2016-17 General Bulletin

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Biomedical Research Building
http://genetics.case.edu/
Phone: 216.368.3431
Anthony Wynshaw-Boris, MD, PhD, Chair

Clarice Young, Coordinator

The Department of Genetics & Genome Sciences embraces a unified program devoted to outstanding research and teaching in all areas of genetics, with particular emphases on genomics, human genetics and animal models, development, and chromosome structure and function. Faculty conduct internationally recognized research programs in each of these areas. The also are committed to training the next generations of leading genetics researchers. The department has three special programs: the Center for Human Genetics, the Center for Computational Genomics, and the Genomic Medicine Institute (descriptions appear later in this narrative).

Programs offered lead to the PhD, combined MD/ PhD degree, or MS with a special emphasis in genetic counseling. In addition to required and elective coursework, students participate in ongoing journal clubs, research seminars and grand rounds. A program of departmental and interdepartmental seminars by outstanding visiting scientists provides regular exposure to a broad range of current research in genetics.

The department accepts direct on-line applications to the doctoral program by those who have significant prior research experience in genetics and are committed to careers in genetics research. The PhD program also participates in the integrated Biomedical Sciences Training Program (BSTP, please see separate listing in this publication and/or BSTP Web site). Students interested in pursuing the combined MD/PhD program are admitted through the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP, please see separate listing in this publication). Those students interested in careers in genetic counseling apply directly to the Genetic Counseling Training Program, via the common Graduate Studies application.

The Center for Human Genetics is an integral part of the Department of Genetics and consists of both research and clinical laboratories involved in human and clinical genetics. This center supports research and clinical programs focusing on the molecular basis of inherited disease, human genetic disease mapping, and the genetic dissection of complex disease, as well as providing clinical care and training for postdoctoral fellows and genetic counseling students.

The Center for Computational Genomics is an interdisciplinary research and training program involving faculty in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Medicine and in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in the School of Engineering. The center provides opportunities to combine research in genetics, genomics, epidemiology, biostatistics, computer science, and systems biology.

The Genomic Medicine Institute is a joint program involving the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and Case. Its emphasis involves translating discoveries in basic and clinical research to clinical practice. The mission is to exploit the discoveries in genomics, epidemiology, ethics, pharmacology, genetics and physiology to revolutionize the practice of medicine.

MS Genetic Counseling

The Genetic Counseling Training Program is a 40 credit hour program that spans four academic semesters and an intervening summer. Acquisition and mastery of clinical competencies are reflected in the Program’s didactic coursework, clinical rotations, research process and supplementary experiences. The sequence of medical genetics courses and genetic counseling courses are designed to introduce concepts regarding medical genetics, general medical practice, counseling theory and clinical skills such that they build from beginning skills to a more advanced skill set in the order needed for clinical experiences. The goal of the program is to provide students with the knowledge and clinical skills to function as competent and caring genetic counselors in a wide range of settings and roles. All of these activities enable successful graduates to meet the clinical competencies as outlined by the Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling (ACGC) and successfully pass the American Board of Genetic Counseling certification examination (ABGC).

Experiential professional training occurs concurrently with formal coursework and over the summer between years one and two. Clinical settings include a variety of clinics and inpatient services at the Center for Human Genetics at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, the Genomic Medicine Institute at the Cleveland Clinic, Genetic Services at MetroHealth Medical Center and Medical Genetics at Akron Children’s Hospital. Students also rotate through the Center for Human Genetics Diagnostic Laboratory which includes experiences in cytogenetics, molecular genetics, cancer cytogenetics and maternal serum screening. Student participation in these and other departmental professional and educational activities such as lectures, seminars, journal club, grand rounds, genetics conferences, and various research, counseling and patient management conferences is expected throughout the program. Coursework and clinical experiences are designed to develop the competencies expected by the ACGC.

The First Year

The major activities during the first year consist of course work (in plan of study below), clinical observations and defining a research question and preparing a research proposal.  Observational clinical rotations begin early in October with students observing in prenatal genetics, cancer genetics, and general genetics clinics at the program’s three affiliated institutions. Additionally, students meet several times over the fall semester to discuss the research process, potential topics and are introduced to the faculty’s research areas of interest.

In addition to continuing clinical observational rotations and research, students continue with course work including an introduction to research methods and more in-depth theory and practice in the psychosocial aspects of counseling during spring semester.

