding human subjects; safe laboratory practices; mentor/mentee responsibilities and relationships; collaborative research; peer review; data acquisition and laboratory tools; management, sharing and ownership of data; research misconduct; responsible authorship and publication; the role of the scientist in society; contemporary ethical issues in biomedical research; and the environmental and societal impacts of scientific research. Each student is required to give an evaluated presentation each semester of enrollment.

EPBI 446. Experimental Design for Biomedical Sciences. 3 Units.

This course deals with basic problems of the design and analysis of experiments with emphasis on experiments conducted in the biomedical sciences. Topics will include completely randomized and balanced incomplete block designs. Latin and Graeco-Latin squares, factorial experiments and response surface and mixture designs. In addition to analysis and interpretation of results from experiments, optimization of design parameters, using second-order models will be covered. The course is intended for graduate students and investigators who are engaged in biomedical research. Prereq: EPBI 432 or MPHP 432 or BIOL 432 or consent of instructor.

EPBI 447. Global Health: Outbreak Investigation in Real-Time. 3 Units.

This course provides a trans-cultural, trans-disciplinary, multimedia learning experience by analyzing historical and real-time data from the annual dengue endemics and sporadic epidemics in Puerto Rico and Brazil. A rigorous problem-centered training in the epidemiology, prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases using real-time and historical surveillance data of endemic and epidemic Dengue in Bahia, Brazil. This is an advanced epidemiology course in which core material will be primarily taught through reading assignments, class discussion, group projects, and class presentations. The course will utilize the online web-based communication and learning technology to create a single classroom between the CWRU and international partners with unique and complementary skills. In addition to joint classroom lectures across sites, student groups will also perform smaller-scale videoconference meetings for assigned group projects, thus creating strong international connections for the students, faculty, and our institutions. Note: Due to the complexities of time zones for this international course, the course will begin at 8:00a.m. until the U.S.A. adjusts clocks for Daylight Savings Time (unlike Brazil). Therefore, classes after the second week of March will begin at 9:00a.m. Offered as: EPBI 447, INTH 447, and MPHP 447. Prereq: EPBI 490.

EPBI 450. Clinical Trials and Intervention Studies. 3 Units.

Issues in the design, organization, and operation of randomized, controlled clinical trials and intervention studies. Emphasis on long-term multicenter trials. Topics include legal and ethical issues in the design; application of concepts of controls, masking, and randomization; steps required for quality data collection; monitoring for evidence of adverse or beneficial treatment effects; elements of organizational structure; sample size calculations and data analysis procedures; and common mistakes. Recommended preparation: EPBI 431 or consent of instructor. Offered as EPBI 450 and MPHP 450.

EPBI 451. Principles of Genetic Epidemiology. 3 Units.

A survey of the basic principles, concepts and methods of the discipline of genetic epidemiology, which focuses on the role of genetic factors in human disease and their interaction with environmental and cultural factors. Many important human disorders appear to exhibit a genetic component; hence the integrated approaches of genetic epidemiology bring together epidemiologic and human genetic perspectives in order to answer critical questions about human disease. Methods of inference based upon data from individuals, pairs of relatives, and pedigrees will be considered. Offered as EPBI 451, GENE 451, and MPHP 451. Prereq: EPBI/MPHP 431 and EPBI/MPHP 490 or MPHP 405.

EPBI 452. Statistical Methods for Genetic Epidemiology. 3 Units.

Analytic methods for evaluating the role of genetic factors in human disease, and their interactions with environmental factors. Statistical methods for the estimation of genetic parameters and testing of genetic hypotheses, emphasizing maximum likelihood methods. Models to be considered will include such components as genetic loci of major effect, polygenic inheritance, and environmental, cultural and developmental effects. Topics will include familial aggregation, segregation and linkage analysis, ascertainment, linkage disequilibrium, and disease marker association studies. Recommended preparation: EPBI 431 and EPBI 451.

EPBI 453. Categorical Data Analysis. 3 Units.

Descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data with applications: bivariate data; models for binary and multinomial response variables, with emphasis on logit models; loglinear models for multivariate data; model fitting using the maximum likelihood approach; model selection and diagnostics; and sample size and power considerations. Topics in repeated response data as time allows. Recommended preparation: EPBI 441.

EPBI 454. Population Genetics for Genetic Epidemiology. 3 Units.

This course will cover basics of population genetics (mutation, migration, natural selection) as well as topics such as random mating populations and inbred populations. Emphasis will be placed on migration studies and on linkage disequilibrium mapping. Measures on linkage disequilibrium, methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping of disease genes and the use of isolated versus outbred population in linkage of disequilibrium mapping will be discussed. Recommended preparation: EPBI 431.

EPBI 457. Genetic Linkage Analysis. 3 Units.

Methods of analyzing human data to detect genetic linkage between disease traits, discreet and continuous, and polymorphic markers. Both model-based maximum likelihood (lod score) and model-free robust methods will be discussed. Additional topics covered will include measures of informativeness, multipoint analysis, numerical methods and mod score analysis. Prereq: EPBI 432. Coreq: EPBI 451.

EPBI 458. Statistical Methods for Clinical Trials. 3 Units.

This course will focus on special statistical methods and philosophical issues in the design and analysis of clinical trials. The emphasis will be on practically important issues that are typically not covered in standard biostatistics courses. Topics will include: randomization techniques, intent-to-treat analysis, analysis of compliance data, equivalency testing, surrogate endpoints, multiple comparisons, sequential testing, and Bayesian methods. Offered as EPBI 458 and MPHP 458. Prereq: EPBI 432 or MPHP 432.

EPBI 459. Longitudinal Data Analysis. 3 Units.

This course will cover statistical methods for the analysis of longitudinal data with an emphasis on application in biological and health research. Topics include exploratory data analysis, response feature analysis, growth curve models, mixed-effects models, generalized estimating equations, and missing data. Prereq: EPBI 432.

EPBI 460. Introduction to Health Services Research. 3 Units.

This survey course provides an introduction to the field of Health Services Research and an overview of key health services research concepts and methods, including conceptual frameworks and models; outcomes research; risk adjustment; disparities in health care; policy/health care systems; cost and cost-effectiveness; quality of life, process improvement; patient satisfaction; patient safety; health economics; statistical modeling techniques; and qualitative research methods. Offered as EPBI 460 and MPHP 460.

EPBI 461. Health Services Research Methods. 3 Units.

This is a course in research methods focusing on practical issues in the conduct of health services research studies. Topics include: an overview of health services research; ethics in health services research; proposal writing and funding; the relationship between theory and research; formulating research questions; specifying study design and study objectives; conceptualizing and defining variables; validity and reliability of measures; scale construction; operationalizing health research relevant variables using observation, self and other report, and secondary analysis; formatting questionnaires; developing analysis plans; choosing data collection methods; sampling techniques and sample size; carrying out studies; preparing data for analysis; and reporting of findings.

