PHIL (PHIL)

PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Units.

Basic problems of philosophy and methods of philosophical thinking. Problems raised by science, morality, religion, politics, and art. Readings from classical and contemporary philosophers. Normally given in multiple sections with different instructors and possibly with different texts. All sections share core materials in theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and ethics despite differences that may exist in emphasis.

PHIL 201. Introduction to Logic. 3 Units.

Presentation, application, and evaluation of formal methods for determining the validity of arguments. Discussion of the relationship between logic and other disciplines. Counts for CAS Quantitative Reasoning Requirement.

PHIL 203. Revolutions in Science. 3 Units.

Historical and philosophical interpretation of some epochal events in development of science. Copernican revolution, Newtonian mechanics, Einstein's relativity physics, quantum mechanics, and evolutionary theory; patterns of scientific growth; structure of scientific "revolutions;" science and "pseudo-science." First half of a year-long sequence. Offered as HSTY 203 and PHIL 203.

PHIL 204. Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

Conceptual, methodological, and epistemological issues about science: concept formation, explanation, prediction, confirmation, theory construction and status of unobservables; metaphysical presuppositions and implications of science; semantics of scientific language; illustrations from special sciences. Second half of a year-long sequence. Offered as HSTY 207 and PHIL 204.

PHIL 205. Contemporary Moral Problems. 3 Units.

Examination of selected contemporary moral problems and contemporary faces of perennial moral problems such as: when, if ever, lying is justified; the value of honesty and of confidentiality; under what circumstances, if any, various types of killing (suicide, execution, in war, euthanasia, killing of lower animals or ecosystems) are justified. Additional moral problems raised by new knowledge (such as genetic information) or new technology (such as rights to digital information), and responsible uses of these and other sources of power. Clarification of the concepts of value, ethical evaluation and justification, ethical argument, moral relevance, and the notion of a moral problem itself. Readings will draw on classical and contemporary sources in philosophy.

PHIL 221. Indian Philosophy. 3 Units.

We will survey the origins of Indian philosophical thought, with an emphasis on early Buddhist, Hindu and Jain literature. Our concern will be the methods, presuppositions, arguments, and goals of these schools and trajectories of thought. What were their theories on the nature of the person, the nature of reality, and the nature and process of knowing? What were the debates between the schools and the major points of controversy? And, most importantly, are the positions/arguments internally incoherent? Offered as PHIL 221 and RLGN 221. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 225. Evolution. 3 Units.

Multidisciplinary study of the course and processes of organic evolution provides a broad understanding of the evolution of structural and functional diversity, the relationships among organisms and their environments, and the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of organisms. Topics include the genetic basis of micro- and macro-evolutionary change, the concept of adaptation, natural selection, population dynamics, theories of species formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory. Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, EEPS 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.

PHIL 270. Introduction to Gender Studies. 3 Units.

This course introduces women and men students to the methods and concepts of gender studies, women's studies, and feminist theory. An interdisciplinary course, it covers approaches used in literary criticism, history, philosophy, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, film studies, cultural studies, art history, and religion. It is the required introductory course for students taking the women's and gender studies major. Offered as ENGL 270, HSTY 270, PHIL 270, RLGN 270, SOCI 201, and WGST 201. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: ENGL 150 or passing letter grade in a 100 level first year seminar in FSCC, FSNA, FSSO, FSSY, FSTS, or FSCS.

PHIL 271. Bioethics: Dilemmas. 3 Units.

We have the genetic technology to change nature and human nature, but should we? We have the medical technology to extend almost any human life, but is this always good? Should we clone humans? Should we allow doctor-assisted suicide for the terminally ill? This course invites students from all academic disciplines and fields to examine current and future issues in bioethics--e.g., theory and methods in bioethics; death and dying; organ transplantation; genetics; aging and dementia; fertility and reproduction; distributive justice in health care access. The course will include guest lecturers from nationally-known Bioethics faculty. Offered as BETH 271 and PHIL 271.

PHIL 301. Ancient Philosophy. 3 Units.

