POSC (POSC)

POSC 109. The U.S. Political System. 3 Units.

This course provides an overview of governmental institutions and processes in the United States, the political forces that combine to shape them, and how we might best understand the system that government and politics create.

POSC 160. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 3 Units.

Comparative politics is the study of processes and institutions within countries. Prompted by real-world puzzles, comparativists investigate broad, theoretical questions such as: What constitutes a revolution, and why do revolutions occur? How does one country become more democratic than another? Why do relations between some ethnic groups turn violent? This course introduces students to some of the central puzzles and theories of comparative politics in order to help them better understand world events. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 172. Introduction to International Relations. 3 Units.

Why do countries fight wars? Can nuclear proliferation be curtailed? Does trade help developing countries or harm them? This survey of the field of International Relations examines "big questions" in world politics. It introduces themes including the rise, development and changes of the nation-state system; patterns and causes of international conflict and cooperation; international law, organizations, and transnational institutions; the roles of both state and non-state actors in international politics; and the methods used to understand this field.

POSC 301. Decision-Making in American Cities. 3 Units.

Localities are the primary interface with government and provide the basic psychological place identification for most Americans. The course will explore this assertion in the context of urban America today. How are decisions made in cities? Who shapes these decisions and why? What role is played by shifting demographics, race, and poverty? What can the individual do to influence local decision-making? Offered as POSC 301 and POSC 401.

POSC 302. State Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

State governments may make more decisions that affect the life of an average citizen than does the federal government. The study of state politics and policy includes the different ways states organize the basic parts of American political systems (such as legislatures, executives, courts and parties); how state cultures, economies, and other factors shape how political institutions work; institutions of state governance that do not exist at the national level (such as the initiative and referendum); and the continual contest between state and federal governments to control policy, shift costs, and avoid blame. Offered as POSC 302 and POSC 402.

POSC 306. Interest Groups in the Policy Process. 3 Units.

Introduction to the institutions and processes that make up the political environment of nonprofit and other organizations in the United States, beginning with an examination of the role of civil society in a democracy and continuing with the framing of issues, role of political entrepreneurs and organized interests, elections, the legislative process and strategies for influencing it, and the roles of executive institutions and the courts. Offered as POSC 306 and POSC 406.

POSC 308. The American Presidency. 3 Units.

The sources of, strategies of, and restraints on presidential leadership in the United States. Emphasis on problems of policy formation, presidential relations with Congress and executive agencies, and the electoral process. Offered as POSC 308 and POSC 408.

POSC 310. Congress in an Era of Polarization. 3 Units.

A study of Congress in the modern era with emphasis on the development of polarization, procedural changes, conflict between the legislative and executive branches during divided government, and the current state of representation. Offered as POSC 310 and POSC 410.

POSC 319. Politics and Money. 3 Units.

One of the most famous definitions of politics comes from Harold Laswell, who described it as the struggle over "who gets what, when, how." Money is at the center of most political conflict. It is a resource, a motivation, and an end unto itself. This course will examine the role of money in politics, with particular emphasis on American politics. We will discuss the role of money in elections, in the policy-making process, and what it means for representation. The course will begin with the question of the role that financial consideration play in public opinion and voting behavior. We will then address the role that money plays in election results, both in terms of its role in financing campaigns, and the relationship between the state of the economy and election results. Finally, we will discuss the policy-making process. In that context, we will address the role that interest groups play in the process, and how the quest for economic benefits for one's constituency motivates the behavior of elected officials. We will conclude by discussing how policy changes at the systematic level occur and the influence that various groups have on policy outcomes. Offered as POSC 319 and POSC 419.

POSC 321. News Media and Politics. 3 Units.

Analysis of the political role of the news media in American government and politics. Examines the fascinating relationship between reporters and politicians. Covers the overall structure and legal position of the media as well as the media's impact on the American political system. Offered as POSC 321 and POSC 421.

POSC 322. Political Movements and Political Participation. 3 Units.

Political Movements and Political Participation is concerned with the variety of ways citizens engage in collective activism in the United States and across national boundaries, and with the conditions under which citizens identify common concerns and join together in political movements to bring about change. The course begins with an examination of three general bodies of theory and research on political movements: resource mobilization, political opportunity structures, and cultural framing. We will also investigate frameworks of political participation for understanding the relationships among different expressions of collective activism and representation. In the context of these sometimes competing theories, we will consider 1) the conditions under which political movements are likely to emerge, as well as the circumstances in which collective political action is precluded; 2) how citizens come to recognize collective grievances and shared political identities; 3) the strategies and tactics of organized movements, and their likelihood of political success; and 4) the relationship between political movements, political parties, and the state. Offered as POSC 322 and POSC 422.

POSC 323. Judicial Politics. 3 Units.

Rejecting the view that judges mechanically apply the law, the study of judicial politics seeks to understand the behavior of judges as political actors with policy goals. Topics include judicial selection and socialization, judicial policy change, judicial strategy (especially the strategic interaction of judges on multi-judge panels), the interaction of courts in hierarchical judicial systems, the policy impact of judicial decisions, and the courts' interactions with coordinate branches of government (the executive, Congress, state governments, state courts). Primary focus will be on the federal judiciary, with some discussion of state judicial systems. Offered as POSC 323 and POSC 423.

POSC 325. American Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

An introductory survey of U.S. constitutional law. Special attention given to the historical, philosophical, and political dimensions of landmark Supreme Court cases. Judicial review, federalism, separation of powers, due process, and equal protection. Supreme Court's involvement in major political controversies: the New Deal, abortion, physician-assisted suicide, school desegregation, and affirmative action. Offered as POSC 325 and POSC 425.

POSC 326. Constitutions in Practical Politics. 3 Units.

Overview of ancient Greek and Roman constitution-making, medieval principles, emergence of modern constitutionalism, and the constitutionalist vision of the American and French Revolutions. Examination of contemporary constitutional issues and developments in countries such as Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ethiopia, India, and the United States. Offered as POSC 326 and POSC 426. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 327. Civil Liberties in America. 3 Units.

Supreme Court's interpretation of the First Amendment: liberty of religion through the establishment and free exercise clauses, freedoms of speech and the press, of assembly and association. The "pure tolerance" view examined against subversive speech, "fighting words," libel, and obscenity. Survey of content-neutral regulation, symbolic expression, and current efforts to limit expression (campus speech codes and the feminist anti-pornography movement). Offered as POSC 327 and POSC 427.

POSC 328. Topics in Civil Liberties. 3 Units.

Rights of the accused as outlined in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Topics covered are (1) arrests, searches, and seizures, (2) the privilege against compelled self-incrimination, (3) the rights to counsel, confrontation, and jury trial, and (4) the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments. Case-specific approach but presents interplay of history, philosophy, and politics as background of each topic. Offered as POSC 328 and POSC 428.

POSC 334. Violence and the Political System. 3 Units.

Empirical analysis of various theories advanced in the cross-cultural explanation of factors which cause and mediate the occurrence of violence--revolutions, terrorism, and civil disorder--within the political system. Offered as POSC 334 and POSC 434.

POSC 341. Elections, Voters, and Political Parties. 3 Units.

Examination of American political parties, their activities, organization, characteristics, and functions. Candidate strategies and electoral history viewed within the context of voter orientations and predispositions, stressing linkages between citizen and party and between party and government. Offered as POSC 341 and POSC 441.

POSC 342. Water. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water. Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342 and POSC 442. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 343. Public Opinion and American Democracy. 3 Units.

Examination of theories, concepts and empirical research related to attitudes and the political behavior of mass publics. Offered as POSC 343 and POSC 443.

POSC 346. Women and Politics. 3 Units.

