2013-14 General Bulletin

This is an archived copy of the 2013-14 bulletin. To access the most recent version of the bulletin, please visit http://bulletin.case.edu.

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Room E-524, School of Medicine
http://physiology.case.edu/
Phone: 216.368.2084
Walter F. Boron, MD, PhD, Chair

Jean Davis , Coordinator

The Department of Physiology and Biophysics at Case is a multidisciplinary department that takes great pride in its history of conducting research and training graduate students.  The department includes 20 Primary and 33 Secondary faculty members, more than 25 post-doctoral associates, and 34, full-time PhD, MD/PhD, and Master of Science degree students. The training programs are designed to provide a mentored training environment that maximizes faculty-student interaction.

As outlined below, the department offers PhD, MD/PhD and Master of Science degrees. These programs are tailored to prepare students for successful careers in biomedical, pharmaceutical and industrial research. The department offers multiple graduate-level programs, each of which uses state-of-the-art molecular, cell biology, and biophysical approaches to study physiological questions at a variety of different organizational levels. The goal is to provide an outstanding training opportunity. The major goals of the PhD and Tech Masters programs are to provide students with a broad knowledge base in organ systems and integrated physiology and in-depth expertise and outstanding research potential in the fields of cellular and molecular physiology and molecular and cellular biophysics. These goals are accomplished using a series of foundation and advanced topic courses, skill development courses, laboratory rotations and thesis research. The MS in Medical Physiology program is a post-baccalaureate program designed to help students prepare for admission to medical, dental, pharmacy, or veterinary school or for opportunities to work in the biotechnology industry. 

Masters Degrees 

The Master's Program in Medical Physiology is designed for students with at least a bachelor's degree in a chemical, physical, or biological science who are seeking advanced training in the physiological sciences, typically in preparation for admission to a professional medical program (e.g. Medical School, Dental School). The program is flexible in duration. It can take as little as 1 year (2 semesters, 9 months) to complete the required 30 credit hours of course work. However, students who wish to decompress the program can take 14 months or more to complete the requirements. Core courses and flexible electives allow students to focus their work in key areas of medical physiology, including Anatomy, Biochemistry, or Pharmacology. Graduates of the Medical Physiology Master's Program also can pursue careers in basic and clinical research, research administration, teaching or management in academia, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, private research institutions, government science or regulatory agencies, or medicine and health care. 

MS Medical Physiology - Type B Non-Thesis Option

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1  
Medical Physiology I (PHOL 481)6  
Translational Physiology I (PHOL 483)2  
Elective6  
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1
Medical Physiology II (PHOL 482)  6
Translational Physiology II (PHOL 484)  2
Independent Study (PHOL 451)  1 - 18
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)  1
Elective  3
Year Total: 15 14-31
 
Total Units in Sequence:  29-46

 

MS Physiology - Type A Thesis Option

The Department of Physiology and Biophysics encourages research staff members to expand their critical research knowledge and skills by enrolling in our Master’s of Science in Physiology and Biophysics program.  This Tech Master’s Program, is specifically designed for staff working full time.  Each employer has their own policy on allowing staff to take classes and enroll in graduate programs.  CWRU’s policy is to allow staff, with their supervisor’s permission, to take up to 6 credit hours per term, with tuition being covered by CWRU as part of the employee benefit package.  Staff are expected to make up the time they spend in class during the day after hours.   

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Cell Structure and Function (PHOL 432)3  
Proteins and Nucleic Acids (PHOL 456)3  
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1  
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)3  
Membrane Physiology (PHOL 468)3  
Cell Signaling (PHOL 466)  3
Physiology of Organ Systems (PHOL 480)  4
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)  1
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)  3
Elective  3
Year Total: 13 15
 
Total Units in Sequence:  28

 

MD/MS Biomedical Investigation - Physiology Track

This track offers training in physiology and biomedical laboratory technology, including emphasis on mentored independent research training which includes both laboratory experience and formal course work in modern laboratory methodology and instrumentation.