Western philosophy from the early Greeks to the Skeptics. Emphasis on the pre-Socratics, Plato and Aristotle. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 and consent of department. Offered as CLSC 301 and PHIL 301.

PHIL 302. Modern Philosophy. 3 Units.

British empiricism: Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Continental rationalism: Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. The critical philosophy of Kant. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or consent of instructor.

PHIL 303. Topics in Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences (e.g., evolution, teleology, and functional explanation); explanation and understanding in social sciences; value in social science. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201 or PHIL 203. Offered as PHIL 303 and PHIL 403.

PHIL 304. Science and Engineering Ethics. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the scientific and engineering workplace, to understand ethical concepts, to evaluate ethical arguments, and to critically examine responses to problems and their ethical ramifications. It addresses questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is research misconduct? When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports do good organizations give for raising them? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice? What are good means for controlling it? What are scientists' and engineers' responsibilities for environmental protection? What is a "conflict of interest" and how is it controlled? What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What, if any, use of animals in research is justified? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 304 and PHIL 404.

PHIL 305. Ethics. 3 Units.

Analysis of ethical theories and concepts of goodness, right, and obligation. Discussion of nature of justice, problem of justification of moral principles, and relation between facts and values. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 305 and PHIL 405.

PHIL 306. Mathematical Logic and Model Theory. 3 Units.

Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; Gödel incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Offered as PHIL 306, MATH 406 and PHIL 406.

PHIL 307. Philosophy of Biology. 3 Units.

This class looks at the philosophical dimensions of various problems in historical and contemporary evolutionary biology. Topics covered include (1) the theory of natural selection; (2) extinction; (3) human evolution; and (4) higher order evolutionary units and processes. Offered as PHIL 307 and PHIL 407.

PHIL 311. Neuroethics. 3 Units.

Ethics is traditionally a branch of Philosophy. However, research in neuroscience, psychology and behavioral economics is shedding new light on the underlying bases of ethical behavior and ethical thinking. The class will examine how this work informs and enriches traditional philosophical ethics. Topical focus of the class will depend on student interest, but potentially include: What determines how ethically we behave: our character or our situation? What role do and should emotions play in ethical thinking? Can science tell us whether utilitarian or deontological ethics is better? The dark tetrad: narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and; sadism. What is empathy and what roles does it play in generating both ethical and unethical behavior. Varieties of moral disengagement, including dehumanizing. Cognitive dissonance and the slide into unethical behavior. Radicalization into violent extremism. Promoting ethical behavior. Offered as PHIL 311 and PHIL 411.

PHIL 313. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Units.

Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths. Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201. Offered as PHIL 313 and PHIL 413.

PHIL 315. Selected Topics in Philosophy. 3 Units.

Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

PHIL 316. African Political Thought. 3 Units.

Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the "nation-state" as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa. Offered as PHIL 316, ETHS 316, PHIL 316, and ETHS 416. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 317. War and Morality. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals. War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility. This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. Offered as PHIL 317, PHIL 417, and LAWS 5135.

PHIL 320. The Phenomenological Tradition. 3 Units.

The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl's phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger's transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 322. The Science of Happiness. 3 Units.

Open to all students (no prerequisites) interested in happiness, this course provides an intellectually rigorous introduction to the philosophy and science of happiness. Philosophy is often considered a dry academic subject; however the best philosophy is personal and transforms our view of the world. In recent years, science has made huge strides in understanding the psychology and neuroscience of human happiness. This course blends these two sources of insight to address such critical questions as: What is happiness? To what extent is it determined by our genes? To what extent can we control our own happiness? What factors contribute to an individual's happiness? Should we be concerned just with our own happiness, or also with the happiness of others? If happiness is a state of mind, can we change our thinking to make ourselves happier? Every self-proclaimed sage, and countless authors of self-help books, claims to know the secret to happiness. This course provides a more intellectually rigorous approach, based on the writings of great philosophers and cutting edge science. Offered as PHIL 322 and PHIL 422.

PHIL 325. Philosophy of Feminism. 3 Units.

Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325, PHIL 425 and WGST 325. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 330. Topics in Ethics. 3 Units.

Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 333. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Units.

Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God's existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102. Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 334. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 335. Philosophy of Law. 3 Units.

This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as LAWS 5747, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 345. Epistemology and Metaphysics. 3 Units.

Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 355. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy. 3 Units.

History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 356. Comparative Philosophy. 3 Units.

Philosophy in the etymological sense of the term, love of wisdom, subsumes ontological, ethical and epistemological inquires addressing fundamental questions about reality, the place of humans in that reality, the values of things and human obligations, and the sources of knowledge. The major purpose of this course is to discover, understand, explicate and articulate the affinities and differences in the way the fundamental questions are addressed in different cultural contexts, thereby to appreciate the cross-cultural kinship among human minds as well as to be challenged by the differences that may engender conflicts. We will explore the possibility of building a trans-cultural meta-cultural meta-discourse in which thinkers from many traditions can participate on equal footing. We will come to face up to the question whether truly universal philosophy is possible, upon what conditions. Representative texts from the Western, Chinese and Buddhist traditions including selected works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lao Tzu, Confucius, Chuang Tzu, Dhammapada of the Buddha and D. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism will be read. Offered as PHIL 356 and PHIL 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101 or requisites not met permission.

PHIL 360. Science and Society. 3 Units.

This course examines the complex ethical and other value relationships that exist between science and society. Students will be encouraged to question the simplistic view that science proceeds independently of societal values and contentious ethical commitments. A range of other social factors, such as ethical belief systems, political forces, and large-scale financial interests all influence new scientific and technological developments. In order to illuminate each of these larger themes, this course focuses on three exciting areas of scientific inquiry: stem cell research; synthetic biology; and nanotechnology. Each of these contentious scientific fields provides an excellent view into the challenging ethical, cultural, social, political, and economic issues that will face students, both as scholars and as citizens. No prior technical knowledge is necessary for any of these scientific areas. All relevant scientific information will be provided during the course by the professor. Offered as BETH 360, BETH 460 and PHIL 360.

PHIL 366. Brain, Mind and Consciousness: The Science and Philosophy of Mind. 3 Units.

The course introduces students to key topics in philosophy of mind from the perspective of our increasingly advanced scientific understanding of mind and brain (e.g. derived from neuroscience, psychology and cognitive science). Key philosophical topics covered include dualism, physicalism, idealism, consciousness and free will. Key scientific issues covered include methods and assumptions underlying research in psychology and neuroscience, introspection, essentialism, dehumanizing, and work on free will and consciousness. No pre-requisites other than curiosity are required, however students will benefit from having previously taken courses in philosophy, neuroscience, psychology and/or computer science. Students are expected to complete the assigned readings with care and attention, and to participate in discussion. The goal is for students to leave with an understanding of the rich ways in which different approaches can shed light on the human mind, including an appreciation of the limits of scientific inquiry into the mind. Offered as PHIL 366 and PHIL 466.

PHIL 367. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467. Prereq: PHIL 225 or equivalent.

PHIL 368. Evolutionary Biology Capstone. 3 Units.

This course focuses on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology that will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. Students will participate in discussions and lead class seminars on evolutionary topics and in collaboration with an advisor or advisors, select a topic for a research paper or project. Each student will write a major research report or complete a major project and will make a public presentation of her/his findings. Offered as ANTH 368, BIOL 369, and PHIL 368. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 371. Advanced Bioethics. 3 Units.

This course offers upper-level instruction on many key bioethical issues introduced in BETH/PHIL 271. The class follows a discussion-intensive seminar format. Students begin with an in-depth analysis of ethical issues surrounding the conduct of clinical trials, both within the U.S. and through U.S.-sponsored research abroad. Next students examine the philosophical and practical challenges involved in medical decision making for adults and pediatric patients. This course concludes by addressing the broader ethical problem of what duties we owe to future generations in terms of our reproductive choices and the allocation of health-related public expenditures. Each of these general topic areas - clinical trials, medical decision making, and future generations - is of crucial importance for all students whether one plans to enter a career in biomedical research, the healthcare professions, or some other career path. Everyone is a potential patient or the family member of a potential patient. The topics covered in Advanced Bioethics will help prepare students to become responsible participants in an increasingly complex biomedical world. Offered as BETH 371 and PHIL 371. Prereq: BETH 271 or PHIL 271.