Women and Politics involves a critical examination of the impact of gender on the forms and distributions of power and politics, with primary reference to the experience of women in the United States. Major concerns of the course include what we mean by "sex," "gender," and "politics"; the relationship between women and the state; how women organize collectively to influence state policies; and how the state facilitates and constrains women's access to and exercise of political power. The course is organized around four foci central to the study of women and politics. The first section of the course focuses on what we mean by "women," "gender," and "politics." In this section, we will consider how these concepts intersect and the ways in which each may be used to deepen our understanding of the workings of governments and political systems, and of women's relative political powerlessness. The second section of the course employs these concepts to understand the (re) emergence of the US feminist movement, its meanings, practices, and goals, and its transformation across US political history. In the third section, we turn to conventional electoral politics, focusing on women's candidacies, their campaigns, and women's voting behavior. In the final section of the course, we consider those general factors that might provide for increased gender equality and improved life status for women, in global, comparative perspective. Offered as POSC 346, POSC 446 and WGST 346. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 348. History of Modern Political and Social Thought. 3 Units.

This course explores the responses of philosophers, economic theorists, culture critics, and public policy makers to changes in western society wrought by industrialization by focusing on their concerns with technological change. Offered as HSTY 348, HSTY 448 and POSC 348.

POSC 349. Political Science Research Methods. 3 Units.

This course examines approaches that political scientists use to understand events and processes. In doing so, the course provides students with skills helpful to completing senior projects, such as the ability to evaluate and conduct research. Through exercises and projects, students will take part in the research process from constructing a question to developing a research design to interpreting results. Students will learn and apply key techniques, including inductive and deductive reasoning, hypothesis construction, operationalization of concepts, measurements, sampling and probability, causal inference, and the logic of controls. They will produce materials common to the discipline, such as research designs. Offered as POSC 349 and POSC 449. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 351. Modern Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of a limited topic in the study of modern political thought. Topics vary. Offered as POSC 351 and POSC 451.

POSC 352. American Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of the unique contribution to the science of government made by American political thinkers. Offered as POSC 352 and POSC 452.

POSC 353. Political Thought and Political Change in China. 3 Units.

"No state is forever strong or forever weak," said Han Feizi, China's great legalist philosopher. He believed that as a country's conditions changed, the laws and institutions had to change to meet these new circumstances. China today faces new circumstances that have caused deep and broad challenges to its people. This has prompted serious debate among intellectuals, leaders, and average citizens about the possibility for and direction of political reform. But what might that reform look like, and how would it be conceived, if it could overcome the current barriers? This seminar will provide a fuller understanding of China's potential for political change by examining Chinese political though from Confucius, Mencius and Han Feizi through Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. These and other political philosophies have influenced China's political culture, which will influence the form of any change. Offered as POSC 353 and POSC 453.

POSC 354. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

POSC 355. Modern Political Ideologies. 3 Units.

Substance and nature of ideological thinking in the contemporary world via a survey of political "isms"--for example, liberalism, libertarianism, conservatism, fascism, socialism, and even more recent trends such as feminism, environmentalism, etc. Offered as POSC 355 and POSC 455.

POSC 356. Transitions to Democracy and Dictatorship. 3 Units.

Everyday life is dramatically different depending on whether one resides in a democracy or under a dictatorship. This course examines why some countries have democracies and others dictatorships. It explores successful, incomplete, and failed transitions to democracy. The incomplete transitions result in hybrid regimes, stuck between democracy and dictatorship, and the outright failures result in non-democracies, such as dictatorships. The course examines examples from most regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, the former Soviet Union, North America, and South America. Offered as POSC 356 and POSC 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 357. Democratic Politics: Theory and Practice. 3 Units.

Study of the theory and application of democracy. The concept of democracy will be examined from the Athenian model to contemporary debates over participatory and deliberative models. Then the concept will be applied to understanding issues of democratic practice and the study of politics in American, comparative, and international arenas. Finally, the course will address the potential effects, both good and ill, of technological innovation on democratic practices, such as "distance" participation, the Internet, and other communication technology. Offered as POSC 357 and POSC 457.

POSC 358. Political Strategy. 3 Units.

This course examines practical applications of prominent political science theories. It is partly a how-to course covering a broad range of political activities, but the primary objective is to link practical issues with theories to help you understand why events happen the way they do. The course focuses on American politics, but the materials will be applicable to a wide range of situations. The course is a seminar requiring regular student presentations that will generate discussion about the readings and current events. Papers consist of analysis of current events, and require students to analyze the strategies used by prominent figures in the context of the theories we discuss in class. Offered as POSC 358 and POSC 458. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 360. Revolts and Revolutions in Global Perspective. 3 Units.

The Arab protests of 2011 gripped the attention of the world. Young protestors succeeded in unseating some long time rulers but in other cases tense standoffs have evolved. This course takes those events as a starting point to examine the broader political history of revolts and revolutions in the global south. The first part of the course examines some of the classic social science debates about what constitutes revolution, what leads to revolution, and what the effects can be. The second part of the course analyzes specific cases in Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia to understand the causes and consequences of revolt and revolution. What drives everyday persons to brave the dangers of protest? When and why do political leaders decide to resist or reform? What happens when revolts fail? What happens when they succeed? Material for the course will include classic social science narratives, revolutionary polemics, popular analyses of events since 2011, examples of social media as political action, and first person narratives. Offered as POSC 360 and POSC 460. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 361. State-Building and State Collapse. 3 Units.

Are nation-states the most effective means of organizing society? This course explores this question by examining the historical rationales behind the development of the nation-state, contemporary challenges to the nation-state, and potential alternatives to the nation-state. Possible challenges to the nation-state include multinational corporations, international humanitarian intervention, and regional integration. Alternative providers of state services include charities, companies, and mercenaries. Offered as POSC 361 and POSC 461. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 362. Politics of Central Asia. 3 Units.

Once an unfamiliar region to many people of the world, Central Asia took center stage in the fall of 2001 as a result of the U.S. campaign against terrorism. This course will introduce students to the politics of Central Asia, focusing on the region today composed of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgiszstan, and Kazakkhstan. We will review the nationalism, foreign relations, religion, ethnicity, and economics of the region. Offered as ETHS 362, POSC 362, and POSC 462. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 363. Comparative Analysis of Elections and Electoral Systems. 3 Units.

Elections involve more than a simple act of voting to express individual preferences. The rules under which worldwide elections are held determine who controls the executive and how votes are converted into legislative seats. The mechanics of various electoral arrangements will be examined in detail and the consequences for the political system discussed in terms of strategies and desired outcomes on the part of contestants. Students will research individual countries and analyze recent elections from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives, including introduction to geospatial data for mapping variations in electoral behavior. Offered as POSC 363 and POSC 463. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 364. Dictatorship and Democracy in Modern Latin America. 3 Units.

Examination of political leadership in 20th-century Latin America, exploring the nature, causes, and consequences of dictatorship and democracy in the region, moving from the collapse of oligarchic rule and the emergence of populism in the 1930s and 1940s, to the end of democracy and establishment of military regimes in the 1960s and 1970s, and ultimately to the contemporary processes of democratization and economic liberalization. Offered as ETHS 364, POSC 364, and POSC 464. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 365. Science, Technology, and Government. 3 Units.

Traces the development and influence of federal technology and science policies from colonial times to the present, with emphasis on the 20th century. Offered as HSTY 366 and POSC 365.

POSC 366. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of the political forces and organizations currently functioning in Africa, as well as a survey of the formal government institutions. Special emphasis on single-party rule, military rule, and the political ramifications of African socialism, tribalism and the problems of national integration. Offered as ETHS 366, POSC 366, and POSC 466.

POSC 367. Western European Political Systems. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of sociopolitical systems of selected Western European industrial democracies, using North American systems as a point of comparison. Offered as POSC 367 and POSC 467.

POSC 369. Ethnicity, Gender, and Religion in Latin American Politics and Society. 3 Units.