Students in Physiology and Biotechnology track must complete:

PHOL 498Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar1
PHOL 601Research1 - 18
IBIS 600Exam in Biomedical Investigation0

And 9 credits from the following course list:

PHOL 432Cell Structure and Function3
PHOL 456Proteins and Nucleic Acids3
PHOL 466Cell Signaling3
PHOL 468Membrane Physiology3
PHOL 480Physiology of Organ Systems4
PHOL 530Technology in Physiological Sciences3

 

 

PhD in Physiology and Biophysics

The Physiology and Biophysics Graduate Program provides comprehensive training leading to the PhD degree and MD/PhD degrees. This program has three tracks of study with emphasis on Cell and Molecular PhysiologyStructural Biology and Biophysics, and Organ Systems Physiology. Admissions to the Physiology and Biophysics program may be obtained in the integrated Biomedical Sciences Training Program, by direct admission to the department or via the MSTP program.

To earn a PhD in Physiology and Biophysics,  a student must complete rotations in at least three laboratories followed by selection of a research advisor, and complete Core and Elective coursework including responsible conduct of research as described in the course of study, below. Students who previously completed relevant coursework, for example with a MS, may petition to complete alternative courses. Each graduate program follows the overall regulations established and described in CWRU Graduate Studies and documented to the Regents of the State of Ohio. Completion of the PhD degree will require 36 hours of coursework (24 hours of which are graded) and 18 hours of PHOL 701 Dissertation Ph.D..

In addition, each student must successfully complete a qualifier examination for advancement to candidacy in the form of a short grant proposal with oral defense. The qualifier is generally completed in the summer after year two. During the dissertation period, students are expected to meet twice a year with the thesis committee, present seminars in the department, and fulfill journal publication requirements. At the completion of the program, successful defense of a doctoral dissertation is required. Throughout the doctoral training, students are expected to be enthusiastic participants in seminars, journal clubs, and research meetings in the lab and program. 

Plan of Study for PhD in Cell and Molecular Physiology *

§

  Please also see Graduate Studies Academic Requirements for Doctoral Degrees

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453)4    
Membrane Physiology (PHOL 468)3    
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)3    
Proteins and Nucleic Acids (PHOL 456)3    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)  3  
Physiology of Organ Systems (PHOL 480)  4  
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)  3  
Cell Signaling (PHOL 466)  3  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)    1
Year Total: 14 14 1
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Research (PHOL 601)1-9    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Research (PHOL 601)  1-9  
Year Total: 2-10 2-10  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Dissertation Ph.D. (PHOL 701)1-9    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PHOL 701)  1-9  
Year Total: 2-10 2-10  
 
Total Units in Sequence:   37-69

 

*

After passing qualifying exam - full-time thesis research (701) - 18 total credit hours total

 

Plan of Study for PhD in Structural Biology and Biophysics *

 

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453)4    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Proteins and Nucleic Acids (PHOL 456)3    
Membrane Physiology (PHOL 468)3    
Protein Biophysics (PHOL 475)  3  
Cellular Biophysics (PHOL 476)  4  
Elective  3  
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)  3  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)    1
Year Total: 11 14 1
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Research (PHOL 601)1-9    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Research (PHOL 601)  1-9  
Year Total: 2-10 2-10  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Dissertation Ph.D. (PHOL 701)1-9    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PHOL 701)  1-9  
Year Total: 2-10 2-10  
 
Total Units in Sequence:   34-66

 

 

*

After passing qualifying exam - full-time thesis research (701) - 18 total credit hours total

 

Program of Study for PhD in Organ Systems and Integrated Physiology *

  

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453)4    
Proteins and Nucleic Acids (PHOL 456)3    
Membrane Physiology (PHOL 468)3    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)3    
Physiology of Organ Systems (PHOL 480)  4  
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Laboratory Research Rotation (PHOL 505)  3  
Cardiovascular Physiology (PHOL 514)  3  
Cardio-Respiratory Physiology (PHOL 519)  3  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)    1
Year Total: 14 14 1
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Research (PHOL 601)1-9    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Research (PHOL 601)  1-9  
Year Total: 2-10 2-10  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)1    
Dissertation Ph.D. (PHOL 701)1-9    
Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar (PHOL 498)  1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PHOL 701)  1-9  
Year Total: 2-10 2-10  
 
Total Units in Sequence:   37-69

 

*

After passing qualifying exam - full-time thesis research (701) - 18 total credit hours total

 

Courses

PHOL 351. Independent Study. 1 - 6 Unit.