During the intervening summer of years 1 and 2, students begin clinical rotations at the Medical Genetics Division at Akron Children’s Hospital to gain exposure in various clinical settings including prenatal, general genetics, pediatrics, specialty clinics and cancer genetics clinic. They also rotate through the Center for Human Genetics Laboratory to become familiarized with the clinical aspects of a diagnostic cytogenetics and molecular genetics laboratory.
The Second Year

The major focus of the second year is continued clinical experiences, research and taking the comprehensive written and oral examinations. Students also complete their coursework, taking one course each semester.

At the beginning of spring semester in January, the students sit for the written comprehensive examination (covering the didactic and clinical genetic counseling material covered to date in the program) and the oral section of the examination, which is given shortly after the written portion. Both examinations are intended to allow students to expand on their knowledge base of human and medical genetics and genetic counseling. Students are expected to pass both sections of the examination in order to meet graduation requirements by the Program. The written portion of the examination is patterned after the national certification examination given by the American Board of Genetic Counseling.

Students continue to work on data collection and analyses for their research projects, which should result in a publishable document. They meet with the Program Director periodically to review their progress as well as with their research committee and of course, are meeting with their mentor on a more frequent basis. During the fall semester of second year the student also attend the National Society of Genetic Counselors annual education meeting. This provides an opportunity for students to meet genetic counselors from across the country, to attend scientific sessions to continue adding to their knowledge base and to meet and discuss job opportunities with prospective employers. Successful completion of the program fulfills the curricular and clinical training requirements for eligibility to sit for the certification examination given by the ABGC.

The sequence of courses for students is as follows:

MS Plan of Study

 

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Intensive: Medical Terminology (1 week)
Embryology (online course)
Advanced Medical Genetics: Molecular & Cytogenetics (GENE 524)2    
Principles and Practices of Genetic Counseling (GENE 528)3    
Advanced Medical Genetics: Quantitative Genetics & Genomics (GENE 526)
or Advanced Medical Genetics: Biochemical Genetics (GENE 527)
2    
Direct Practice Foundation Methods Skills (SASS 477)3    
Intensive: Human Development (1 week)
Psychosocial Issues in Genetic Counseling (GENE 529)  3  
Advanced Medical Genetics: Clinical Genetics (GENE 525)  2  
Cancer Genetics (GENE 531)  2  
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)  2  
Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling (GENE 532)    3
Year Total: 10 9 3
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Advanced Medical Genetics: Biochemical Genetics (GENE 527)
or Advanced Medical Genetics: Quantitative Genetics & Genomics (GENE 526)
2  
Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling (GENE 532)4  
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)3  
Ethical Issues in Genetics/Genomics (BETH 412)  3
Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling (GENE 532)  4
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)  2
Year Total: 9 9
 
Total Units in Sequence:  40

MS/MA in Genetic Counseling and Bioethics (plan B)

The Departments of Genetics & Genome Sciences and Bioethics offer a dual degree program between the Masters in Genetic Counseling and the Masters in Bioethics Programs.  The dual degree program provides a comprehensive curriculum integrating foundational principles of genetics and ethics. The goal of the program is to train Genetic Counselors who wish to apply additional Bioethics expertise into their clinical practice and/or research.
 

The dual degree program allows graduates to engage in both contemplative analysis and application of knowledge in the counseling of patients and should allow graduates to be more prepared to participate in the ongoing national dialogue about the ethical, legal, and social implications of advances in genomic technology as well as research within their home institutions and with other counselors nationwide regarding issues of new genomic testing technology, concerns about genetic services, and issues related to genetic discrimination, privacy, and the return of genetic and genomic results.

The curriculum for the Dual Genetic Counseling/Bioethics Degree consists of 59 credit hours to be completed in 2.5 years. Students enrolled in the dual degree program will spend their first year taking courses entirely within the Genetic Counseling Program and then will spread out their Bioethics coursework over the next 1.5 years while continuing with required coursework and clinical rotations in the genetic counseling program.

In addition to both a written and oral comprehensive examination as part of the Genetic Counseling Training Program, the dual degree requires a research project be carried out for the completion of the both degrees.  For the dual degree, students will be required to choose a research project that includes ethical, legal, or social issues of genetic counseling practice, clinical genetics or genomics, or genetic research. Students will also be required to include at least one Bioethics Faculty member on their Research Project Committee.