This course focuses on aspects of Latin America's social and political realities and dilemmas. It will first explore race, gender, and religion, and then tackle revolution, democracy and populism. Throughout, the entire region's history, geography, and culture(s) will be considered; for example, the European and indigenous legacies in Mexico and Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador; the Asian presence in Peru and Brazil; the African contributions to Cuba and Brazil, female heads of state, such as Nicaragua's Violeta Chamorro, Chile's Michelle Bachelet, Argentina's Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, Costa Rica's Laura Chinchilla, and Brazil's Dilma Rousseff. The class will explore Liberation Theology and the new Pope's worries about the declining number of Catholics in the region. Today's multiparty democracy in Mexico, Hugo Chavez's 14-year rule in Venezuela, and Cuba's international humanitarian aid would not be possible without revolution(s) and populism. They are intertwined with ethnicity, gender, and religion. Offered as ETHS 369, POSC 369 and POSC 469. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 370A. Political Economy. 3 Units.

Focus on debates concerning the proper relationship between political and economic systems, including conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives. The politics of international economics and the economics of international politics receive separate attention. The course concludes with study of "modern" political economy and the application of economic theory to the study of political systems. Offered as POSC 370A and POSC 470A.

POSC 370C. The United States and Asia. 3 Units.

Survey and analysis of U.S.-Asia relations in the post-World War II period. Focus specifically is on the interaction of politics and economics in the United States' relations with Japan, China, and Southeast Asian countries. Topics will include the role of Asia in U.S. Cold War policies, the dynamics of U.S.-Japan alliance politics, post-Cold War issues involving U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, a history and analysis of economic conflict cooperation, and an examination of the move toward Asia-Pacific "regionalism." Offered as POSC 370C and POSC 470C.

POSC 370D. The Politics of China. 3 Units.

Now more than ever, the Chinese state and society are facing tremendous economic, social, and political challenges. This course presents an overview of current issues facing the People's Republic, including a changing (or not) political culture, policy processes and outcomes at the national and local levels, reform and economic growth, the resultant societal changes and pressures, and the consequent challenges the Communist Party faces as demand for political reform grows. The class involves a mixture of lectures and discussion and draws on a combination of primary and secondary sources, including current news reports and films. Offered as POSC 370D and POSC 470D. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 370F. Financial Politics in the United States and the World. 3 Units.

This course explores how political institutions make policy in the financial area with particular emphasis on the United States. Using a bureaucratic politics framework, it examines money, banks and the securities industry by integrating a wide range of literature in economics and political science. Specific objectives include familiarizing students with different approaches to the political economy of finance from different disciplines, exploring the historical evolution of finance, examining the changing relationship between public and private authority within the financial system, considering how politics operates in a crisis, and evaluating the role of international financial institutions in the global economy. By taking this course, students will equip themselves for further research into politics and economics, as well as offer them tools to analyze future policy developments as they unfold. Offered as POSC 370F and POSC 470F.

POSC 370G. U.S. Intelligence and National Security. 3 Units.

Examination of the impact of the intelligence process on foreign policy making and superpower relations. Covers the life cycle of United States strategic intelligence from the collection of data to formulation of analytic judgments and the policy-level uses of intelligence. Emphasis on contemporary intelligence issues and processes, but includes the formative period of modern American intelligence in the World War II era. Offered as POSC 370G and POSC 470G.

POSC 370H. China's Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

The rise of China is evident in the country's more forward and robust foreign policy that began in 1979. At every turn, nations throughout the world must now consider China wherever their interests are at stake, be it Korea and Northeast Asia, Indochina and Southeast Asia, India/Pakistan and South Asia, or Afghanistan and Iran in the Middle East, not to mention the many African states that welcome Chinese investment but chafe at China's presence. Further, China is increasingly aggressive in international trade, a major determinant of its foreign policy. This course describes the key factors that make up Chinese foreign policy, including its cultural tradition, policy-making institutions, the role of the military, and domestic determinants of foreign policy. The course also examines China's ever-changing foreign policy strategies, from an aggressive posture to charming its neighbors only to become more strident once again. The course will also examine China's role involving possible mercantilism, currency manipulation, and the hunt for traditional and alternative energy sources. Throughout the course, we will pay attention to how China's foreign policy relates to international relations theories and what strategies might be used to manage China's growing role in international affairs. Offered as POSC 370H and POSC 470H. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 370J. International Law and Organizations. 3 Units.

Study of international organizations and international law as two means for regulating and coordinating nation-state behavior. History of the two techniques will be traced, covering 19th century efforts at cooperation, the League of Nations and the United Nations, regional and specialized global organization. The functions of international law in global politics will be stressed, with primary focus on the evolving role of law in dealing with global problems, e.g., war, the environment, economic cooperation, and human rights. Offered as POSC 370J and POSC 470J.

POSC 370K. Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Religion in World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the post-Cold War surge in conflicts among nationalisms, ethnic groups, and religions with particular attention to the former Yugoslavia, Ireland, India, Africa, and the Middle East. Offered as ETHS 370K, POSC 370K, and POSC 470K.

POSC 370M. Theories of Political Economy. 3 Units.

This course is a SAGES departmental seminar in political economy that brings a wide range of theoretical perspectives to bear on the relations between market and state in the contemporary world. It focuses on three questions: What have been the major debates concerning the role of the government in the economy? How were these debates resolved in the compromise of embedded liberalism, and What experiences have individual states had with these questions of political economy? To answer these questions, we will read original literature to uncover the connections among politics, economics, and the world of ideas that has resulted in the political debates we confront today. Offered as POSC 370M and POSC 470M. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 371. Natural Resources and World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the political causes and ramifications of the uneven distribution of the valuable natural resources for modern industrial societies. Strategic and military issues and the exploitation of the sea bed. Examination in some detail of selected commodity issues, including petroleum, copper and uranium. Offered as POSC 371 and POSC 471.

POSC 372. Activism Beyond Borders: NGOs and International Advocacy. 3 Units.

This course examines the role of non-state actors, and particularly non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in world politics. We will begin with a survey of traditional theoretical approaches to international relations, so that students can be conversant in the basic theory and vocabulary of the discipline. We then examine the growing role of NGOs in world politics amidst the broader trend of globalization, and the academic and policy debates surrounding each. After this primer, the course will examine four "big questions" with respect to international activism: 1) When do NGOs mobilize? 2) What tactics do they use? 3) What explains success and failure in advocacy? 4) What are the broader political implications of a global class of elite advocates? Offered as POSC 372 and POSC 472.

POSC 373. Politics of the European Union. 3 Units.

Study of the origins, operations, and prospects for the European Union. This can include the historical context for the effort to restrict national rivalries (which fueled two world wars) and create common interests; the diplomatic challenges in finding common ground; the tasks and processes of governance within the EU, including its governing institutions, enforcement of terms for European Monetary Union and the operations of its bureaucracies; the social pressures that create policy challenges (such as agriculture policy and immigration); broad tensions within the enterprise (e.g., "broadening" vs. "deepening"), and the EU's potential place in international politics, especially the efforts to create a common foreign and security policy and the possible implications of the Euro for international political economy. Offered as POSC 373 and POSC 473.

POSC 374. Politics of Development in the Global South. 3 Units.

Exploration of the post-World War II emergence of the Global South nations of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Eastern Europe arena. Offered as ETHS 374, POSC 374, and POSC 474.

POSC 375. The International Politics of Technology. 3 Units.