EPBI 464. Obesity and Cancer: Views from Molecules to Health Policy. 3 Units.

This course will provide an overview of the components of energy balance (diet, physical activity, resting metabolic rate, dietary induced thermogenesis) and obesity, a consequence of long term positive energy balance, and various types of cancer. Following an overview of energy balance and epidemiological evidence for the obesity epidemic, the course will proceed with an introduction to the cellular and molecular biology of energy metabolism. Then, emerging research on biologically plausible connections and epidemiological associations between obesity and various types of cancer (e.g., colon, breast) will be presented. Finally, interventions targeted at decreasing obesity and improving quality of life in cancer patients will be discussed. The course will be cooperatively-taught by a transdisciplinary team of scientists engaged in research in energy balance and/or cancer. Didactic lectures will be combined with classroom discussion of readings. The paper assignment will involve application of course principles, lectures and readings. Offered as EBPI 464, MPHP 464.

EPBI 465. Design and Measurement in Population Health Sciences. 3 Units.

This course focuses on common design and measurement approaches used in population health sciences research, building on introductions to these approaches provided in pre-requisite courses. Students will develop in-depth knowledge of these approaches through readings, lectures, discussions, class presentations, and hands-on applications. Applications will focus on primary data collection in multiple settings and across varying populations. Prereq: EPBI 440, EPBI 431, EPBI 490, EPBI 432, EPBI 460, EPBI 444 and EPBI 445.

EPBI 466. Promoting Health Across Boundaries. 3 Units.

This course examines the concepts of health and boundary spanning and how the synergy of the two can produce new, effective approaches to promoting health. Students will explore and analyze examples of individuals and organizations boundary spanning for health to identify practice features affecting health, compare and contrast practices and approaches, and evaluate features and context that promote or inhibit boundary spanning and promoting health. Offered as MPHP 466, EPBI 466, SOCI 466, NURS 466 and BETH 466. Prereq: Graduate student status or instructor consent.

EPBI 467. Comparative and Cost Effectiveness Research. 1 Unit.

Comparative effectiveness research is a cornerstone of healthcare reform. It holds the promise of improved health outcomes and cost containment. This course is presented in a convenient 5-day intensive format in June. There are reading assignments due prior to the 1st session. Module A, Days 1-2: Overview of comparative effectiveness research (CER) from a wide array of perspectives: individual provider, institution, insurer, patient, government, and society. Legal, ethical and social issues, as well as implications for population and public health, including health disparities will also be a component. Module B, Day 3: Introduction to the various methods, and their strengths, weaknesses and limitations. How to read and understand CER papers. Module C, Days 4-5: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. This will cover costing, cost analysis, clinical decision analysis, quality of life and cost-effectiveness analysis for comparing alternative health care strategies. Trial version of TreeAge software will be used to create and analyze a simple cost-effectiveness model. The full 3-credit course is for taking all 3 modules. Modules A or C can be taken alone for 1 credit. Modules A and B or Modules B and C can be taken together for a total of 2 credits. Module B cannot be taken alone. If taking for 2 or 3 credits, some combination of term paper, project and/or exam will be due 30 days later. Offered as EPBI 467 and MPHP 467.

EPBI 468. The Continual Improvement of Healthcare: An Interdisciplinary Course. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to be members of interprofessional teams to engage in the continual improvement in health care. The focus is on working together for the benefit of patients and communities to enhance quality and safety. Offered as EPBI 468, MPHP 468, NURS 468.

EPBI 471. Statistical Aspects of Data Mining. 3 Units.

Linear regression, least squares, shrinkage, model selection. Scatterplot smoothing, additive models. Generalized linear and generalized additive models. Regression trees, MARS, projection pursuit regression. Decision theory, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, classification tree. Aggregating models. Bagging and boosting. Prereq: EPBI 442.

EPBI 472. Special Topics in Statistical Genetics. 1 - 4 Unit.

Various topics in statistical genetics will be discussed, depending on student interest and needs. Examples of topics are paternity and zygosity testing, path analysis for genetic epidemiology, the analysis of racial admixture and modeling such phenomena as imprinting and anticipation. The course will consist of four modules. A student may, in consultation with the instructor, elect to take 1 - 4 modules for the corresponding amount of credit. Recommended preparation: EPBI 452.

EPBI 473. Integrative Cancer Biology. 3 Units.

Nonlinear mathematical representations of cancer relevant processes will be analyzed and used to interpret data where available. Stochastic processes will be introduced for tumor cell numbers and DNA double strand breaks. SEER, A-bomb, omic and cytometry data will be analyzed.

EPBI 474. Principles of Practice-Based Network Research. 3 Units.

Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are organizations of community-based healthcare practices that engage in clinical research and practice improvement. In the U.S., there are more than 100 of these dynamic, collaborative organizations that enable the translation of research into practice and practice into research. They also frequently engage in developing and refining methods to improve healthcare quality. This course is designed to provide students with a foundation in PBRN methods and principles, including: introduction to PBRNs, methods for collaborating with community practices, PBRN-building strategies, PBRN data collections methods, statistical issues in network research, community-based participatory research, human subjects' protection issues in PBRNs, quality improvement research in PBRNs, funding for PBRN research, and writing PBRN research findings for publication. Each 2.5 hour class session will feature a lecture followed by a discussion of readings from the literature. Students will develop a PBRN research or quality improvement proposal during the semester. Offered as EBPI 474 and MPHP 474.

EPBI 476. Introduction to sequencing data analysis. 3 Units.

This is a 3 credit-hour cross-disciplinary course focusing on the analysis of high throughput sequencing data. In this course, the following will be covered: (1) basic genetics knowledge, (2) advanced next generation sequencing technology, (3) the use of R and perl, and (4) hands-on experience of analyzing different types of large sequencing data (e.g., SNP calling, chip-seq, RNA-seq, and methyl-seq). Upon completion of the course, the students are expected to (1) master basic knowledge and skills in several different disciplines: genetics, programming, and sequencing data analysis, and (2) be able to make significant contributions to collaborative projects by providing meaningful and accurate analysis for sequencing data. Graduate students from the following departments are encouraged to take this course: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Genetics and Department of Biomedical Engineering. Prereq: EPBI 414 and EPBI 431. Coreq: EPBI 432.

EPBI 477. Internship at Health-Related Government Agencies. 3 Units.

This independent study course will incorporate a one-semester-long internship at health-related government agencies (Ohio Department of Health, Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, or Cleveland City Health Department). The choice of the agency will depend on the student's academic interests and research goals. The objective is to develop a level of familiarity with the organizational and operational aspects of such agencies, and to gain an understanding of agencies' and bureaus' interactions with the legislative body, as well as the processes of developing, implementing, managing, and monitoring health initiative. The instructor and the liaison persons at the agencies will be responsible for planning structured encounters of interns with key administrators and policy makers, and to select a research project, based on the intern's research interests and the agencies' research priorities. Interns will be required to submit a draft of the report to the instructor at the end of the semester. The approved, final report will be submitted to the agency. The project will be evaluated for its methodological soundness and rigor. Students will be required to be at the agency one day a week. Recommended preparation: EPBI 515. Offered as EPBI 477 and MPHP 477.