This course is a guided program of study in physiology textbooks, reviews, and original articles. Guided laboratory projects to reproduce and extend classical physiological experiments are offered to the undergraduate science major. This course is being offered in conjunction with the Graduate level course PHOL 451. Students are required to consult with the faculty member whose work they have interest in and plan their individual experience.

PHOL 398. Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar. 1 Unit.

Weekly one-hour reviews from invited speakers describing their research. Students will present literature reviews or summaries of their research.

PHOL 412. Membrane Transport Processes. 3 Units.

Membranes and membrane transporters are absolutely required for all cells to take up nutrient, maintain membrane potential and efflux toxins. This course will consider the classification and structure of membrane transport proteins and channels, examine the common mechanistic features of all systems and the specific features of different classes of transporter. Understanding the physiological integration of transport processes into cell homeostasis and consideration of transporters and channels as drug targets will be a goal. Course format is minimal lecture, primarily student presentations of primary literature papers. Offered as PHOL 412, PHRM 412. Prereq: CBIO 453 and CBIO 455.

PHOL 419. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology. 3 Units.

Applications of probability and stochastic processes to biological systems. Mathematical topics will include: introduction to discrete and continuous probability spaces (including numerical generation of pseudo random samples from specified probability distributions), Markov processes in discrete and continuous time with discrete and continuous sample spaces, point processes including homogeneous and inhomogeneous Poisson processes and Markov chains on graphs, and diffusion processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Biological topics will be determined by the interests of the students and the instructor. Likely topics include: stochastic ion channels, molecular motors and stochastic ratchets, actin and tubulin polymerization, random walk models for neural spike trains, bacterial chemotaxis, signaling and genetic regulatory networks, and stochastic predator-prey dynamics. The emphasis will be on practical simulation and analysis of stochastic phenomena in biological systems. Numerical methods will be developed using both MATLAB and the R statistical package. Student projects will comprise a major part of the course. Offered as BIOL 319, EECS 319, MATH 319, BIOL 419, EBME 419, and PHOL 419.

PHOL 430. Advanced Methods in Structural Biology. 1 - 6 Unit.

The course is designed for graduate students who will be focusing on one or more methods of structural biology in their thesis project. This course is divided into 3-6 sections (depending on demand). The topics offered will include X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, cryo-electron microscopy, and computational and design methods. Students can select one or more modules. Modules will be scheduled so that students can take all the offered modules in one semester. Each section is given in 5 weeks and is worth 1 credit. Each section covers one area of structural biology at an advanced level such that the student is prepared for graduate level research in that topic. Offered as BIOC 430, CHEM 430, PHOL 430, and PHRM 430.

PHOL 432. Cell Structure and Function. 3 Units.

This course provides knowledge regarding cell structure and function, chiefly in mammalian cells but also in relevant model systems. The basic structure of the cell is discussed, as are various systems that regulate this structure. Topics to be covered include DNA transcription, translation and protein synthesis, intracellular transport, cell interaction with the external environment, cell cycle regulation, cell death and differentiation, signal transduction, and cell specialization and organization into tissues. The course emphasizes lectures and problem-based discussions with an emphasis on faculty-directed student self-learning. The major goals of this course are to provide students with a working knowledge of the cell to facilitate understanding of the scientific literature, and to familiarize students with current techniques in cell biology.

PHOL 451. Independent Study. 1 - 18 Unit.

Guided program of study using physiology textbooks, research reviews, and original research articles. An independent laboratory research project may also be included.

PHOL 456. Proteins and Nucleic Acids. 3 Units.

The goal of this course is to provide a basic working knowledge of protein structure/function and molecular biology. The course begins with a discussion of protein structure and enzyme catalysis followed by protein purification and characterization. The course then addresses concepts relating to the application of modern molecular biology techniques. Students are taught how to clone genes and use these clones in animal and cell-based studies. The overall goal is to provide students with an understanding of proteins and genetic approaches that can be used in experimental work and to facilitate comprehension of the scientific literature. Offered as BIOL 457 and PHOL 456.

PHOL 466. Cell Signaling. 3 Units.