Technology is deeply political. Nowhere is this statement more evident than in the realm of international relations, where governments perceive technology as a source of power and wealth and a symbol of relative position and modernity. Yet for centuries skeptics have questioned the economic rationale of government technology policies. Still, to this day, countries support emulation, innovation and a host of other strategies as means for catching up with leading nations or locking in current advantages. What lies behind such policies? What do they accomplish? And what are the domestic and international politics surrounding them? After reading classic arguments, including texts by Adam Smith, Alexander Hamilton and Friedrich List, students will consider 20th and 21st century debates and an array of experiments tried by poor, middle-income and rich countries. Cases include the development of new industries; the imposition of sanctions; the dilemma of dual technologies and military spillovers; the forging of national champions; the reorganization of banks and the creation of international financial centers; the copying of regional clusters (e.g. Silicon Valley) and stock markets (e.g. the Nasdaq); and the extraterritorial extension of domestic regulation and governance techniques. There are no prerequisites and first year students are welcome. Offered as POSC 375 and POSC 475. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 376. United States Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

Focus on U.S. foreign policy making with a dynamic network of executive and congressional actors and organizations; analysis of traditional and contemporary U.S. foreign policies from nuclear defense to current economic resource issues; future role of the United States in world affairs. Offered as POSC 376 and POSC 476.

POSC 377. Politics of Russia. 3 Units.

Russia faces three problems: the creation of a sovereign state, the development of a new political system, and the restructuring of its economy. In this course we will challenge the assumption that the outcome of these three transitions will be a strong, democratic, capitalist country. We will ask whether civil war, organized crime, an immature party system, poor social services, and nomenklatura privatization bode poorly for these three transformations. Offered as POSC 377 and POSC 477. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 378. International Relations Theory. 3 Units.

This course is a seminar in international relations theory. As such, we will bring a wide range of theoretical perspectives to bear on issues and debates in the area of international relations by systematically studying the evolution of the world system. The seminar is roughly divided into a first half focusing on war and the political system, and a second half focusing on trade, finance and the economic system. Each section devotes particular attention to ethical problems associated with political and economic issues. This course should develop students' ability to read and critically evaluate academic literature in the field of international relations, and enable students to produce a scholarly paper on one substantive area of the field. Offered as POSC 378 and POSC 478. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 379. Introduction to Middle East Politics. 3 Units.

This is an introductory course about Middle East Politics, in regional as well as international aspects. In this course we will explore broad social, economic, and political themes that have defined the region since the end of World War Two. Since this is an introductory course, a major goal will be to gain comparative knowledge about the region's states and peoples. The countries that comprise the modern Middle East are quite diverse; therefore, we will only be able to focus on a few cases in depth. A second goal is to use the tools and theories social scientists employ to answer broad questions related to the region, such as: How have colonial legacies shaped political and economic development in the Middle East? How do oil, religion, and identity interact with politics? How have external powers affected the region's political development? What do the uprisings of 2011 hold for the region's future? Offered as POSC 379 and POSC 479. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 380A. State and War in Africa and the Middle East. 3 Units.

The Middle East, North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa remain the most volatile and conflict prone regions of the world. Traditional approaches to war and state conflict have emphasized systemic variables, such as balance of power, military capabilities, perceptions, the security dilemma, and of course anarchy. While these concepts have generated much academic interest, their ability to explain and understand conflict in the developing world is severely limited. This is due to the basic fact that nearly all conflict in the world today is not between states but is taking place within state boundaries. What drives these conflicts? Are there common factors and patterns within the Middle East and Africa? How does sub-state conflict affect political and economic development? What are the most likely resolution strategies? Recommended preparation: POSC 379. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 380B. Uprising and Political Change in the Arab World. 3 Units.

This course explores political and social change in the Arab World with an emphasis on the 2011 uprisings. It is designed into a three week format taking place in the Arab World. Since the early 20th century, the 22 countries that comprise the Arab World have experienced multifaceted and rapid change. Coups, revolts, and revolution defined much of the 1950s and 1960s. ln the ensuing decades however, Arab politics settled into seemingly stable political authoritarianism. Thus, it was a surprise when mobilized protesters unsealed some leaders in 2011. The primary questions for scholars and students is, what explains these momentous events? And what happens after? This course will take up these questions by carefully examining political and social change in the decades before 2011. By holding the course in an Arab country, students will be able to place the broad themes within a local context. Investigation and lectures will explore not just the history of change and protest but why protest succeeded in removing leaders in some countries yet was defeated in others. The ultimate goal is for students to gain the skills to pursue these questions at a macro-scholarly level as well as unpack those same questions at a local and regional revel. Guest lectures and field trips are designed as far more than just visits. Each event will require students to inquire, converse, and research local conditions to address the larger questions. Primary course requirements include a daily journal, a short exam, and a final paper. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 381. City as Classroom. 3 Units.

In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles. Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 382A. Child Policy. 3 Units.

This course introduces students to issues in public policy that impact children and families. Local, state, and federal child policy will be considered, and topics will include, for example, policies related to child poverty, education, child welfare, juvenile justice, and children's physical and mental health. Students will learn how policy is developed, how research informs policy and vice versa, and a framework for analyzing social policy. Recommended preparation: One social sciences course or consent. Offered as ANTH 305, CHST 301, and POSC 382A.

POSC 383. Health Policy and Politics in the United States. 3 Units.

Overview of the principal institutions, processes, social forces, and ideas shaping the U.S. health system. Historical, political, economic, and sociological perspectives on the health system are explored as well as the intellectual context of recent policy changes, challenges, and developments. Students will acquire a sense of how health services are financed and delivered in the U.S. They will also learn how to assess its performance compared to that of other similar countries. Offered as POSC 383 and POSC 483.

POSC 384. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as PHIL 384, PHIL 484, POSC 384 and POSC 484.

POSC 385. U.S. Bureaucratic Politics. 3 Units.

Bureaucracy is one of civilization's most important inventions. It is a way of coordinating very large numbers of people so as to do work, make decisions, and exercise power. Without it, much of modern life would be impossible. Yet "bureaucracy" is normally seen, in public discussion, as a problem, instead of as a solution. This course will consider both the reasons for and pathologies of bureaucratic organization. Its special focus is bureaucracy in American government. The course therefore will provide some introduction to the study of American public administration, but with special emphasis on how the work and performance of public bureaucracies in the United States is shaped by the specific tasks they are given and the distribution of power in the American political arena. Offered as POSC 385 and POSC 485. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 386. Making Public Policy. 3 Units.

Politics is about who wins, who loses, and why. Policy, by contrast, is often depicted as more "neutral;" policies are the means through which political decisions are carried out. In this class, we examine the notion that policy is the rational, impartial counterpart to the political arena. We will ask: How are public policies made? Why do some issues make it on to the agenda, while others do not? Can we separate facts from values, or are both always contested? We will examine how decision-making in a group introduces distinct challenges for policymaking. The course focuses on widely applicable themes of policymaking, drawing on both domestic and international examples. Offered as POSC 386 and POSC 486.

POSC 388. Politics, Policy, and the Global Environment. 3 Units.

This course examines the law, politics and policy surrounding global environmental challenges such as climate change. The course aims to provide a broad overview of the key concepts, actors, debates, and issues in global environmental politics. It aims to illustrate the complexities of addressing environmental problems-from the proliferation of global institutions and international actors, to the absence of central enforcement mechanisms. We examine the causes of environmental degradation and competing views on the gravity of the problem. Using concepts from political science and economics, we investigate the challenges in getting states to act jointly to address environmental problems. We examine the actors and institutions of global environmental politics, to understand how conditions are defined as problems and responses are chosen and implemented. The course concludes by applying the tools and concepts to the case of climate change. Offered as ESTD 388, POSC 388 and POSC 488.

POSC 389. Special Topics in American Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

Specific topic will vary but will consist of an in-depth investigation of a particular policy area or political phenomenon. Topics will involve policy controversies of some current interest. Offered as POSC 389 and POSC 489.

POSC 390. Special Topics in International Relations. 3 Units.