EPBI 480. Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. 3 Units.

An introduction to statistical inference at an intermediate mathematical level. The concepts of random variables and distributions, discrete and continuous, are reviewed. Topics covered include: expectations, variance, moments, the moment generating function; Bernoulli, binomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, negative binomial, normal, gamma and beta distribution; the central limit theorem; Bayes estimation, maximum likelihood estimators, unbiased estimators, sufficient statistics; sampling distributions (chi-square, t) confidence intervals, Fisher information; hypothesis testing, uniformly most powerful tests and multi-decision problems. Prereq: MATH 122, MATH 124 or MATH 126.

EPBI 481. Theoretical Statistics I. 3 Units.

Topics provide the background for statistical inference. Random variables; distribution and density functions; transformations, expectation. Common univariate distributions. Multiple random variables; joint, marginal and conditional distributions; hierarchical models, covariance. Distributions of sample quantities, distributions of sums of random variables, distributions of order statistics. Methods of statistical inference. Offered as STAT 345, STAT 445, and EPBI 481. Prereq: MATH 122 or MATH 223 or Coreq: EPBI 431.

EPBI 482. Theoretical Statistics II. 3 Units.

Point estimation: maximum likelihood, moment estimators. Methods of evaluating estimators including mean squared error, consistency, "best" unbiased and sufficiency. Hypothesis testing; likelihood ratio and union-intersection tests. Properties of tests including power function, bias. Interval estimation by inversion of test statistics, use of pivotal quantities. Application to regression. Graduate students are responsible for mathematical derivations, and full proofs of principal theorems. Offered as STAT 346, STAT 446 and EPBI 482. Prereq: STAT 345 or STAT 445 or EPBI 481.

EPBI 483. Causal Inference. 3 Units.

This course covers concepts and methods for causal inference in health research. The ideas and approaches introduced in this course take us beyond standard statistical methods such as regression analysis, and have applications in both observational and randomized studies. Specific topics include potential outcomes, causal diagrams, confounding, propensity scores, instrumental variables, treatment noncompliance, mediation analysis, sensitivity analysis, and structural equations models. Prereq: EPBI/MPHP/BIOL 432 or equivalent.

EPBI 484. Geographic Medicine and Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course provides a rigorous problem-centered training in the epidemiology, prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases and, more generally, global health. This is an advanced epidemiology course in which core material will be primarily taught through reading assignments, class discussion, group projects, and class presentations. By taking this course, students will develop a framework for interpreting, assessing, and performing epidemiologic research on issues of global importance. The course will be divided into three team-taught modules: 1) epidemiologic concepts and survey of health topics, 2) helminth epidemiology, and 3) the global health care workforce. Each module is worth 1 credit hour and may be taken separately. Each module will have a separate project and/or exam. The final exam time will be used for group presentations and panel discussion. Active class participation is required through discussions, case studies, and group projects. Course Goal: To master the application of epidemiologic methods to the field of global health. Offered as EPBI 484, INTH 484, and MPHP 484.

EPBI 485. Likelihood Theory & Applications. 3 Units.

This course introduces contemporary likelihood theory and its applications in solving statistical problems. The course will cover maximum likelihood theory; profile-, pseudo-, quasi- likelihood theory, and generalized estimating equations. We will use these likelihood theories in modeling and inference. Although we will rely on statistical theory and mathematics, the course is more about developing statistical thought process in addressing real-world statistical challenges. We will apply computational approaches in understanding estimation and making likelihood based inferences. There will be a midterm project in this course which will allow you to determine independent statistical research working in your own content area. The course is taught at the doctoral level, and much of the theory is illustrated through applications. Prereq: EPBI 482, STAT 446 or equivalent.

EPBI 490. Epidemiology: Introduction to Theory and Methods. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the principles of epidemiology covering the basic methods necessary for population and clinic-based research. Students will be introduced to epidemiologic study designs, measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk estimation, and casual inference (bias, confounding, and interaction) with application of these principles to specific fields of epidemiology. Classes will be a combination of lectures, discussion, and in-class exercises. It is intended for students who have a basic understanding of the principals of human disease and statistics. Offered as EPBI 490 and MPHP 490. Prereq or Coreq: EPBI 431 or requisites not met permission.

EPBI 491. Epidemiology: Case-Control Study Design and Analysis. 3 Units.

This course builds upon EPBI 490 with a comprehensive study of the concepts, principles, and methods of epidemiologic research. The course content specifically focuses on the case-control study design and provides a framework for the design, analysis, and interpretation of case-control studies. Rigorous problem-centered training includes exposure measurement, subject selection, validity, reliability, sample size and power, effect modification, confounding, bias, risk assessment, matching, and logistic regression. Individual and group data projects will be analyzed using SAS statistical software. Offered as EPBI 491 and MPHP 491. Prereq: EPBI/MPHP 490.

EPBI 492. Epidemiology: Cohort Study Design and Analysis. 3 Units.

This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the cohort study. Particular emphasis is placed on cohort study design and cohort data analysis. The course will cover the conceptual framework underlying cohort studies, planning and conducting a cohort study, basic concepts of time, exposure and outcome, and methods in the analysis of longitudinally collected data. Analytic methods covered in the class include, but are not limited to: analysis of age, period, and cohort effects, analysis of incidence rates, analysis of repeated measures, and analysis of time-to-event data. Students will have the opportunity to conduct analysis of data obtained from an actual cohort study using a statistical package of their choice. Offered as EPBI 492 and MPHP 492. Prereq: EPBI 431 and EPBI 490 or equivalents.

EPBI 494. Infectious Disease Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course is a follow-up to EPBI 484: Geographic Medicine and Epidemiology, and focuses on tuberculosis (TB), HIV, and dengue epidemiology. This is an advanced course, focusing on methods and approaches in epidemiology. It will be taught in three 1-credit modules, and students may take each module separately or all 3 together. Each module will have a separate project and/or exam. Module I: Tuberculosis epidemiology. Module II: HIV epidemiology. Module III: Dengue epidemiology. Offered as EPBI 494, INTH 494, and MPHP 494. Prereq: EPBI 490.

EPBI 497. Cancer Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This is a 1-3 credit modular course in cancer epidemiology and is intended for graduate students in epidemiology and biostatistics, environment health, MPH students and MD or MD/PhD students. The course will consist of 3 five-week modules: 1) introduction to cancer epidemiology (study design, etiology and causal inference, cancer statistics and cancer biology); 2) site-specific discussions of various cancers involving natural history of disease and risk factors and etiology and 3) cancer prevention and screening and cancer survivorship. Each of the modules is worth 1 credit hour for a total of 3 credit hours. Offered as: EPBI 497 and MPHP 497.

EPBI 499. Independent Study. 1 - 18 Unit.