Students who would like to enroll in the dual degree program will apply and be admitted into each program separately.  While admissions committees for each program will communicate with each other regarding applicants, each admissions committee will decide independently about the suitability of the applicant to their program.

Once students have been admitted, the Director of the Genetic Counseling Training Program and the Director of the MA Program in Bioethics will be act as student advisors for each of the two programs individually but will meet monthly to assess student progress, address any student or faculty concerns, and assure that student progress in each of the programs, and their overlapping components, are being achieved. 

MS/MA Plan of Study

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Advanced Medical Genetics: Molecular & Cytogenetics (GENE 524)2    
Advanced Medical Genetics: Quantitative Genetics & Genomics (GENE 526)2    
Principles and Practices of Genetic Counseling (GENE 528)3    
Direct Practice Foundation Methods Skills (SASS 477)3    
Psychosocial Issues in Genetic Counseling (GENE 529)  3  
Advanced Medical Genetics: Clinical Genetics (GENE 525)  2  
Cancer Genetics (GENE 531)  2  
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)  2  
Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling (GENE 532)    3
Year Total: 10 9 3
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling (GENE 532)4    
Advanced Medical Genetics: Biochemical Genetics (GENE 527)2    
Foundations in Bioethics I (BETH 401)6    
Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling (GENE 532)  4  
Ethical Issues in Genetics/Genomics (BETH 412)  3  
Foundations in Bioethics II (BETH 402)  6  
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)    3
Year Total: 12 13 3
 
Third YearUnits
Fall
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)3
Clinical Ethics Rotation (BETH 405)3
BETH Elective3
Year Total: 9
 
Total Units in Sequence: 59

PhD Genetics

Admissions to the Genetics program may be obtained through the integrated Biomedical Sciences Training Program, by direct admission to the department or via the MSTP program. The following summary pertains to most incoming PhD students, regardless of the route through which they enter the program. Exceptions are occasionally made to reflect previous educational experiences (e.g., a prior MS degree). 

The First Year

Course work, rotations in at least three laboratories, and participation in seminars, journal clubs, and research meetings are the major activities of first year students. During the Fall term, most students take core courses in Cell and Molecular Biology (CBIO 453 Cell Biology I/CBIO 455 Molecular Biology I) that are offered for Biomedical Sciences Training Program departments. Laboratory rotations begin in early July and the choice of a thesis advisor is usually made at the end of December (see below for more details on Choosing an Advisor).

During the Spring term, PhD students take the core Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics course sequence (GENE 500 Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics I/GENE 504 Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics II), which is followed by a written comprehensive examination in late May or early June. This core course is designed to acquaint students with fundamental principles and methodologies used in modern genetic research. The focus is on similarities and differences between different model organisms used in genetics research. Also during the Spring term and continuing into the Summer, students begin formulating a doctoral research proposal.

The Second Year and Beyond

During the second year, students participate in a Proposal Writing Workshop (GENE 511 Grant Writing and Reviewing Skills Workshop) and take other advanced elective courses based on the academic background and interest of the student. The remaining elective credits can be satisfied by choosing from the courses offered by departmental faculty or participating training faculty from other departments (see List of Courses below). At the end of the second academic year, students must pass an oral proposal defense in order to advance to candidacy for the PhD degree. An outline of the typical course of study is shown below.

PhD Genetics, Plan of Study Sample 


First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453/455)4    
Molecular Biology I (CBIO 455)4    
Complete 3 lab rotations (July 1 to Dec 15)
Choose Ph.D. mentor (end December)
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)1    
Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics I (GENE 500/504)  3  
Ph.D. Comprehensive exam (end of May or early June)
Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics II (GENE 504)  3  
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)  3  
Program Directors meet with students to discuss status, mentor; students begin assembling PhD thesis committee    0
Year Total: 9 9  
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Grant Writing and Reviewing Skills Workshop (GENE 511)3  
Elective course (Genetics or other)3  
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)3  
Elective course (Genetics or other)  3
Research in Genetics (GENE 601)  6
Oral Defense of Thesis Proposal (to be completed by June 1)
Year Total: 9 9
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Elective3  
Either semester 1 elective course (Genetics or other)    
Dissertation Ph.D. (GENE 701)6  
Dissertation Ph.D. (GENE 701)  9
Year Total: 9 9
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
Dissertation Ph.D. (GENE 701)   
Dissertation Ph.D. (GENE 701)9  
Dissertation Ph.D. (GENE 701)  9
Year Total: 9 9
 
Total Units in Sequence:  72

Please also see Graduate Studies Academic Requirements for Doctoral Degrees.