This course will vary semester to semester and will focus on International Relations topics such as statecraft and diplomacy in contemporary world affairs; weak states and international sovereignty; and transnational soft law. A description of the topic(s) being covered will be available on the political science website each semester that the course is offered. Students may take this course more than once for up to 9 credits, when different topics are covered. Offered as POSC 390 and POSC 490.

POSC 391. Special Topics in Comparative Politics. 3 Units.

This course will vary semester to semester and will focus on comparative politics topics involving political issues and/or controversies of some current interest. These may include some of the following: federal vs unitary political systems, nationalism and national identity, independence movements in developed countries, comparative political behavior, national and supranational political organization, comparative public policy, political violence and violent conflict, comparative political economy, varieties of democracy, the comparative politics of gender, comparative race and ethnicity, among others. A description of the specific course topic focus will be available on the political science website each semester that the course is offered. Students may take this course more than once (up to 9 credits) so long as the topics are different. Offered as POSC 391 and POSC 491.

POSC 395. Special Projects. 1 - 6 Units.

Study of a topic of particular interest, and/or independent academic work associated with an approved internship. The student must submit to the departmental office a project prospectus form, approved and signed by the faculty supervisor, no later than the end of the second week of classes. The prospectus must outline the goals of the project and the research methodology to be used, and is part of the basis for grading. The prospectus form is available from the departmental office or from the department's webpage.

POSC 396. Senior Project SAGES Capstone. 3 Units.

Capstone experience for political science majors or senior POSC minors as part of the SAGES program, providing opportunity to do an in-depth paper on a topic of particular interest to them. Students must obtain approval from a faculty project advisor and list that advisor on the registration form. The advisor must sign and student submit to department a prospectus including goals, schedule, and research methodology. This paper should demonstrate, and ideally even extend, the skills and expertise developed over the course of study in the department. Upon completion of the capstone, students will be expected to present their work in a public forum. Recommended preparation: Junior or Senior political science major or senior political science minor and departmental prospectus form. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

POSC 401. Decision-Making in American Cities. 3 Units.

Localities are the primary interface with government and provide the basic psychological place identification for most Americans. The course will explore this assertion in the context of urban America today. How are decisions made in cities? Who shapes these decisions and why? What role is played by shifting demographics, race, and poverty? What can the individual do to influence local decision-making? Offered as POSC 301 and POSC 401.

POSC 402. State Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

State governments may make more decisions that affect the life of an average citizen than does the federal government. The study of state politics and policy includes the different ways states organize the basic parts of American political systems (such as legislatures, executives, courts and parties); how state cultures, economies, and other factors shape how political institutions work; institutions of state governance that do not exist at the national level (such as the initiative and referendum); and the continual contest between state and federal governments to control policy, shift costs, and avoid blame. Offered as POSC 302 and POSC 402.

POSC 406. Interest Groups in the Policy Process. 3 Units.

Introduction to the institutions and processes that make up the political environment of nonprofit and other organizations in the United States, beginning with an examination of the role of civil society in a democracy and continuing with the framing of issues, role of political entrepreneurs and organized interests, elections, the legislative process and strategies for influencing it, and the roles of executive institutions and the courts. Offered as POSC 306 and POSC 406.

POSC 408. The American Presidency. 3 Units.

The sources of, strategies of, and restraints on presidential leadership in the United States. Emphasis on problems of policy formation, presidential relations with Congress and executive agencies, and the electoral process. Offered as POSC 308 and POSC 408.

POSC 410. Congress in an Era of Polarization. 3 Units.

A study of Congress in the modern era with emphasis on the development of polarization, procedural changes, conflict between the legislative and executive branches during divided government, and the current state of representation. Offered as POSC 310 and POSC 410.

POSC 419. Politics and Money. 3 Units.

One of the most famous definitions of politics comes from Harold Laswell, who described it as the struggle over "who gets what, when, how." Money is at the center of most political conflict. It is a resource, a motivation, and an end unto itself. This course will examine the role of money in politics, with particular emphasis on American politics. We will discuss the role of money in elections, in the policy-making process, and what it means for representation. The course will begin with the question of the role that financial consideration play in public opinion and voting behavior. We will then address the role that money plays in election results, both in terms of its role in financing campaigns, and the relationship between the state of the economy and election results. Finally, we will discuss the policy-making process. In that context, we will address the role that interest groups play in the process, and how the quest for economic benefits for one's constituency motivates the behavior of elected officials. We will conclude by discussing how policy changes at the systematic level occur and the influence that various groups have on policy outcomes. Offered as POSC 319 and POSC 419.

POSC 421. News Media and Politics. 3 Units.

Analysis of the political role of the news media in American government and politics. Examines the fascinating relationship between reporters and politicians. Covers the overall structure and legal position of the media as well as the media's impact on the American political system. Offered as POSC 321 and POSC 421.

POSC 422. Political Movements and Political Participation. 3 Units.

Political Movements and Political Participation is concerned with the variety of ways citizens engage in collective activism in the United States and across national boundaries, and with the conditions under which citizens identify common concerns and join together in political movements to bring about change. The course begins with an examination of three general bodies of theory and research on political movements: resource mobilization, political opportunity structures, and cultural framing. We will also investigate frameworks of political participation for understanding the relationships among different expressions of collective activism and representation. In the context of these sometimes competing theories, we will consider 1) the conditions under which political movements are likely to emerge, as well as the circumstances in which collective political action is precluded; 2) how citizens come to recognize collective grievances and shared political identities; 3) the strategies and tactics of organized movements, and their likelihood of political success; and 4) the relationship between political movements, political parties, and the state. Offered as POSC 322 and POSC 422.

POSC 423. Judicial Politics. 3 Units.

Rejecting the view that judges mechanically apply the law, the study of judicial politics seeks to understand the behavior of judges as political actors with policy goals. Topics include judicial selection and socialization, judicial policy change, judicial strategy (especially the strategic interaction of judges on multi-judge panels), the interaction of courts in hierarchical judicial systems, the policy impact of judicial decisions, and the courts' interactions with coordinate branches of government (the executive, Congress, state governments, state courts). Primary focus will be on the federal judiciary, with some discussion of state judicial systems. Offered as POSC 323 and POSC 423.

POSC 425. American Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

An introductory survey of U.S. constitutional law. Special attention given to the historical, philosophical, and political dimensions of landmark Supreme Court cases. Judicial review, federalism, separation of powers, due process, and equal protection. Supreme Court's involvement in major political controversies: the New Deal, abortion, physician-assisted suicide, school desegregation, and affirmative action. Offered as POSC 325 and POSC 425.

POSC 426. Constitutions in Practical Politics. 3 Units.

Overview of ancient Greek and Roman constitution-making, medieval principles, emergence of modern constitutionalism, and the constitutionalist vision of the American and French Revolutions. Examination of contemporary constitutional issues and developments in countries such as Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ethiopia, India, and the United States. Offered as POSC 326 and POSC 426. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 427. Civil Liberties in America. 3 Units.

Supreme Court's interpretation of the First Amendment: liberty of religion through the establishment and free exercise clauses, freedoms of speech and the press, of assembly and association. The "pure tolerance" view examined against subversive speech, "fighting words," libel, and obscenity. Survey of content-neutral regulation, symbolic expression, and current efforts to limit expression (campus speech codes and the feminist anti-pornography movement). Offered as POSC 327 and POSC 427.

POSC 428. Topics in Civil Liberties. 3 Units.

Rights of the accused as outlined in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Topics covered are (1) arrests, searches, and seizures, (2) the privilege against compelled self-incrimination, (3) the rights to counsel, confrontation, and jury trial, and (4) the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments. Case-specific approach but presents interplay of history, philosophy, and politics as background of each topic. Offered as POSC 328 and POSC 428.

POSC 434. Violence and the Political System. 3 Units.