EPBI 500. Design and Analysis of Observational Studies. 3 Units.

An observational study investigates treatments, policies or exposures and the effects that they cause, but it differs from an experiment because the investigator cannot control assignment. We introduce appropriate design, data collection and analysis methods for such studies, to help students design and interpret their own studies, and those of others in their field. Technical formalities are minimized, and the presentations will focus on the practical application of the ideas. A course project involves the completion of an observational study, and substantial use of the R statistical software. Topics include randomized experiments and how they differ from observational studies, planning and design for observational studies, adjustments for overt bias, sensitivity analysis, methods for detecting hidden bias, and focus on propensity score methods for selection bias adjustment, including multivariate matching, stratification, weighting and regression adjustments. Recommended preparation: a working knowledge of multiple regression, some familiarity with logistic regression, with some exposure to fitting regression models in R. Offered as CRSP 500 and EPBI 500.

EPBI 501. Research Seminar. 0 Units.

This seminar series includes faculty and guest-lecturer presentations designed to introduce students to on-going research at the University and elsewhere. Seminars will emphasize the application of methods learned in class, as well as the introduction of new methods and tools useful in research.

EPBI 502. Seminar in Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics. 0 Units.

Presentation of original research or recent journal publications by faculty and students.

EPBI 503. Seminar in Biostatistics. 0 Units.

Presentation of original research or recent journal publications by faculty and students in the area of Biostatistics.

EPBI 504. Seminar in Health Care Organization, Outcomes and Policy. 0 Units.

This seminar is designed to enhance the professional development of students in the Health Care Organization, Outcomes and Policy concentration of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and provide them with practical information, experiences and guidance to foster their academic success. Students will 1) develop the ability to critically appraise the health services research literature; 2) gain experience in organizing and delivering oral presentations based on published literature and their own research endeavors; 3) be exposed to role models and receive coaching on career development through lecture and discussion involving experienced faculty from within and outside the division; 4) receive didactic training and hands-on experience with career-related tasks and skills such as grant writing and proposal evaluation, article review, and effective participation in professional meetings; and hear faculty from within and outside the department describe their research. The specific content of the seminar for any given semester will be determined jointly by HCOOP students and faculty. Enrollment is limited to students in the HCOOP division of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

EPBI 505. Seminar in Global Health Epidemiology. 0 Units.

This seminar series examines a broad range of topics related to infectious disease research in international settings. Areas of interest are certain to include epidemiology, bioethics, medical anthropology, pathogenesis, drug resistance, vector biology, cell and molecular biology, vaccine development, diagnosis, and socio-cultural factors contributing to or compromising effective health care delivery in endemic countries. Speakers will include a diverse group of regional faculty and post-doctoral trainees, as well as visiting colleagues from around the world. Students will be asked to read a journal article written by the speaker and then discuss this article with the speaker after their seminar.

EPBI 506. Seminar in Health Behavior and Prevention Research. 0 Units.

This seminar is designed to enhance the academic and professional development of students in the Health Behavior & Prevention Research (HB&PR) concentration in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. The seminar is comprised of a journal club style in which current and classic research literature in health behavior and prevention research is critically evaluated. Also, talks are given by students, faculty, and invited guests. These activities give students the opportunity to improve their ability to: 1) critically evaluate research literature in HB≺ 2) lead effectively a discussion of a research article; and 3) organize and deliver oral presentations based on published literature and their own research endeavors. Some sessions are devoted to didactic training and hands-on experience with career-related tasks and skills such as grant writing, proposal evaluation, and manuscript review. The specific content of the seminar for any given semester will be determined jointly by the students and faculty in HB&PR. Enrollment is required of all PhD students in the HB&PR concentration of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics; however is open to all interested students.

EPBI 508. Ethics, Law, and Epidemiology. 3 Units.

This course is designed to provide epidemiology students with basic knowledge about the ethical and legal principles underlying epidemiological research. This is not a public health law class. Issue papers are assigned on a weekly basis. Each issue paper requires that the student analyze the situation depicted and apply the principles learned. Some issue papers may require that the student draft a proposed rule, a portion of legislation, or a document such as an informed consent form. Other exercises may require that students critique an existing agency rule or legislation. Offered as EPBI 508 and MPHP 508. Prereq: EPBI 490 and EPBI 491 or equivalents.

EPBI 510. Health Disparities. 3 Units.

This course aims to provide theoretical and application tools for students from many disciplinary backgrounds to conduct research and develop interventions to reduce health disparities. The course will be situated contextually within the historical record of the United States, reviewing social, political, economic, cultural, legal, and ethical theories related to disparities in general, with a central focus on health disparities. Several frameworks regarding health disparities will be used for investigating and discussing the empirical evidence on disparities among other subgroups (e.g., the poor, women, uninsured, disabled, and non-English speaking populations) will also be included and discussed. Students will be expected to develop a research proposal (observational, clinical, and/or intervention) rooted in their disciplinary background that will incorporate materials from the various perspectives presented throughout the course, with the objective of developing and reinforcing a more comprehensive approach to current practices within their fields. Offered as CRSP 510, EPBI 510, MPHP 510, NURS 510, and SASS 510.

EPBI 512. Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course provides an overview of the biology, risk factors, and epidemiologic methods related to reproductive and perinatal outcomes. The course will be divided into three one-credit modules: 1) female reproductive health (e.g. puberty, menstrual cycle function, gynecological disorders, menopause); 2) pregnancy (e.g. fecundity, pregnancy complications, birth outcomes, congenital malformations, infant mortality); and 3) male reproductive health (e.g. fecundity, male reproductive malformations, testicular dysgenesis syndrome, erectile dysfunction). The course will be a combination of lectures and class discussions. Recommended preparation: EPBI 490 and EPBI 431 or the equivalent.

EPBI 515. Secondary Analysis of Large Health Care Data Bases. 3 Units.

Development of skills in working with the large-scale secondary data bases generated for research, health care administration/billing, or other purposes. Students will become familiar with the content, strength, and limitations of several data bases; with the logistics of obtaining access to data bases; the strengths and limitations of routinely collected variables; basic techniques for preparing and analyzing secondary data bases and how to apply the techniques to initiate and complete empirical analysis. Recommended preparation: EPBI 414 or equivalent; EPBI 431 or EPBI 460 and EPBI 461 (for HSR students).

EPBI 592. Special Topics in Epidemiology. 1 - 10 Unit.

Short, intensive courses on current research topics, statistical analyses, methodological issues or intervention approaches related to epidemiology, particularly infectious disease, chronic disease, behavioral and social epidemiology. Course hours and requirements vary by topic each semester.

EPBI 601. Master's Project Research. 1 - 18 Unit.


EPBI 602. Practicum. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course focuses on the skills needed to become an effective statistical consultant. The course objectives are: to learn the role of the consulting statistician and the accompanying responsibilities and ethical considerations, to develop the ability to interact with clients and elicit the information required to provide consulting expertise, to learn general strategies for approaching consulting problems that can be applied to a wide range of problems in medical areas, and to develop expertise in areas needed by the consulting biostatistician. These include database architecture, data quality control, record keeping for potential audits, statistical techniques, and report generation.