This is an advanced lecture/journal/discussion format course that covers cell signaling mechanisms. Included are discussions of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, growth factor receptor kinases, cytokine receptors, G protein-coupled receptors, steroid receptors, heterotrimeric G proteins, ras family GTPases, second messenger cascades, protein kinase cascades, second messenger regulation of transcription factors, microtubule-based motility, actin/myosin-based motility, signals for regulation of cell cycle, signals for regulation of apoptosis. Offered as CLBY 466 and PHOL 466 and PHRM 466.

PHOL 467. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467.

PHOL 468. Membrane Physiology. 3 Units.

This student-guided discussion/journal course focuses on biological membranes. Topics discussed include thermodynamics and kinetics of membrane transport, oxidative phosphorylation and bioenergetics, electro-physiology of excitable membranes, and whole and single channel electrophysiology, homeostasis and pH regulation, volume and calcium regulation. Offered as CLBY 468 and PHOL 468.

PHOL 475. Protein Biophysics. 3 Units.

This course focuses on in-depth understanding of the molecular biophysics of proteins. Structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of protein function and structure-function relationships will be considered at the advanced conceptual level. The application of these theoretical frameworks will be illustrated with examples from the literature and integration of biophysical knowledge with description at the cellular and systems level. The format consists of lectures, problem sets, and student presentations. A special emphasis will be placed on discussion of original publications. Offered as BIOC 475, CHEM 475, PHOL 475, PHRM 475, and NEUR 475.

PHOL 476. Cellular Biophysics. 4 Units.

This course focuses on a quantitative understanding of cellular processes. It is designed for students who feel comfortable with and are interested in analytical and quantitative approaches to cell biology and cell physiology. Selected topics in cellular biophysics will be covered in depth. Topics include theory of electrical and optical signal processing used in cell physiology, thermodynamics and kinetics of enzyme and transport reactions, single ion channel kinetics and excitability, mechanotransduction, and transport across polarized cell layers. The format consists of lectures, problem sets, computer simulations, and discussion of original publications. The relevant biological background of topics will be provided appropriate for non-biology science majors. Offered as BIOC 476, NEUR 477, PHOL 476, PHRM 476.

PHOL 480. Physiology of Organ Systems. 4 Units.

Our intent is to expand the course from the current 3 hours per week (1.5 hour on Monday and Wednesday) to 4 hours per week (1.5 hours on Monday and Wednesday plus 1 hour on Friday). Muscle structure and Function, Myasthenia gravis and Sarcopenia; Central Nervous System, (Synaptic Transmission, Sensory System, Autonomic Nervous System, CNS circuits, Motor System, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Paraplegia and Nerve Compression); Cardiovascular Physiology (Regulation of Pressure and flow; Circulation, Cardiac Cycle, Electrophysiology, Cardiac Function, Control of Cardiovascular function, Hypertension); Hemorragy, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrillation; Respiration Physiology (Gas Transport and Exchange, Control of Breathing, Acid/base regulation, Cor Pulmonaris and Cystic Fibrosis, Sleeping apnea and Emphysema); Renal Physiology (Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Function/transport, Glomerulonephritis, Tubulopaties); Gastro-Intestinal Physiology (Gastric motility, gastric function, pancreas and bile function, digestion and absorption, Liver Physiology; Pancreatitis, Liver Disease and cirrhosis); Endocrine Physiology (Thyroid, Adrenal glands, endocrine pancreas, Parathyroid, calcium sensing receptor, Cushing and diabetes, Reproductive hormones, eclampsia); Integrative Physiology (Response to exercise, fasting and feeding, aging). For all the classes, the students will receive a series of learning objectives by the instructor to help the students address and focus their attention to the key aspects of the organ physiology (and physiopathology). The evaluation of the students will continue to be based upon the students' participation in class (60% of the grade) complemented by a mid-term and a final exam (each one accounting for 20% of the final grade). Offered as BIOL 480 and PHOL 480.

PHOL 481. Medical Physiology I. 6 Units.