Empirical analysis of various theories advanced in the cross-cultural explanation of factors which cause and mediate the occurrence of violence--revolutions, terrorism, and civil disorder--within the political system. Offered as POSC 334 and POSC 434.

POSC 441. Elections, Voters, and Political Parties. 3 Units.

Examination of American political parties, their activities, organization, characteristics, and functions. Candidate strategies and electoral history viewed within the context of voter orientations and predispositions, stressing linkages between citizen and party and between party and government. Offered as POSC 341 and POSC 441.

POSC 442. Water. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water. Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342 and POSC 442. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 443. Public Opinion and American Democracy. 3 Units.

Examination of theories, concepts and empirical research related to attitudes and the political behavior of mass publics. Offered as POSC 343 and POSC 443.

POSC 446. Women and Politics. 3 Units.

Women and Politics involves a critical examination of the impact of gender on the forms and distributions of power and politics, with primary reference to the experience of women in the United States. Major concerns of the course include what we mean by "sex," "gender," and "politics"; the relationship between women and the state; how women organize collectively to influence state policies; and how the state facilitates and constrains women's access to and exercise of political power. The course is organized around four foci central to the study of women and politics. The first section of the course focuses on what we mean by "women," "gender," and "politics." In this section, we will consider how these concepts intersect and the ways in which each may be used to deepen our understanding of the workings of governments and political systems, and of women's relative political powerlessness. The second section of the course employs these concepts to understand the (re) emergence of the US feminist movement, its meanings, practices, and goals, and its transformation across US political history. In the third section, we turn to conventional electoral politics, focusing on women's candidacies, their campaigns, and women's voting behavior. In the final section of the course, we consider those general factors that might provide for increased gender equality and improved life status for women, in global, comparative perspective. Offered as POSC 346, POSC 446 and WGST 346. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 449. Political Science Research Methods. 3 Units.

This course examines approaches that political scientists use to understand events and processes. In doing so, the course provides students with skills helpful to completing senior projects, such as the ability to evaluate and conduct research. Through exercises and projects, students will take part in the research process from constructing a question to developing a research design to interpreting results. Students will learn and apply key techniques, including inductive and deductive reasoning, hypothesis construction, operationalization of concepts, measurements, sampling and probability, causal inference, and the logic of controls. They will produce materials common to the discipline, such as research designs. Offered as POSC 349 and POSC 449. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 451. Modern Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of a limited topic in the study of modern political thought. Topics vary. Offered as POSC 351 and POSC 451.

POSC 452. American Political Thought. 3 Units.

Examination of the unique contribution to the science of government made by American political thinkers. Offered as POSC 352 and POSC 452.

POSC 453. Political Thought and Political Change in China. 3 Units.

"No state is forever strong or forever weak," said Han Feizi, China's great legalist philosopher. He believed that as a country's conditions changed, the laws and institutions had to change to meet these new circumstances. China today faces new circumstances that have caused deep and broad challenges to its people. This has prompted serious debate among intellectuals, leaders, and average citizens about the possibility for and direction of political reform. But what might that reform look like, and how would it be conceived, if it could overcome the current barriers? This seminar will provide a fuller understanding of China's potential for political change by examining Chinese political though from Confucius, Mencius and Han Feizi through Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. These and other political philosophies have influenced China's political culture, which will influence the form of any change. Offered as POSC 353 and POSC 453.

POSC 454. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

POSC 455. Modern Political Ideologies. 3 Units.

Substance and nature of ideological thinking in the contemporary world via a survey of political "isms"--for example, liberalism, libertarianism, conservatism, fascism, socialism, and even more recent trends such as feminism, environmentalism, etc. Offered as POSC 355 and POSC 455.

POSC 456. Transitions to Democracy and Dictatorship. 3 Units.

Everyday life is dramatically different depending on whether one resides in a democracy or under a dictatorship. This course examines why some countries have democracies and others dictatorships. It explores successful, incomplete, and failed transitions to democracy. The incomplete transitions result in hybrid regimes, stuck between democracy and dictatorship, and the outright failures result in non-democracies, such as dictatorships. The course examines examples from most regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, the former Soviet Union, North America, and South America. Offered as POSC 356 and POSC 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 457. Democratic Politics: Theory and Practice. 3 Units.

Study of the theory and application of democracy. The concept of democracy will be examined from the Athenian model to contemporary debates over participatory and deliberative models. Then the concept will be applied to understanding issues of democratic practice and the study of politics in American, comparative, and international arenas. Finally, the course will address the potential effects, both good and ill, of technological innovation on democratic practices, such as "distance" participation, the Internet, and other communication technology. Offered as POSC 357 and POSC 457.

POSC 458. Political Strategy. 3 Units.

This course examines practical applications of prominent political science theories. It is partly a how-to course covering a broad range of political activities, but the primary objective is to link practical issues with theories to help you understand why events happen the way they do. The course focuses on American politics, but the materials will be applicable to a wide range of situations. The course is a seminar requiring regular student presentations that will generate discussion about the readings and current events. Papers consist of analysis of current events, and require students to analyze the strategies used by prominent figures in the context of the theories we discuss in class. Offered as POSC 358 and POSC 458. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 460. Revolts and Revolutions in Global Perspective. 3 Units.

The Arab protests of 2011 gripped the attention of the world. Young protestors succeeded in unseating some long time rulers but in other cases tense standoffs have evolved. This course takes those events as a starting point to examine the broader political history of revolts and revolutions in the global south. The first part of the course examines some of the classic social science debates about what constitutes revolution, what leads to revolution, and what the effects can be. The second part of the course analyzes specific cases in Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia to understand the causes and consequences of revolt and revolution. What drives everyday persons to brave the dangers of protest? When and why do political leaders decide to resist or reform? What happens when revolts fail? What happens when they succeed? Material for the course will include classic social science narratives, revolutionary polemics, popular analyses of events since 2011, examples of social media as political action, and first person narratives. Offered as POSC 360 and POSC 460. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 461. State-Building and State Collapse. 3 Units.

Are nation-states the most effective means of organizing society? This course explores this question by examining the historical rationales behind the development of the nation-state, contemporary challenges to the nation-state, and potential alternatives to the nation-state. Possible challenges to the nation-state include multinational corporations, international humanitarian intervention, and regional integration. Alternative providers of state services include charities, companies, and mercenaries. Offered as POSC 361 and POSC 461. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 462. Politics of Central Asia. 3 Units.

Once an unfamiliar region to many people of the world, Central Asia took center stage in the fall of 2001 as a result of the U.S. campaign against terrorism. This course will introduce students to the politics of Central Asia, focusing on the region today composed of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgiszstan, and Kazakkhstan. We will review the nationalism, foreign relations, religion, ethnicity, and economics of the region. Offered as ETHS 362, POSC 362, and POSC 462. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 463. Comparative Analysis of Elections and Electoral Systems. 3 Units.

Elections involve more than a simple act of voting to express individual preferences. The rules under which worldwide elections are held determine who controls the executive and how votes are converted into legislative seats. The mechanics of various electoral arrangements will be examined in detail and the consequences for the political system discussed in terms of strategies and desired outcomes on the part of contestants. Students will research individual countries and analyze recent elections from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives, including introduction to geospatial data for mapping variations in electoral behavior. Offered as POSC 363 and POSC 463. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 464. Dictatorship and Democracy in Modern Latin America. 3 Units.

Examination of political leadership in 20th-century Latin America, exploring the nature, causes, and consequences of dictatorship and democracy in the region, moving from the collapse of oligarchic rule and the emergence of populism in the 1930s and 1940s, to the end of democracy and establishment of military regimes in the 1960s and 1970s, and ultimately to the contemporary processes of democratization and economic liberalization. Offered as ETHS 364, POSC 364, and POSC 464. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 466. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of the political forces and organizations currently functioning in Africa, as well as a survey of the formal government institutions. Special emphasis on single-party rule, military rule, and the political ramifications of African socialism, tribalism and the problems of national integration. Offered as ETHS 366, POSC 366, and POSC 466.