Other Requirements

  • Students meet twice per year with Thesis Committee
  • Students meet once per year with Genetics Graduate Education Committee
  • Genetics Student Seminar (weekly attendance, yearly presentation)
  • Genetics Journal Club (weekly attendance, yearly presentation in spring semester)
  • Genetics Retreat (yearly participation, organized by students)
  • Two first-author, peer-reviewed publications

Courses

GENE 367. Commercialization and Intellectual Property Management. 3 Units.

This interdisciplinary course covers a variety of topics, including principles of intellectual property and intellectual property management, business strategies and modeling relevant to the creation of start-up companies and exploitation of IP rights as they relate to biomedical-related inventions. The goal of this course is to address issues relating to the commercialization of biomedical-related inventions by exposing law students, MBA students, and Ph.D. candidates (in genetics and proteomics) to the challenges and opportunities encountered when attempting to develop biomedical intellectual property from the point of early discovery to the clinic and market. Specifically, this course seeks to provide students with the ability to value a given technological advance or invention holistically, focusing on issues that extend beyond scientific efficacy and include patient and practitioner value propositions, legal and intellectual property protection, business modeling, potential market impacts, market competition, and ethical, social, and healthcare practitioner acceptance. During this course, law students, MBA students, and Ph.D. candidates in genomics and proteomics will work in teams of five (two laws students, two MBA students and one Ph.D. candidate), focusing on issues of commercialization and IP management of biomedical-related inventions. The instructors will be drawn from the law school, business school, and technology-transfer office. Please visit the following website for more information: fusioninnovate.com. Offered as LAWS 5341, MGMT 467, GENE 367, GENE 467, EBME 467 and EECS 467.

GENE 451. A Data-Driven Introduction to Genomics and Human Health. 3 Units.

This course introduces the foundational concepts of genomics and genetic epidemiology through four key principles: 1) Teaching students how to query relational databases using Structure Query Language (SQL); 2) Exposing students to the most current data used in genomics and bioinformatics research, providing a quantitative understanding of biological concepts; 3) Integrating newly learned concepts with prior ones to discover new relationships among biological concepts; and 4) providing historical context to how and why data were generated and stored in the way they were, and how this gave rise to modern concepts in genomics. Offered as EPBI 451, GENE 451, and MPHP 451.

GENE 467. Commercialization and Intellectual Property Management. 3 Units.

This interdisciplinary course covers a variety of topics, including principles of intellectual property and intellectual property management, business strategies and modeling relevant to the creation of start-up companies and exploitation of IP rights as they relate to biomedical-related inventions. The goal of this course is to address issues relating to the commercialization of biomedical-related inventions by exposing law students, MBA students, and Ph.D. candidates (in genetics and proteomics) to the challenges and opportunities encountered when attempting to develop biomedical intellectual property from the point of early discovery to the clinic and market. Specifically, this course seeks to provide students with the ability to value a given technological advance or invention holistically, focusing on issues that extend beyond scientific efficacy and include patient and practitioner value propositions, legal and intellectual property protection, business modeling, potential market impacts, market competition, and ethical, social, and healthcare practitioner acceptance. During this course, law students, MBA students, and Ph.D. candidates in genomics and proteomics will work in teams of five (two laws students, two MBA students and one Ph.D. candidate), focusing on issues of commercialization and IP management of biomedical-related inventions. The instructors will be drawn from the law school, business school, and technology-transfer office. Please visit the following website for more information: fusioninnovate.com. Offered as LAWS 5341, MGMT 467, GENE 367, GENE 467, EBME 467 and EECS 467.

GENE 488. Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar course provides an introduction to the genetics and molecular biology of the yeasts S. cerevisiae and S. pombe by a discussion of current literature focusing primarily on topics in yeast cell biology. Students are first introduced to the tools of molecular genetics and special features of yeasts that make them important model eukaryotic organisms. Some selected topics include cell polarity, cell cycle, secretory pathways, vesicular and nuclear/cytoplasmic transport, mitochondrial import and biogenesis, chromosome segregation, cytoskeleton, mating response and signal transduction. Offered as CLBY 488, GENE 488, MBIO 488, and PATH 488.