Physiology is the dynamic study of life. It describes the vital functions of living organisms and their organs, cells, and molecules. For some, physiology is the function of the whole person. For many practicing clinicians, physiology is the function of an individual organ system. For others, physiology may focus on the cellular principles that are common to the function of all organs and tissues. Medical physiology deals with how the human body functions, which depends on how the individual organ systems function, which depends on how the component cells function, which in turn depends on the interactions among subcellular organelles and countless molecules. Thus, it requires an integrated understanding of events at the level of molecules, cells, and organs. Medical Physiology I is a lecture course (3, 2 hr. lectures/week). It is the first of a two-part, comprehensive survey of physiology that is divided into four blocks: Block 1 covers the physiology of cells and molecules, signal transduction, basic electrophysiology, and muscle physiology; Block 2 covers the nervous system; Block 3 covers the cardiovascular system, and; Block 4 covers the respiratory system. Grading in the course will be based on performance on multiple choice/short essay examinations administered at the end of each block with each examination weighted according to the number of lectures contained in that block.

PHOL 482. Medical Physiology II. 6 Units.

Physiology is the dynamic study of life. It describes the vital functions of living organisms and their organs, cells, and molecules. For some, physiology is the function of the whole person. For many practicing clinicians, physiology is the function of an individual organ system. For others, physiology may focus on the cellular principles that are common to the function of all organs and tissues. Medical physiology deals with how the human body functions, which depends on how the individual organ systems function, which depends on how the component cells function, which in turn depends on the interactions among subcellular organelles and countless molecules. Thus, it requires an integrated understanding of events at the level of molecules, cells, and organs. Medical Physiology II is a lecture course (3, 2hr. lectures/week). It is the second of a two-part, comprehensive survey of physiology that is divided into five blocks: Block 5 covers the physiology of the urinary system; Block 6 covers the gastrointestinal system; Block 7 covers the endocrine system; Block 8 covers reproduction; and Block 9 covers the physiology of everyday life. Grading in the course will be based on performance on multiple choice/short essay examinations administered at the end of each block with each examination weighted according to the number of lectures contained in that block

PHOL 483. Translational Physiology I. 2 Units.

Physiology is the dynamic study of life, describing the vital functions of living organisms and their organs, cells, and molecules. For some, physiology is the function of the whole person. For many practicing clinicians, physiology is the function of an individual organ system. For others, it focuses on the cellular principles that are common to the function of all organs and tissues. Medical physiology deals with how the human body functions, which depends on how the individual organ systems function, which depends on how the component cells function, which in turn depends on the interactions among subcellular organelles and countless molecules. Translational Physiology I will explore examples of how the latest basic research in physiology and biophysics is being applied to the treatment of human disease. For example, while the students are studying the basic principles of cardiovascular physiology, they will also be investigating how these principles are being applied to treat/cure human cardiovascular disorders such as congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, etc. Translational Physiology I is a lecture course (1, 2 hr lecture/week) taught primarily by clinical faculty. It is the first of a two-part course that follows the topics being simultaneously covered in the Medical Physiology I course. It is divided into four blocks: Block I covers the physiology of cells and molecules, signal transduction, basic electrophysiology, and muscle physiology; Block 2 covers the nervous system; Block 3 covers the cardiovascular system; and Block 4 covers the respiratory system. Grading in the course will be based on performance on multiple choice/short essay examinations administered at the end of each block with each examination weighted according to the number of lectures contained in that block.

PHOL 484. Translational Physiology II. 2 Units.

Physiology is the dynamic study of life, describing the vital functions of living organisms and their organs, cells, and molecules. For some, physiology is the function of the whole person. For many practicing clinicians, physiology is the function of an individual organ system. For others, it focuses on the cellular principles that are common to the function of all organs and tissues. Medical physiology deals with how the human body functions, which depends on how the individual organ systems function, which depends on how the component cells function, which in turn depends on the interactions among subcellular organelles and countless molecules. Translational Physiology II will explore examples of how the latest basic research in physiology and biophysics is being applied to the treatment of human disease . For example, while the students are studying the basic physiology of the urinary system, they will also be investigating how these principles are being applied to treat/cure human kidney disorders such as renal failure, high blood pressure, glomerular disease, polycystic kidney disease, etc. Translational Physiology II is a lecture course (1, 2hr lecture/week) taught primarily by clinical faculty. It is the first of a two-part course that follows the topics being simultaneously covered in the Medical Physiology II course. It is divided into five blocks: Block 5 covers the physiology of the urinary system, Block 6 covers the gastrointestinal system; Block 7 covers the endocrine system, Block 8 covers reproduction; and Block 9 covers the physiology of everyday life. Grading in the course will be based on performance on multiple choice/short essay examinations administered at the end of each block with each examination weighted according to the number of lectures contained in that block. Coreq: PHOL 482.