POSC 467. Western European Political Systems. 3 Units.

Comparative analysis of sociopolitical systems of selected Western European industrial democracies, using North American systems as a point of comparison. Offered as POSC 367 and POSC 467.

POSC 469. Ethnicity, Gender, and Religion in Latin American Politics and Society. 3 Units.

This course focuses on aspects of Latin America's social and political realities and dilemmas. It will first explore race, gender, and religion, and then tackle revolution, democracy and populism. Throughout, the entire region's history, geography, and culture(s) will be considered; for example, the European and indigenous legacies in Mexico and Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador; the Asian presence in Peru and Brazil; the African contributions to Cuba and Brazil, female heads of state, such as Nicaragua's Violeta Chamorro, Chile's Michelle Bachelet, Argentina's Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, Costa Rica's Laura Chinchilla, and Brazil's Dilma Rousseff. The class will explore Liberation Theology and the new Pope's worries about the declining number of Catholics in the region. Today's multiparty democracy in Mexico, Hugo Chavez's 14-year rule in Venezuela, and Cuba's international humanitarian aid would not be possible without revolution(s) and populism. They are intertwined with ethnicity, gender, and religion. Offered as ETHS 369, POSC 369 and POSC 469. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 470A. Political Economy. 3 Units.

Focus on debates concerning the proper relationship between political and economic systems, including conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives. The politics of international economics and the economics of international politics receive separate attention. The course concludes with study of "modern" political economy and the application of economic theory to the study of political systems. Offered as POSC 370A and POSC 470A.

POSC 470C. The United States and Asia. 3 Units.

Survey and analysis of U.S.-Asia relations in the post-World War II period. Focus specifically is on the interaction of politics and economics in the United States' relations with Japan, China, and Southeast Asian countries. Topics will include the role of Asia in U.S. Cold War policies, the dynamics of U.S.-Japan alliance politics, post-Cold War issues involving U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, a history and analysis of economic conflict cooperation, and an examination of the move toward Asia-Pacific "regionalism." Offered as POSC 370C and POSC 470C.

POSC 470D. The Politics of China. 3 Units.

Now more than ever, the Chinese state and society are facing tremendous economic, social, and political challenges. This course presents an overview of current issues facing the People's Republic, including a changing (or not) political culture, policy processes and outcomes at the national and local levels, reform and economic growth, the resultant societal changes and pressures, and the consequent challenges the Communist Party faces as demand for political reform grows. The class involves a mixture of lectures and discussion and draws on a combination of primary and secondary sources, including current news reports and films. Offered as POSC 370D and POSC 470D. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 470F. Financial Politics in the United States and the World. 3 Units.

This course explores how political institutions make policy in the financial area with particular emphasis on the United States. Using a bureaucratic politics framework, it examines money, banks and the securities industry by integrating a wide range of literature in economics and political science. Specific objectives include familiarizing students with different approaches to the political economy of finance from different disciplines, exploring the historical evolution of finance, examining the changing relationship between public and private authority within the financial system, considering how politics operates in a crisis, and evaluating the role of international financial institutions in the global economy. By taking this course, students will equip themselves for further research into politics and economics, as well as offer them tools to analyze future policy developments as they unfold. Offered as POSC 370F and POSC 470F.

POSC 470G. U.S. Intelligence and National Security. 3 Units.

Examination of the impact of the intelligence process on foreign policy making and superpower relations. Covers the life cycle of United States strategic intelligence from the collection of data to formulation of analytic judgments and the policy-level uses of intelligence. Emphasis on contemporary intelligence issues and processes, but includes the formative period of modern American intelligence in the World War II era. Offered as POSC 370G and POSC 470G.

POSC 470H. China's Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

The rise of China is evident in the country's more forward and robust foreign policy that began in 1979. At every turn, nations throughout the world must now consider China wherever their interests are at stake, be it Korea and Northeast Asia, Indochina and Southeast Asia, India/Pakistan and South Asia, or Afghanistan and Iran in the Middle East, not to mention the many African states that welcome Chinese investment but chafe at China's presence. Further, China is increasingly aggressive in international trade, a major determinant of its foreign policy. This course describes the key factors that make up Chinese foreign policy, including its cultural tradition, policy-making institutions, the role of the military, and domestic determinants of foreign policy. The course also examines China's ever-changing foreign policy strategies, from an aggressive posture to charming its neighbors only to become more strident once again. The course will also examine China's role involving possible mercantilism, currency manipulation, and the hunt for traditional and alternative energy sources. Throughout the course, we will pay attention to how China's foreign policy relates to international relations theories and what strategies might be used to manage China's growing role in international affairs. Offered as POSC 370H and POSC 470H. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 470J. International Law and Organizations. 3 Units.

Study of international organizations and international law as two means for regulating and coordinating nation-state behavior. History of the two techniques will be traced, covering 19th century efforts at cooperation, the League of Nations and the United Nations, regional and specialized global organization. The functions of international law in global politics will be stressed, with primary focus on the evolving role of law in dealing with global problems, e.g., war, the environment, economic cooperation, and human rights. Offered as POSC 370J and POSC 470J.

POSC 470K. Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Religion in World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the post-Cold War surge in conflicts among nationalisms, ethnic groups, and religions with particular attention to the former Yugoslavia, Ireland, India, Africa, and the Middle East. Offered as ETHS 370K, POSC 370K, and POSC 470K.

POSC 470M. Theories of Political Economy. 3 Units.

This course is a SAGES departmental seminar in political economy that brings a wide range of theoretical perspectives to bear on the relations between market and state in the contemporary world. It focuses on three questions: What have been the major debates concerning the role of the government in the economy? How were these debates resolved in the compromise of embedded liberalism, and What experiences have individual states had with these questions of political economy? To answer these questions, we will read original literature to uncover the connections among politics, economics, and the world of ideas that has resulted in the political debates we confront today. Offered as POSC 370M and POSC 470M. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 471. Natural Resources and World Politics. 3 Units.

Examination of the political causes and ramifications of the uneven distribution of the valuable natural resources for modern industrial societies. Strategic and military issues and the exploitation of the sea bed. Examination in some detail of selected commodity issues, including petroleum, copper and uranium. Offered as POSC 371 and POSC 471.

POSC 472. Activism Beyond Borders: NGOs and International Advocacy. 3 Units.

This course examines the role of non-state actors, and particularly non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in world politics. We will begin with a survey of traditional theoretical approaches to international relations, so that students can be conversant in the basic theory and vocabulary of the discipline. We then examine the growing role of NGOs in world politics amidst the broader trend of globalization, and the academic and policy debates surrounding each. After this primer, the course will examine four "big questions" with respect to international activism: 1) When do NGOs mobilize? 2) What tactics do they use? 3) What explains success and failure in advocacy? 4) What are the broader political implications of a global class of elite advocates? Offered as POSC 372 and POSC 472.

POSC 473. Politics of the European Union. 3 Units.

Study of the origins, operations, and prospects for the European Union. This can include the historical context for the effort to restrict national rivalries (which fueled two world wars) and create common interests; the diplomatic challenges in finding common ground; the tasks and processes of governance within the EU, including its governing institutions, enforcement of terms for European Monetary Union and the operations of its bureaucracies; the social pressures that create policy challenges (such as agriculture policy and immigration); broad tensions within the enterprise (e.g., "broadening" vs. "deepening"), and the EU's potential place in international politics, especially the efforts to create a common foreign and security policy and the possible implications of the Euro for international political economy. Offered as POSC 373 and POSC 473.