PHIL 375. Issues in Aesthetics. 3 Units.

This course will seek to offer insight into the nature of artistic expression, the role of criticism in the arts, and the place of the arts in society. The term "arts" will be construed broadly to include painting, photography, theater, film, music, dance, poetry, etc. The following are examples of questions we will discuss. What does the term "beautiful" mean? Are there other measures of aesthetic value besides beauty? Do the arts, like the sciences, offer us knowledge of the world? What value do the arts have for society? Can aesthetic value conflict with moral value? Do artists have a responsibility to society? Should art ever be censored? What is the relationship between art and entertainment? Is the meaning and value of an artistic work a matter of individual opinion? What is the purpose of art critics? How are interpretations and evaluations of art influenced by race, gender, class, etc.? What is creativity in the arts? Does it differ from creativity in the sciences? How important is originality in art? Offered as PHIL 375 and PHIL 475. Prereq: PHIL 101 or requisite not met permission.

PHIL 381. Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the various methodologies used in the cognitive neurosciences, and explore their strengths and weaknesses from scientific and philosophical standpoints. We will begin by examining baseline measures (including IQ tests, tasks of cognitive flexibility, verbal and visual memory, causal/sequential thinking and narrative tasks) and their experimental design. Lesion methods will follow, with an eye toward understanding the strength of inferences that can be drawn from such data. The course will also focus on imaging techniques (CAT, PET, SPECT, fMRI, TMS, etc.) as well as measures of electrical activity such as EEG and single-cell recordings. Students will become familiar with many fundamental assumptions necessary for the implementation of each method, and philosophical questions associated with these endeavors and their potential impact on our knowledge and society. Recommend preparation: PHIL 101 or COGS 201. Offered as COGS 381 and PHIL 381.

PHIL 384. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as PHIL 384, PHIL 484, POSC 384 and POSC 484.

PHIL 385. Philosophy of Language. 3 Units.

Nature of language; problems of meaning, reference, and truth. Offered as PHIL 385 and PHIL 485. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 390. Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

Directed independent research seminar for seniors who are majors in the History and Philosophy of Science program. The goal of the course is to develop and demonstrate command of B.A.-level factual content, methodologies, research strategies, historiography, and theory relevant to the field of history of science and/or philosophy of science. The course includes both written and oral components. Offered as HSTY 380 and PHIL 390. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 396. Undergraduate Research in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

Students propose and conduct guided research on an aspect of evolutionary biology. The research will be sponsored and supervised by a member of the CASE faculty or other qualified professional. A written report must be submitted to the Evolutionary Biology Steering Committee before credit is granted. Offered as ANTH 396, BIOL 396, EEPS 396, and PHIL 396.

PHIL 397. Directed Study. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will undertake a project that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will result in a final report.

PHIL 398. Philosophy Capstone. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will undertake a project that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will result in a final report and public presentation. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 399. Philosophy Honors Thesis. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will complete a substantial thesis that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will be the subject of an oral examination as well as a public presentation. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 403. Topics in Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences (e.g., evolution, teleology, and functional explanation); explanation and understanding in social sciences; value in social science. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201 or PHIL 203. Offered as PHIL 303 and PHIL 403.

PHIL 404. Science and Engineering Ethics. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the scientific and engineering workplace, to understand ethical concepts, to evaluate ethical arguments, and to critically examine responses to problems and their ethical ramifications. It addresses questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is research misconduct? When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports do good organizations give for raising them? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice? What are good means for controlling it? What are scientists' and engineers' responsibilities for environmental protection? What is a "conflict of interest" and how is it controlled? What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What, if any, use of animals in research is justified? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 304 and PHIL 404.