PHOL 498. Physiology and Biophysics Departmental Seminar. 1 Unit.

Weekly one-hour reviews by invited speakers of their research. Students present literature reviews or summaries of their research.

PHOL 505. Laboratory Research Rotation. 3 Units.

One-semester experience in a selected faculty research laboratory designed to introduce the student to all aspects of modern laboratory research including the design, execution and analysis of original experimental work. Recommended preparation: Consent of instructor and scheduled laboratory.

PHOL 513. Structural Journal Club. 1 Unit.

Current topics of interest in structural biology, and protein biophysics. Offered as PHOL 513 and PHRM 513.

PHOL 514. Cardiovascular Physiology. 3 Units.

The goal of this course is to provide the student with a solid foundation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. The course will begin by providing a solid foundation in the structure, phenotype and function of cardiac and vascular muscle. In addition, electrophysiology and metabolism will be addressed. Both basic physiology and more advanced topics, such as pathophysiology, will be covered using a journal club format. (Twice weekly; 1.5hrs/class.) Student participation is required.

PHOL 519. Cardio-Respiratory Physiology. 3 Units.

This course is designed to integrate systemic, cellular and molecular aspects of cardio-respiratory systems in physiological and pathophysiological states. The course requires prior knowledge of basic physiology of the cardiovascular systems. Extensive student participation is required. Instructors provide a brief overview of the topic followed by presentation and critical appraisal of recent scientific literature by students.

PHOL 522. Special Topics in Cardiac Electrophysiology. 3 Units.

Introduction to current topics in cellular cardiac electrophysiology and cardiac ion channel structure, function, and regulation. The format includes informal lectures as well as student presentations and class discussion of current literature.

PHOL 528. Contemporary Approaches to Drug Discovery. 3 Units.

This course is designed to teach the students how lead compounds are discovered, optimized, and processed through clinical trials for FDA approval. Topics will include: medicinal chemistry, parallel synthesis, drug delivery and devices, drug administration and pharmacokinetics, and clinical trials. A special emphasis will be placed on describing how structural biology is used for in silico screening and lead optimization. This component will include hands-on experience in using sophisticated drug discovery software to conduct in silico screening and the development of drug libraries. Each student will conduct a course project involving in silico screening and lead optimization against known drug targets, followed by the drafting of an inventory disclosure. Another important aspect of this course will be inclusion of guest lectures by industrial leaders who describe examples of success stories of drug development. Offered as BIOC 528, PHOL 528, and PHRM 528.

PHOL 530. Technology in Physiological Sciences. 3 Units.

This lecture/discussion/journal course focuses on techniques in the physiological sciences. Topics include spectroscopy, microscopy, and electrophysiology. The theory and practice are covered with an emphasis on examples taken from the scientific literature.

PHOL 537. Microscopy-Principles and Applications. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to various types of light microscopy, digital and video imaging techniques, and their applications to biological and biomedical sciences via lectures and hands-on experience. Topics covered include geometrical and physical optics; brightfield, darkfield, phase contrast, DIC, fluorescence and confocal microscopes; and digital image processing. Offered as GENE 537, MBIO 537, and PHOL 537.

PHOL 601. Research. 1 - 18 Unit.

Cellular physiology laboratory research activities that are based on faculty and student interests.

PHOL 610. Oxygen and Physiological Function. 3 Units.

Lecture/discussion course which explores the significance and consequences of oxygen and oxygen metabolism in living organisms. Topics to be covered include oxygen transport by blood tissues, oxygen toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolism. Emphasis will be placed on mammalian physiology with special reference to brain oxidative metabolism and blood flow as well as whole body energy expenditure and oxidative stress related to disease. The course will cover additional spans of physiology, nutrition and anatomy. Offered as ANAT 610 and PHOL 610.

PHOL 651. Thesis M.S.. 1 - 18 Unit.


PHOL 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 18 Unit.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.