POSC 474. Politics of Development in the Global South. 3 Units.

Exploration of the post-World War II emergence of the Global South nations of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Eastern Europe arena. Offered as ETHS 374, POSC 374, and POSC 474.

POSC 475. The International Politics of Technology. 3 Units.

Technology is deeply political. Nowhere is this statement more evident than in the realm of international relations, where governments perceive technology as a source of power and wealth and a symbol of relative position and modernity. Yet for centuries skeptics have questioned the economic rationale of government technology policies. Still, to this day, countries support emulation, innovation and a host of other strategies as means for catching up with leading nations or locking in current advantages. What lies behind such policies? What do they accomplish? And what are the domestic and international politics surrounding them? After reading classic arguments, including texts by Adam Smith, Alexander Hamilton and Friedrich List, students will consider 20th and 21st century debates and an array of experiments tried by poor, middle-income and rich countries. Cases include the development of new industries; the imposition of sanctions; the dilemma of dual technologies and military spillovers; the forging of national champions; the reorganization of banks and the creation of international financial centers; the copying of regional clusters (e.g. Silicon Valley) and stock markets (e.g. the Nasdaq); and the extraterritorial extension of domestic regulation and governance techniques. There are no prerequisites and first year students are welcome. Offered as POSC 375 and POSC 475. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 476. United States Foreign Policy. 3 Units.

Focus on U.S. foreign policy making with a dynamic network of executive and congressional actors and organizations; analysis of traditional and contemporary U.S. foreign policies from nuclear defense to current economic resource issues; future role of the United States in world affairs. Offered as POSC 376 and POSC 476.

POSC 477. Politics of Russia. 3 Units.

Russia faces three problems: the creation of a sovereign state, the development of a new political system, and the restructuring of its economy. In this course we will challenge the assumption that the outcome of these three transitions will be a strong, democratic, capitalist country. We will ask whether civil war, organized crime, an immature party system, poor social services, and nomenklatura privatization bode poorly for these three transformations. Offered as POSC 377 and POSC 477. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 478. International Relations Theory. 3 Units.

This course is a seminar in international relations theory. As such, we will bring a wide range of theoretical perspectives to bear on issues and debates in the area of international relations by systematically studying the evolution of the world system. The seminar is roughly divided into a first half focusing on war and the political system, and a second half focusing on trade, finance and the economic system. Each section devotes particular attention to ethical problems associated with political and economic issues. This course should develop students' ability to read and critically evaluate academic literature in the field of international relations, and enable students to produce a scholarly paper on one substantive area of the field. Offered as POSC 378 and POSC 478. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 479. Introduction to Middle East Politics. 3 Units.

This is an introductory course about Middle East Politics, in regional as well as international aspects. In this course we will explore broad social, economic, and political themes that have defined the region since the end of World War Two. Since this is an introductory course, a major goal will be to gain comparative knowledge about the region's states and peoples. The countries that comprise the modern Middle East are quite diverse; therefore, we will only be able to focus on a few cases in depth. A second goal is to use the tools and theories social scientists employ to answer broad questions related to the region, such as: How have colonial legacies shaped political and economic development in the Middle East? How do oil, religion, and identity interact with politics? How have external powers affected the region's political development? What do the uprisings of 2011 hold for the region's future? Offered as POSC 379 and POSC 479. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 481. City as Classroom. 3 Units.

In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles. Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

POSC 483. Health Policy and Politics in the United States. 3 Units.

Overview of the principal institutions, processes, social forces, and ideas shaping the U.S. health system. Historical, political, economic, and sociological perspectives on the health system are explored as well as the intellectual context of recent policy changes, challenges, and developments. Students will acquire a sense of how health services are financed and delivered in the U.S. They will also learn how to assess its performance compared to that of other similar countries. Offered as POSC 383 and POSC 483.

POSC 484. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as PHIL 384, PHIL 484, POSC 384 and POSC 484.

POSC 485. U.S. Bureaucratic Politics. 3 Units.

Bureaucracy is one of civilization's most important inventions. It is a way of coordinating very large numbers of people so as to do work, make decisions, and exercise power. Without it, much of modern life would be impossible. Yet "bureaucracy" is normally seen, in public discussion, as a problem, instead of as a solution. This course will consider both the reasons for and pathologies of bureaucratic organization. Its special focus is bureaucracy in American government. The course therefore will provide some introduction to the study of American public administration, but with special emphasis on how the work and performance of public bureaucracies in the United States is shaped by the specific tasks they are given and the distribution of power in the American political arena. Offered as POSC 385 and POSC 485. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

POSC 486. Making Public Policy. 3 Units.

Politics is about who wins, who loses, and why. Policy, by contrast, is often depicted as more "neutral;" policies are the means through which political decisions are carried out. In this class, we examine the notion that policy is the rational, impartial counterpart to the political arena. We will ask: How are public policies made? Why do some issues make it on to the agenda, while others do not? Can we separate facts from values, or are both always contested? We will examine how decision-making in a group introduces distinct challenges for policymaking. The course focuses on widely applicable themes of policymaking, drawing on both domestic and international examples. Offered as POSC 386 and POSC 486.

POSC 488. Politics, Policy, and the Global Environment. 3 Units.

This course examines the law, politics and policy surrounding global environmental challenges such as climate change. The course aims to provide a broad overview of the key concepts, actors, debates, and issues in global environmental politics. It aims to illustrate the complexities of addressing environmental problems-from the proliferation of global institutions and international actors, to the absence of central enforcement mechanisms. We examine the causes of environmental degradation and competing views on the gravity of the problem. Using concepts from political science and economics, we investigate the challenges in getting states to act jointly to address environmental problems. We examine the actors and institutions of global environmental politics, to understand how conditions are defined as problems and responses are chosen and implemented. The course concludes by applying the tools and concepts to the case of climate change. Offered as ESTD 388, POSC 388 and POSC 488.

POSC 489. Special Topics in American Politics and Policy. 3 Units.

Specific topic will vary but will consist of an in-depth investigation of a particular policy area or political phenomenon. Topics will involve policy controversies of some current interest. Offered as POSC 389 and POSC 489.

POSC 490. Special Topics in International Relations. 3 Units.

This course will vary semester to semester and will focus on International Relations topics such as statecraft and diplomacy in contemporary world affairs; weak states and international sovereignty; and transnational soft law. A description of the topic(s) being covered will be available on the political science website each semester that the course is offered. Students may take this course more than once for up to 9 credits, when different topics are covered. Offered as POSC 390 and POSC 490.

POSC 491. Special Topics in Comparative Politics. 3 Units.

This course will vary semester to semester and will focus on comparative politics topics involving political issues and/or controversies of some current interest. These may include some of the following: federal vs unitary political systems, nationalism and national identity, independence movements in developed countries, comparative political behavior, national and supranational political organization, comparative public policy, political violence and violent conflict, comparative political economy, varieties of democracy, the comparative politics of gender, comparative race and ethnicity, among others. A description of the specific course topic focus will be available on the political science website each semester that the course is offered. Students may take this course more than once (up to 9 credits) so long as the topics are different. Offered as POSC 391 and POSC 491.

POSC 495. Independent Study. 3 Units.

Graduate level independent study taken for a grade.

POSC 601. Individual Investigation. 1 - 6 Units.

The student must submit to the departmental office a project prospectus form, approved and signed by the faculty project supervisor, no later than the end of the second week of classes. The prospectus must outline the goals of the project and the research methodology to be used and is part of the basis for grading. The prospectus form is available from the departmental office. Prereq: Departmental prospectus form, graduate standing, and consent of department.

POSC 651. Thesis M.A.. 1 - 6 Units.

Independent study of a research question and completion of a major research paper. An approved prospectus is required. Prereq: Graduate standing.

POSC 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 9 Units.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.