EPBI 651. Thesis M.S.. 1 - 18 Unit.


EPBI 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 18 Unit.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.

MPHP Courses

MPHP 306. History and Philosophy of Public Health. 3 Units.

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the science and art of public health through an understanding of the history and philosophies that represent its foundation. Students will learn about the essentials of public health and applications of those precepts throughout history and in the present. The course will examine public health case histories and controversies from the past and present, in order to better understand solutions for the future. Offered as MPHP 306 and MPHP 406. Prereq: Enrollment limited to juniors and seniors only.

MPHP 313. Health Education, Communication, and Advocacy. 3 Units.

Historical, sociological, and philosophical factors that have influenced definitions and the practice of health education and health promotion are studied. Advanced concepts in health communication theory will also be explored. This course is designed to education, motivate, and empower undergraduate and graduate students to become advocates for their own health, the health of their peers, and the health of the community. Offered as MPHP 313 and MPHP 413.

MPHP 405. Statistical Methods in Public Health. 3 Units.

This one-semester survey course for public health students is intended to provide the fundamental concepts and methods of biostatistics as applied predominantly to public health problems. The emphasis is on interpretation and concepts rather than calculations. Topics include descriptive statistics; vital statistics; sampling; estimation and significance testing; sample size and power; correlation and regression; spatial and temporal trends; small area analysis; statistical issues in policy development. Examples of statistical methods will be drawn from public health practice. Use of computer statistical packages will be introduced. Prereq: Enrollment limited to MPH students (Plan A or Plan B) and EPBI students only. All others require instructor consent.

MPHP 406. History and Philosophy of Public Health. 3 Units.

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the science and art of public health through an understanding of the history and philosophies that represent its foundation. Students will learn about the essentials of public health and applications of those precepts throughout history and in the present. The course will examine public health case histories and controversies from the past and present, in order to better understand solutions for the future. Offered as MPHP 306 and MPHP 406. Prereq: Enrollment limited to MPH students (Plan A or Plan B) and EPBI students or instructor consent.

MPHP 408. Public Policy and Aging. 3 Units.

Overview of aging and the aged. Concepts in the study of public policy. Policies on aging and conditions that they address. The politics of policies on aging. Emergent trends and issues. Offered as ANTH 498, BETH 496, EPBI 408, GERO 496, HSTY 480, MPHP 408, NURS 479, NURS 579, POSC 480, and SOCI 496.

MPHP 411. Introduction to Health Behavior. 3 Units.

Using a biopsychosocial perspective, an overview of the measurement and modeling of behavioral, social, psychological, and environmental factors related to disease prevention, disease management, and health promotion is provided. Offered as EPBI 411 and MPHP 411. Prereq: Enrollment limited to MPH students (Plan A or Plan B) and EPBI students or consent.

MPHP 413. Health Education, Communication, and Advocacy. 3 Units.

Historical, sociological, and philosophical factors that have influenced definitions and the practice of health education and health promotion are studied. Advanced concepts in health communication theory will also be explored. This course is designed to education, motivate, and empower undergraduate and graduate students to become advocates for their own health, the health of their peers, and the health of the community. Offered as MPHP 313 and MPHP 413.

MPHP 419. Topics in Urban Health in the United States. 3 Units.

This course examines patterns of urban health and disease across the life course among marginalized populations and communities. We will examine the socio-environmental contexts that impact health status (i.e., racism, health disparities, neighborhood context, and environmental stressors). Readings from epidemiology, sociology, and public health literature will provide a foundation for the multiple factors and processes that impact health. Offered as EPBI 419 and MPHP 419.

MPHP 421. Health Economics and Strategy. 3 Units.

This course has evolved from a theory-oriented emphasis to a course that utilizes economic principles to explore such issues as health care pricing, anti-trust enforcement and hospital mergers, choices in adoption of managed care contracts by physician groups, and the like. Instruction style and in-class group project focus on making strategic decisions. The course is directed for a general audience, not just for students and concentration in health systems management. Offered as ECON 421, HSMC 421, and MPHP 421.

MPHP 429. Introduction to Environmental Health. 3 Units.

This is a survey course of environmental health topics including individual, community, population, and global issues. Introduction to risk management, important biological mechanisms, and age and developmental impacts are covered in an overview fashion. A practical inner city home environment experience is included. Offered as EVHS 429 and MPHP 429.

MPHP 431. Statistical Methods I. 3 Units.

Application of statistical techniques with particular emphasis on problems in the biomedical sciences. Basic probability theory, random variables, and distribution functions. Point and interval estimation, regression, and correlation. Problems whose solution involves using packaged statistical programs. First part of year-long sequence. Offered as ANAT 431, BIOL 431, EPBI 431, and MPHP 431.

MPHP 432. Statistical Methods II. 3 Units.

Methods of analysis of variance, regression and analysis of quantitative data. Emphasis on computer solution of problems drawn from the biomedical sciences. Design of experiments, power of tests, and adequacy of models. Offered as BIOL 432, EPBI 432, and MPHP 432. Prereq: EPBI 431 or equivalent.

MPHP 433. Community Interventions and Program Evaluation. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to design, conduct, and assess community-based health interventions and program evaluation. Topics include assessment of need, evaluator/stakeholder relationship, process vs. outcome-based objectives, data collection, assessment of program objective achievement based on process and impact, cost-benefit analyses, and preparing the evaluation report to stakeholders. Recommended preparation: EPBI 490, EPBI 431, or MPHP 405. Offered as EPBI 433 and MPHP 433. Prereq: MPHP 411

MPHP 439. Public Health Management and Policy. 3 Units.

This course is designed to introduce students to the basics of health policy-making and includes a background on the basic structure and components of the US Health Care System (such as organization, delivery and financing). It will also cover introductory concepts in public health management, including the role of the manager, organizational design and control, and accountability. We will address relevant legal, political and ethical issues using case examples. At the end of the course, students will understand how health policy is developed and implemented in various contexts, and the challenges facing system-wide efforts at reform. This is a required course for the MPH degree. Grades will be based on a series of assignments. Prereq: Enrollment limited to MPH students (Plan A or Plan B) and EPBI Students or instructor consent.

MPHP 442. Biostatistics II. 3 Units.

This course deals with the basic concepts and applications of nonparametric statistics. Topics will include distribution-free statistics, one sample rank test, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests, one sample and two sample U-statistics, asymptotic relative efficiency of tests, distribution-free confidence intervals, point estimation and linear rank statistics. Recommended preparation: EPBI 441. Offered as EPBI 442 and MPHP 442.

MPHP 447. Global Health: Outbreak Investigation in Real-Time. 3 Units.