PHIL 405. Ethics. 3 Units.

Analysis of ethical theories and concepts of goodness, right, and obligation. Discussion of nature of justice, problem of justification of moral principles, and relation between facts and values. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 305 and PHIL 405.

PHIL 406. Mathematical Logic and Model Theory. 3 Units.

Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; Gödel incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Offered as PHIL 306, MATH 406 and PHIL 406.

PHIL 407. Philosophy of Biology. 3 Units.

This class looks at the philosophical dimensions of various problems in historical and contemporary evolutionary biology. Topics covered include (1) the theory of natural selection; (2) extinction; (3) human evolution; and (4) higher order evolutionary units and processes. Offered as PHIL 307 and PHIL 407.

PHIL 411. Neuroethics. 3 Units.

Ethics is traditionally a branch of Philosophy. However, research in neuroscience, psychology and behavioral economics is shedding new light on the underlying bases of ethical behavior and ethical thinking. The class will examine how this work informs and enriches traditional philosophical ethics. Topical focus of the class will depend on student interest, but potentially include: What determines how ethically we behave: our character or our situation? What role do and should emotions play in ethical thinking? Can science tell us whether utilitarian or deontological ethics is better? The dark tetrad: narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and; sadism. What is empathy and what roles does it play in generating both ethical and unethical behavior. Varieties of moral disengagement, including dehumanizing. Cognitive dissonance and the slide into unethical behavior. Radicalization into violent extremism. Promoting ethical behavior. Offered as PHIL 311 and PHIL 411.

PHIL 413. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Units.

Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths. Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201. Offered as PHIL 313 and PHIL 413.

PHIL 415. Selected Topics in Philosophy. 3 Units.

Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

PHIL 416. African Political Thought. 3 Units.

Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the "nation-state" as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa. Offered as PHIL 316, ETHS 316, PHIL 316, and ETHS 416. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 417. War and Morality. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals. War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility. This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. Offered as PHIL 317, PHIL 417, and LAWS 5135.

PHIL 420. The Phenomenological Tradition. 3 Units.

The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl's phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger's transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 422. The Science of Happiness. 3 Units.

Open to all students (no prerequisites) interested in happiness, this course provides an intellectually rigorous introduction to the philosophy and science of happiness. Philosophy is often considered a dry academic subject; however the best philosophy is personal and transforms our view of the world. In recent years, science has made huge strides in understanding the psychology and neuroscience of human happiness. This course blends these two sources of insight to address such critical questions as: What is happiness? To what extent is it determined by our genes? To what extent can we control our own happiness? What factors contribute to an individual's happiness? Should we be concerned just with our own happiness, or also with the happiness of others? If happiness is a state of mind, can we change our thinking to make ourselves happier? Every self-proclaimed sage, and countless authors of self-help books, claims to know the secret to happiness. This course provides a more intellectually rigorous approach, based on the writings of great philosophers and cutting edge science. Offered as PHIL 322 and PHIL 422.

PHIL 425. Philosophy of Feminism. 3 Units.

Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325, PHIL 425 and WGST 325. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 430. Topics in Ethics. 3 Units.

Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 433. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Units.

Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God's existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102. Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 434. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 435. Philosophy of Law. 3 Units.

This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as LAWS 5747, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 445. Epistemology and Metaphysics. 3 Units.

Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 455. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy. 3 Units.

History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 456. Comparative Philosophy. 3 Units.

Philosophy in the etymological sense of the term, love of wisdom, subsumes ontological, ethical and epistemological inquires addressing fundamental questions about reality, the place of humans in that reality, the values of things and human obligations, and the sources of knowledge. The major purpose of this course is to discover, understand, explicate and articulate the affinities and differences in the way the fundamental questions are addressed in different cultural contexts, thereby to appreciate the cross-cultural kinship among human minds as well as to be challenged by the differences that may engender conflicts. We will explore the possibility of building a trans-cultural meta-cultural meta-discourse in which thinkers from many traditions can participate on equal footing. We will come to face up to the question whether truly universal philosophy is possible, upon what conditions. Representative texts from the Western, Chinese and Buddhist traditions including selected works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lao Tzu, Confucius, Chuang Tzu, Dhammapada of the Buddha and D. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism will be read. Offered as PHIL 356 and PHIL 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 466. Brain, Mind and Consciousness: The Science and Philosophy of Mind. 3 Units.