GENE 500. Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics I. 3 Units.

Fundamental principles of modern genetics; transmission, recombination, structure and function of the genetic material in eukaryotes, dosage compensation, behavior and consequences of chromosomal abnormalities, mapping and isolation of mutations, gene complementation and genetic interactions. Recommended preparation: BIOL 362.

GENE 503. Readings and Discussions in Genetics. 0 - 3 Units.

(Credit as arranged.) In-depth consideration of special selected topics through critical evaluation of classic and current literature.

GENE 504. Advanced Eukaryotic Genetics II. 3 Units.

Fundamental principles of modern genetics: population and quantitative genetics, dissection of genome organization and function, transgenics, developmental genetics, genetic strategies for dissecting complex pathways in organisms ranging from Drosophila and C. elegans to mouse and human. Recommended preparation: GENE 500 or permission of instructor.

GENE 505. Genetics Journal Club. 1 Unit.

Genetics Journal Club is a graduate level course designed to facilitate discussion of topics in Genetics. Students choose "hot" papers in Genetics and present them to their peers. Group presentations are designed to encourage audience participation. The intent of this class is to expose students to cutting edge topics in Genetics and to instill teaching and leadership skills.

GENE 508. Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics. 3 Units.

The course is designed to provide an understanding of theory and application of computational methods for molecular biology research. The course will be divided into four primary sections: DNA methods, protein methods, structure analysis (RNA and protein) and phylogenetic analysis. Special emphasis will be placed on the use and development of tools to search and analyze large amounts of sequence data generated as part of the Genome Projects in human, Drosophila and other eukaryotic organisms. The course offers extensive hands-on computational training using UNIX, Web and PC-based software. As such, for every hour of lecture material there will be two corresponding hours of computational laboratory time. In the initial year, enrollment will be limited to five students. Preference will be given to senior-level genetics graduate students or post-doctoral fellows. Recommended preparation: GENE 500 and GENE 504 or permission of instructor.

GENE 511. Grant Writing and Reviewing Skills Workshop. 3 Units.

This is an introductory graduate course in grant writing and reviewing skills. During this course each student will write a research grant on a topic of his or her choice. Proposals may form the basis for the written component of the preliminary examination in the Genetics Department. Students will also participate in editing and reviewing the proposals of their classmates. Prereq: GENE 500 and GENE 504 or consent of instructor.

GENE 513. Stem Cell Genetics. 3 Units.

This course focuses on fundamental aspects of development with implications for stem cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and postnatal health. The goal of the class is to inform and promote critical thinking and discussion of research topics of medical importance in developmental biology. The themes of the course will include the conditions and factors which promote pluripotency and differentiation, regeneration and repair, epigenetic stability and reprogramming, and prenatal conditions which affect postnatal health. The topics will include early embryonic development and embryonic stem cells, cardiac development and regeneration, bone development and repair, pancreatic development and regeneration, germ line stem cells and conditions affecting postnatal health. The course will be structured around facilitated discussion of the primary literature.

GENE 524. Advanced Medical Genetics: Molecular & Cytogenetics. 2 - 3 Units.

This course provides an in-depth forum for discussion of fundamental principles regarding clinical cytogenetics and molecular genetics and their relevance to medical genetics, genomics and genetic counseling. Following a historical overview, topics include a discussion of numerical and structural aberrations, sex chromosome abnormalities, issues regarding population cytogenetics, clinical relevance of such findings as marker chromosomes, mosaicism, contiguous gene deletions and uniparental disomy. The course will cover principles of molecular genetics including structure, function and regulations of genes (DNA, RNA, proteins), genetic variation, inheritance patterns and both cytogenetic and molecular laboratory techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization, micro-array, SNP analyses, sequencing) in the clinical laboratory. Students who register for 3.00 credit hours are required to do an additional paper.

GENE 525. Advanced Medical Genetics: Clinical Genetics. 2 - 3 Units.

Fundamental principles regarding congenital malformations, dysmorphology and syndromes. Discussion of a number of genetic disorders from a systems approach: CNS malformations, neurodegenerative disorders, craniofacial disorders, skeletal dysplasias, connective tissue disorders, hereditary cancer syndromes, etc. Discussions also include diagnosis, etiology, genetics, prognosis and management.