This course provides a trans-cultural, trans-disciplinary, multimedia learning experience by analyzing historical and real-time data from the annual dengue endemics and sporadic epidemics in Puerto Rico and Brazil. A rigorous problem-centered training in the epidemiology, prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases using real-time and historical surveillance data of endemic and epidemic Dengue in Bahia, Brazil. This is an advanced epidemiology course in which core material will be primarily taught through reading assignments, class discussion, group projects, and class presentations. The course will utilize the online web-based communication and learning technology to create a single classroom between the CWRU and international partners with unique and complementary skills. In addition to joint classroom lectures across sites, student groups will also perform smaller-scale videoconference meetings for assigned group projects, thus creating strong international connections for the students, faculty, and our institutions. Note: Due to the complexities of time zones for this international course, the course will begin at 8:00a.m. until the U.S.A. adjusts clocks for Daylight Savings Time (unlike Brazil). Therefore, classes after the second week of March will begin at 9:00a.m. Offered as: EPBI 447, INTH 447, and MPHP 447.

MPHP 450. Clinical Trials and Intervention Studies. 3 Units.

Issues in the design, organization, and operation of randomized, controlled clinical trials and intervention studies. Emphasis on long-term multicenter trials. Topics include legal and ethical issues in the design; application of concepts of controls, masking, and randomization; steps required for quality data collection; monitoring for evidence of adverse or beneficial treatment effects; elements of organizational structure; sample size calculations and data analysis procedures; and common mistakes. Recommended preparation: EPBI 431 or consent of instructor. Offered as EPBI 450 and MPHP 450.

MPHP 451. Principles of Genetic Epidemiology. 3 Units.

A survey of the basic principles, concepts and methods of the discipline of genetic epidemiology, which focuses on the role of genetic factors in human disease and their interaction with environmental and cultural factors. Many important human disorders appear to exhibit a genetic component; hence the integrated approaches of genetic epidemiology bring together epidemiologic and human genetic perspectives in order to answer critical questions about human disease. Methods of inference based upon data from individuals, pairs of relatives, and pedigrees will be considered. Offered as EPBI 451, GENE 451, and MPHP 451.

MPHP 456. Health Policy and Management Decisions. 3 Units.

This seminar course combines broad health care policy issue analysis with study of the implications for specific management decisions in organizations. This course is intended as an applied, practical course where the policy context is made relevant to the individual manager. Offered as HSMC 456 and MPHP 456.

MPHP 458. Statistical Methods for Clinical Trials. 3 Units.

This course will focus on special statistical methods and philosophical issues in the design and analysis of clinical trials. The emphasis will be on practically important issues that are typically not covered in standard biostatistics courses. Topics will include: randomization techniques, intent-to-treat analysis, analysis of compliance data, equivalency testing, surrogate endpoints, multiple comparisons, sequential testing, and Bayesian methods. Offered as EPBI 458 and MPHP 458.

MPHP 460. Introduction to Health Services Research. 3 Units.

This survey course provides an introduction to the field of Health Services Research and an overview of key health services research concepts and methods, including conceptual frameworks and models; outcomes research; risk adjustment; disparities in health care; policy/health care systems; cost and cost-effectiveness; quality of life, process improvement; patient satisfaction; patient safety; health economics; statistical modeling techniques; and qualitative research methods. Offered as EPBI 460 and MPHP 460.

MPHP 464. Obesity and Cancer: Views from Molecules to Health Policy. 3 Units.

This course will provide an overview of the components of energy balance (diet, physical activity, resting metabolic rate, dietary induced thermogenesis) and obesity, a consequence of long term positive energy balance, and various types of cancer. Following an overview of energy balance and epidemiological evidence for the obesity epidemic, the course will proceed with an introduction to the cellular and molecular biology of energy metabolism. Then, emerging research on biologically plausible connections and epidemiological associations between obesity and various types of cancer (e.g., colon, breast) will be presented. Finally, interventions targeted at decreasing obesity and improving quality of life in cancer patients will be discussed. The course will be cooperatively-taught by a transdisciplinary team of scientists engaged in research in energy balance and/or cancer. Didactic lectures will be combined with classroom discussion of readings. The paper assignment will involve application of course principles, lectures and readings. Offered as EBPI 464, MPHP 464.

MPHP 466. Promoting Health Across Boundaries. 3 Units.

This course examines the concepts of health and boundary spanning and how the synergy of the two can produce new, effective approaches to promoting health. Students will explore and analyze examples of individuals and organizations boundary spanning for health to identify practice features affecting health, compare and contrast practices and approaches, and evaluate features and context that promote or inhibit boundary spanning and promoting health. Offered as MPHP 466, EPBI 466, SOCI 466, NURS 466 and BETH 466. Prereq: Graduate student status or instructor consent.

MPHP 467. Comparative and Cost Effectiveness Research. 1 Unit.

Comparative effectiveness research is a cornerstone of healthcare reform. It holds the promise of improved health outcomes and cost containment. This course is presented in a convenient 5-day intensive format in June. There are reading assignments due prior to the 1st session. Module A, Days 1-2: Overview of comparative effectiveness research (CER) from a wide array of perspectives: individual provider, institution, insurer, patient, government, and society. Legal, ethical and social issues, as well as implications for population and public health, including health disparities will also be a component. Module B, Day 3: Introduction to the various methods, and their strengths, weaknesses and limitations. How to read and understand CER papers. Module C, Days 4-5: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. This will cover costing, cost analysis, clinical decision analysis, quality of life and cost-effectiveness analysis for comparing alternative health care strategies. Trial version of TreeAge software will be used to create and analyze a simple cost-effectiveness model. The full 3-credit course is for taking all 3 modules. Modules A or C can be taken alone for 1 credit. Modules A and B or Modules B and C can be taken together for a total of 2 credits. Module B cannot be taken alone. If taking for 2 or 3 credits, some combination of term paper, project and/or exam will be due 30 days later. Offered as EPBI 467 and MPHP 467.

MPHP 468. The Continual Improvement of Healthcare: An Interdisciplinary Course. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to be members of interprofessional teams to engage in the continual improvement in health care. The focus is on working together for the benefit of patients and communities to enhance quality and safety. Offered as EPBI 468, MPHP 468, NURS 468.

MPHP 472. Leadership and Advocacy in Urban Community Health. 3 Units.

Teams of medical and MPH students will work with the Children's Defense Fund and Cleveland neighborhood and nonprofit organizations using principles of community organization to articulate shared stories and hopes for the health and well-being of community where both the students and the organizations live and serve. While the course begins with dialogue, it will end with specific activities (performed by the students and community together) to improve community health, and a logic model for evaluating and expanding those activities. As reflection is a critical skill for leadership, the experiences in community organizing and advocacy will be counterposed with reflection on learning and will include independent reading and writing and small group discussions. Readings about leadership, advocacy and community health (particularly in cities) will include diverse perspectives and genre including work from Lao Tzu, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Shakespeare, Saul Alinsky and others. Prereq: Enrolled in MPH or JD program.

MPHP 474. Principles of Practice-Based Network Research. 3 Units.

Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are organizations of community-based healthcare practices that engage in clinical research and practice improvement. In the U.S., there are more than 100 of these dynamic, collaborative organizations that enable the translation of research into practice and practice into research. They also frequently engage in developing and refining methods to improve healthcare quality. This course is designed to provide students with a foundation in PBRN methods and principles, including: introduction to PBRNs, methods for collaborating with community practices, PBRN-building strategies, PBRN data collections methods, statistical issues in network research, community-based participatory research, human subjects' protection issues in PBRNs, quality improvement research in PBRNs, funding for PBRN research, and writing PBRN research findings for publication. Each 2.5 hour class session will feature a lecture followed by a discussion of readings from the literature. Students will develop a PBRN research or quality improvement proposal during the semester. Offered as EBPI 474 and MPHP 474.

MPHP 475. Management of Disasters Due to Nature, War, or Terror. 3 Units.

The purpose of this course is to make participants aware of the special needs of children and families in disaster situations and understand public health approaches to address these needs. The learning objectives for this course are: 1) Identify the most important problems and priorities for children in disaster situations, 2) Identify the organizations most frequently involved in providing assistance in disaster situations and define their roles and strengths, 3) Describe the reasons why children are among the most vulnerable in disaster events, 4) Conduct emergency nutritional assessments for children, 5) Develop health profiles on displaced children and plan interventions based on results, 6) Define common psychosocial issues of children and the means to address them, 7) List basic points of international law including the Geneva Convention that relate to all persons involved in disaster situations, 8) List important security issues, 9) Appreciate ethical issues involved in disaster situations and employ skills of cross cultural communication, 10) Recognize and respond to special issues for children involved in biological and chemical terrorist attacks.

MPHP 477. Internship at Health-Related Government Agencies. 3 Units.

This independent study course will incorporate a one-semester-long internship at health-related government agencies (Ohio Department of Health, Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, or Cleveland City Health Department). The choice of the agency will depend on the student's academic interests and research goals. The objective is to develop a level of familiarity with the organizational and operational aspects of such agencies, and to gain an understanding of agencies' and bureaus' interactions with the legislative body, as well as the processes of developing, implementing, managing, and monitoring health initiative. The instructor and the liaison persons at the agencies will be responsible for planning structured encounters of interns with key administrators and policy makers, and to select a research project, based on the intern's research interests and the agencies' research priorities. Interns will be required to submit a draft of the report to the instructor at the end of the semester. The approved, final report will be submitted to the agency. The project will be evaluated for its methodological soundness and rigor. Students will be required to be at the agency one day a week. Recommended preparation: EPBI 515. Offered as EPBI 477 and MPHP 477.

MPHP 478. Assessment and Application of Health Behavior Principles to Clinical Prevention. 3 Units.

To develop an understanding of the basic principles of health behavior and related theory in an effort to better inform the assessment and delivery of clinical prevention and health promotion to both individuals and populations.

MPHP 479. Teaching Population Health and Community Assessment. 3 Units.

This course allows students to function in a teaching and leadership role in population health education and conduct of a multilevel community assessment of underserved neighborhoods in Cleveland. During the course, students will function as facilitators of small groups (8 to 9 students) of first year medical students during the Population Health block of their medical curriculum. Community assessment, also known as the "Extensive Care Unit" project will include 1) semi-structured interviews with Key Community Contacts; 2) an environmental scan of the assigned neighborhood; 3) analysis of publicly available data; and 4) analysis of youth risk behavior survey data. All data analysis will be mentored by course faculty. In addition, students will be involved with facilitation of a pandemic influenza tabletop exercise. Students will participate in an intensive training prior to facilitation responsibilities; and each week will both debrief the community assessment sessions and plan for the next weekly session.

MPHP 480. Health Systems Management in Primary Care. 1 Unit.

Goal - To develop a deeper understanding of components of the health system that influence and provide shape to the environment in which health care is delivered and about the implementation of systems-based strategies that foster better processes and/or outcomes of health care delivery.

MPHP 481. A Primer of Dental Public Health. 3 Units.

This course introduces students to principles and issues in dental public health. In addition to the principles, students will learn about contemporary issues impacting dental public health, oral epidemiology , dental health care systems, and oral health promotion. To facilitate the understanding of oral health promotion, students will gain a basic understanding of the common oral diseases. Prereq: MPHP 306 or MPHP 406 and MPHP 490 or EPBI 490.

MPHP 482. Qualitative and Mixed Methods in Public Health. 3 Units.

The purpose of this course is three-fold - 1) to provide students with an understanding of the fundamentals of qualitative and mixed methods, including the history and philosophy of these methods, 2) to provide students with an understanding of and skill set associated with the use of qualitative and mixed methods in public health research, and 3) to provide students with an introduction to local professionals engaged in qualitative and mixed methods public health research. Prerequisites include MPHP 405 and 483 (or equivalents) and current status as an MPH student. Prereq: MPHP 405, MPHP 483 and current MPHP student.

MPHP 483. Introduction to Epidemiology for Public Health Practice. 3 Units.

This course is designed to introduce the basic principles and methods of epidemiology. Epidemiology has been referred to as the basic science for public health. Application of epidemiologic principles is critical to disease prevention, as well as in the development and evaluation of public policy. The course will emphasize basic methods (study design, measures of disease occurrence, measures of association, and causality) necessary for epidemiologic research. It is intended for students who have a basic understanding of the principals of human disease as well as statistics. Prereq: Must be an MPHP Plan A or MPHP Plan B, or EPBI student in order to enroll in the course.

MPHP 484. Geographic Medicine and Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course provides a rigorous problem-centered training in the epidemiology, prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases and, more generally, global health. This is an advanced epidemiology course in which core material will be primarily taught through reading assignments, class discussion, group projects, and class presentations. By taking this course, students will develop a framework for interpreting, assessing, and performing epidemiologic research on issues of global importance. The course will be divided into three team-taught modules: 1) epidemiologic concepts and survey of health topics, 2) helminth epidemiology, and 3) the global health care workforce. Each module is worth 1 credit hour and may be taken separately. Each module will have a separate project and/or exam. The final exam time will be used for group presentations and panel discussion. Active class participation is required through discussions, case studies, and group projects. Course Goal: To master the application of epidemiologic methods to the field of global health. Offered as EPBI 484, INTH 484, and MPHP 484.

MPHP 485. Adolescent Development. 3 Units.

Adolescent Development can be viewed as the overriding framework for approaching disease prevention and health promotion for this age group. This course will review the developmental tasks of adolescence and identify the impact of adolescent development on youth risk behaviors. It will build a conceptual and theoretical framework through which to address and change adolescent behavior to promote health.

MPHP 490. Epidemiology: Introduction to Theory and Methods. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the principles of epidemiology covering the basic methods necessary for population and clinic-based research. Students will be introduced to epidemiologic study designs, measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk estimation, and casual inference (bias, confounding, and interaction) with application of these principles to specific fields of epidemiology. Classes will be a combination of lectures, discussion, and in-class exercises. It is intended for students who have a basic understanding of the principals of human disease and statistics. Offered as EPBI 490 and MPHP 490. Prereq or Coreq: EPBI 431 or requisites not met permission.