The course introduces students to key topics in philosophy of mind from the perspective of our increasingly advanced scientific understanding of mind and brain (e.g. derived from neuroscience, psychology and cognitive science). Key philosophical topics covered include dualism, physicalism, idealism, consciousness and free will. Key scientific issues covered include methods and assumptions underlying research in psychology and neuroscience, introspection, essentialism, dehumanizing, and work on free will and consciousness. No pre-requisites other than curiosity are required, however students will benefit from having previously taken courses in philosophy, neuroscience, psychology and/or computer science. Students are expected to complete the assigned readings with care and attention, and to participate in discussion. The goal is for students to leave with an understanding of the rich ways in which different approaches can shed light on the human mind, including an appreciation of the limits of scientific inquiry into the mind. Offered as PHIL 366 and PHIL 466.

PHIL 467. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467.

PHIL 475. Issues in Aesthetics. 3 Units.

This course will seek to offer insight into the nature of artistic expression, the role of criticism in the arts, and the place of the arts in society. The term "arts" will be construed broadly to include painting, photography, theater, film, music, dance, poetry, etc. The following are examples of questions we will discuss. What does the term "beautiful" mean? Are there other measures of aesthetic value besides beauty? Do the arts, like the sciences, offer us knowledge of the world? What value do the arts have for society? Can aesthetic value conflict with moral value? Do artists have a responsibility to society? Should art ever be censored? What is the relationship between art and entertainment? Is the meaning and value of an artistic work a matter of individual opinion? What is the purpose of art critics? How are interpretations and evaluations of art influenced by race, gender, class, etc.? What is creativity in the arts? Does it differ from creativity in the sciences? How important is originality in art? Offered as PHIL 375 and PHIL 475.

PHIL 484. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as PHIL 384, PHIL 484, POSC 384 and POSC 484.

PHIL 485. Philosophy of Language. 3 Units.

Nature of language; problems of meaning, reference, and truth. Offered as PHIL 385 and PHIL 485.

PHIL 499. Independent Study MA Level. 1 - 3 Units.

This course enables graduate students in departments or interdisciplinary programs with an MA to pursue intensive directed study with a faculty member in Philosophy. Students should consult with the Instructor and with their MA director or graduate program director before enrolling. Prereq: Graduate Standing.

PHIL 599. Neuroscience of Positive Change: Using Brain Imaging to Promote the Good Life. 1.5 Unit.

The brain is the primary organ responsible for learning, decision making, social interaction, happiness, and self-regulation. Hence, neuroscience has the potential to inform numerous applied disciplines. Over the last few decades, fields from Organizational Behavior to Social Work, and Ethics to Nursing, have increasingly been drawing upon findings from neuroscience to inform their discipline. Researchers working in these disciplines are also now starting to conduct their own neuroscientific studies. However, applied researchers face an education gap that hinders progress in the productive use of neuroscience to inform their discipline. This course will provide an introduction to neuroscience methods for applied researchers, with a focus on how neuroscience can inform interventions designed to produce positive change in individuals. Students will gain an overview of the basic methods of cognitive neuroscience, effective experimental design, and the challenges of interpretation. In addition, students will be introduced to current research on the neuroscience of motivation, social-emotional competencies and behavior change. This is a graduate seminar class. Students must do the reading ahead of class. The majority of class time will be devoted to discussion.

PHIL 699. Advanced Tutorial and Dissertation for Candidates in fields related to Philosophy. 1 - 3 Units.

This course enables students in departments offering the Ph.D. to pursue intensive directed study with a faculty member in Philosophy, on philosophical aspects of their dissertation topic. Students should consult with the instructor and with their dissertation director before enrolling.