GENE 526. Advanced Medical Genetics: Quantitative Genetics & Genomics. 2 - 3 Units.

The purpose of this course is twofold: first, to provide a foundation in quantitative genetics and second, to focus on genomic approaches and technologies which have greatly expanded our understanding of not only rare genetic disorders but common ones as well. We will cover concepts related to risk assessment and calculation and its application to medical genetics including principles and application of Hardy Weinberg equilibrium as well as applying Bayes' Theorem as a mechanism to refine risk assessment based on data specific to a patient. We will also focus on understanding the clinical implications of the interpretation of next generation sequencing results, identify limitations of genomic technologies, and practice curation / annotation and interpretation of genomic testing results. In addition, we will discuss resources and bioinformatics tools including national databases and clinical labs to aid in the interpretation of genomic test results including variants of uncertain significance. Students who register for 3.00 credit hours are required to do an additional paper.

GENE 527. Advanced Medical Genetics: Biochemical Genetics. 2 - 3 Units.

Fundamental principles of metabolic testing; amino acid disorders; organic acid disorders; carbohydrate disorders; peroxisomal disorders; mitochondrial disorders; etc. Discussion of screening principles and newborn screening as well as approaches to diagnosis, management and therapy for metabolic diseases.

GENE 528. Principles and Practices of Genetic Counseling. 3 Units.

Fundamental principles needed for the practicing genetic counselor. Topics include skills in obtaining histories (prenatal, perinatal, medical, developmental, psychosocial and family); pedigree construction and analysis, physical growth and development; the genetic evaluation; the physical examination and laboratory analyses; prenatal issues, prenatal screening and diagnosis; and teratogenicity.

GENE 529. Psychosocial Issues in Genetic Counseling. 3 Units.

Fundamental principles regarding the psychosocial aspects of genetic disease and birth defects, its psychological and social impact on the individual and family. Topics include the genetic counseling interview process, issues regarding pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis, chronicity, death and loss. Cultural issues and their impact on the genetic counseling session are addressed. Resources for families are also explored. Basic interviewing skills are presented. Students will have an opportunity for practice of skills through role play and actual interviewing situations.

GENE 530. Ethical and Professional Issues in Genetic Counseling. 2 Units.

Professional issues inherent in medical genetics and genetic counseling are addressed, including ethical, legal, religious, and cultural concepts. Fundamental principles of ethics are explored in some depth as they relate to genetic issues, such as autonomy and informed consent; use of the NSGC Code of Ethics is emphasized. Genetic counseling roles and responsibilities and aspects of a career as a professional are explored.

GENE 531. Cancer Genetics. 2 - 3 Units.

This seminar will discuss basic concepts in cancer epidemiology, principles of cancer genetics, inherited cancer syndromes, cytogenetics of cancers, predigree analysis for familial cancer risk and approaches to the differential diagnosis of inherited and familial cancers. Additionally, topics of risk assessment, genetic testing, screening, management and psychosocial issues in providing genetic counseling to patients with familial and inherited cancers will be discussed.

GENE 532. Clinical Practicum in Genetic Counseling. 1 - 6 Unit.

This clinical practicum provides the student an opportunity to function as a genetic counselor by preparing for cases; obtaining appropriate histories; determining risks; performing psychosocial assessments; discussing disease characteristics, inheritance, and natural history; providing anticipatory guidance and supportive counseling; using medical and community resources; and follow-up. Students rotate through four clinical areas and one laboratory and will register for a total of 12 hours over the course of the program. Recommended preparation: Admission to Genetic Counseling Training Program.

GENE 537. Microscopy-Principles and Applications. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to various types of light microscopy, digital and video imaging techniques, and their applications to biological and biomedical sciences via lectures and hands-on experience. Topics covered include geometrical and physical optics; brightfield, darkfield, phase contrast, DIC, fluorescence and confocal microscopes; and digital image processing. Offered as GENE 537, MBIO 537, and PHOL 537.

GENE 601. Research in Genetics. 1 - 9 Unit.

(Credit as arranged.)

GENE 651. Thesis M.S.. 1 - 9 Unit.

(Credit as arranged.) Master's Thesis Plan A.

GENE 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 9 Unit.

(Credit as arranged.) Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.