MPHP 491. Epidemiology: Case-Control Study Design and Analysis. 3 Units.

This course builds upon EPBI 490 with a comprehensive study of the concepts, principles, and methods of epidemiologic research. The course content specifically focuses on the case-control study design and provides a framework for the design, analysis, and interpretation of case-control studies. Rigorous problem-centered training includes exposure measurement, subject selection, validity, reliability, sample size and power, effect modification, confounding, bias, risk assessment, matching, and logistic regression. Individual and group data projects will be analyzed using SAS statistical software. Offered as EPBI 491 and MPHP 491. Prereq: EPBI/MPHP 490.

MPHP 492. Epidemiology: Cohort Study Design and Analysis. 3 Units.

This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the cohort study. Particular emphasis is placed on cohort study design and cohort data analysis. The course will cover the conceptual framework underlying cohort studies, planning and conducting a cohort study, basic concepts of time, exposure and outcome, and methods in the analysis of longitudinally collected data. Analytic methods covered in the class include, but are not limited to: analysis of age, period, and cohort effects, analysis of incidence rates, analysis of repeated measures, and analysis of time-to-event data. Students will have the opportunity to conduct analysis of data obtained from an actual cohort study using a statistical package of their choice. Offered as EPBI 492 and MPHP 492. Prereq: EPBI 431 and EPBI 490 or equivalent.

MPHP 494. Infectious Disease Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course is a follow-up to EPBI 484: Geographic Medicine and Epidemiology, and focuses on tuberculosis (TB), HIV, and dengue epidemiology. This is an advanced course, focusing on methods and approaches in epidemiology. It will be taught in three 1-credit modules, and students may take each module separately or all 3 together. Each module will have a separate project and/or exam. Module I: Tuberculosis epidemiology. Module II: HIV epidemiology. Module III: Dengue epidemiology. Offered as EPBI 494, INTH 494, and MPHP 494. Prereq: EPBI 490.

MPHP 497. Cancer Epidemiology. 1 - 3 Unit.

This is a 1-3 credit modular course in cancer epidemiology and is intended for graduate students in epidemiology and biostatistics, environment health, MPH students and MD or MD/PhD students. The course will consist of 3 five-week modules: 1) introduction to cancer epidemiology (study design, etiology and causal inference, cancer statistics and cancer biology); 2) site-specific discussions of various cancers involving natural history of disease and risk factors and etiology and 3) cancer prevention and screening and cancer survivorship. Each of the modules is worth 1 credit hour for a total of 3 credit hours. Offered as: EPBI 497 and MPHP 497.

MPHP 499. Independent Study. 1 - 18 Unit.


MPHP 506. The Future of Public Health. 0 - 3 Units.

This seminar course is meant to provide an orientation to the Master of Public Health (MPH) Program at Case Western Reserve University's (CWRU) School of Medicine, essential topics related to the future of public health as a professional field, and local public health efforts in the broader campus and Cleveland communities. This seminar is designed for first year MPH students. Prereq: MPHP Plan A or Plan B student status.

MPHP 507. Building a Public Health Project. 0 - 3 Units.

This course is designed to walk students through the process of creating a Capstone Project, form "idea to field." Specific topics to be covered include: identifying a project, creating a project plan, how to effectively work in the community, program design, evaluation, ethical issues in community research, creating an analytic plan, survey design, and writing results. Major class projects include completing an IRB application or completing a grant application for your own project. The last two weeks of class center around attending and discussing the Capstone Presentations of graduating students. Prereq: MPHP Plan A or Plan B student status.

MPHP 508. Ethics, Law, and Epidemiology. 3 Units.

This course is designed to provide epidemiology students with basic knowledge about the ethical and legal principles underlying epidemiological research. This is not a public health law class. Issue papers are assigned on a weekly basis. Each issue paper requires that the student analyze the situation depicted and apply the principles learned. Some issue papers may require that the student draft a proposed rule, a portion of legislation, or a document such as an informed consent form. Other exercises may require that students critique an existing agency rule or legislation. Offered as EPBI 508 and MPHP 508. Prereq: EPBI 490 and EPBI 491 or equivalent.

MPHP 510. Health Disparities. 3 Units.

This course aims to provide theoretical and application tools for students from many disciplinary backgrounds to conduct research and develop interventions to reduce health disparities. The course will be situated contextually within the historical record of the United States, reviewing social, political, economic, cultural, legal, and ethical theories related to disparities in general, with a central focus on health disparities. Several frameworks regarding health disparities will be used for investigating and discussing the empirical evidence on disparities among other subgroups (e.g., the poor, women, uninsured, disabled, and non-English speaking populations) will also be included and discussed. Students will be expected to develop a research proposal (observational, clinical, and/or intervention) rooted in their disciplinary background that will incorporate materials from the various perspectives presented throughout the course, with the objective of developing and reinforcing a more comprehensive approach to current practices within their fields. Offered as CRSP 510, EPBI 510, MPHP 510, NURS 510, and SASS 510.

MPHP 532. Health Care Information Systems. 3 Units.

This course covers concepts, techniques and technologies for providing information systems to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of health care organizations. Offered as HSMC 432, MIDS 432, MPHP 532 and NUNI 432.

MPHP 650. Public Health Practicum. 1 - 3 Unit.

The Public Health Practicum is an integral component of the MPH curriculum, allowing students to apply, develop, and refine their conceptual knowledge and skills as part of a planned, supervised, and evaluated community-based experience. The Practicum is designed to move students beyond the walls of academia, to understand the political, economic, social, and organizational contexts within which public health activities are conducted. To complete the Practicum, students must complete three credits of MPHP 650, dedicating at least 120 hours to a substantial public health experience, and attend Community Health Research and Practice (CHRP) group meetings. Prereq: Complete at least 9 credit hours in the MPH program and be in good academic standing.

MPHP 652. Public Health Capstone Experience. 1 - 9 Unit.

Public health field practicum, involving a placement at a community-based field site, and a Master's essay. The field placement will provide students with the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills acquired through their Master of Public Health academic program to a problem involving the health of the community. Students will learn to communicate with target groups in an effective manner; to identify ethical, social, and cultural issues relating to public health policies, research, and interventions; to identify the process by which decisions are made within the agency or organization; and to identify and coordinate use of resources at the placement site. The Master's essay represents the culminating experience required for the degree program and may take the form of a research thesis, an evaluation study, or an intervention study. Each student is required to formally present the experience and research findings. In any semester in which a student is registered for MPHP 652 credit, it is required that the student attend the Community Health Research and Practice (CHRP) group at a minimum of two sessions per 3 credits. CHRP is held once a week for approximately an hour and a half for the duration of fall, spring, and summer semesters. MPHP 652 credit is available only to Master of Public Health students.