2016-17 General Bulletin

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Wolstein Research Building 5537
http://www.case.edu/med/pathology/
Phone: 216.368.1993; Fax: 216.368.0494
Clifford V. Harding, MD, PhD, Chair

Christine Kehoe, Student Affairs

The clinical, research, and educational activities of the Case Department of Pathology are centered at the Case School of Medicine and University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UHCMC).  The core components of the department are the Basic Science Pathology Program at Case School of Medicine and the three clinical divisions of Pathology at University Hospitals Health System (UHHS), including the Division of Anatomic Pathology at UHCMC, the Division of Clinical Pathology at UHCMC, and the UHHS Pathology Division of Community Hospitals.  In addition, our affiliates include the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner's Office, the Pathology Department at the Louis Stokes Veteran's Administration Medical Center, and the Pathology Department at MetroHealth Medical Center.  Research laboratories of the department are located in the Wolstein Research Building and Institute of Pathology.  Both are situated adjacent to University Hospitals of Cleveland, the primary teaching hospital of the Case School of Medicine and the location of the department’s Pathology Residency Program. 

World-class research is conducted in the department in biomaterials biocompatibility, cancer biology, immunology, neuropathology and neurodegenerative disease,  outcomes research, and tissue injury and healing. The department’s research activities are characterized by highly cooperative and collaborative interactions within the department, and with many other departments at Case and its affiliated institutions.  In FY 2011, the department’s annual external research grant support totaled $15,463,639, $13,080,886 of which was from NIH. The CWRU Department of Pathology NIH funding level ranked 12th nationally in FY11 and 13th nationally in FY12.  For information about graduate programs, please see here.

Masters Degrees

MS in Pathology (full-time)

The full-time Master’s Program in Pathology is intended for students with a background in the biological or chemical sciences, typically a bachelors or baccalaureate degree, who are interested in pursuing advanced coursework in the basis of disease. This coursework may be useful for those interested in pursuing a professional doctoral degree (e.g., MD, DO, DDS, or DMD) or other health professions degree, since the core curriculum and electives include many topics of medical relevance, including histology, gross anatomy, pathology, cancer and immunology. The time of matriculation in the Program is flexible; a typical time to degree is anticipated to be 4 semesters, although completion in approximately 13 months, including an intensive summer course in Anatomy, is possible. The course of study will be determined by the student, their Academic advisor, and the Graduate Program Committee and will consist of 30 credit hours of course work. Flexible electives in cellular basis of disease, immunology and cancer biology will allow students to focus on an area of interest. Graduates of the Program can pursue opportunities in basic or clinical research, teaching, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, health care, or government. While the Master’s may be a terminal degree, it may also lead to admission to professional or PhD programs.

Description of Program

Students will earn a Plan B Masters from Case Western Reserve University. The degree program is comprised of core courses in Pathology with elective course work from related disciplines, a course on research ethics, attendance of the departmental seminar series, and a comprehensive final project in the form of a review paper that will ideally be suitable for publication. The topic of the review paper will be determined by the student and their academic advisor. The core of the Program is geared toward providing the student a solid basis in cell biology and pathology. This begins with courses in histology and cell & molecular biology (ANAT 412 Histology and Ultrastructure/ANAT 413 General Histology Laboratory and PATH 475 Cell and Molecular Foundations of Pathology) followed by courses in basic pathology and immunology (PATH 510 Basic Pathologic Mechanisms and PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology). After the first year the student can specialize by choosing electives in their area of interest. In the final semester the student will register for 3 credits of PATH 601 Special Problems while writing their paper. An advisor for the paper should be identified by mutual interest during the first year.

Typical Curriculum

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Histology and Ultrastructure (ANAT 412)
& General Histology Laboratory (ANAT 413)
6    
Cell and Molecular Foundations of Pathology (PATH 475)*3    
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1    
Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (PATH 510)  4  
Fundamental Immunology (PATH 416)  4  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)  1  
Cadaver dissection-based human anatomy with histology, neuroanatomy, embryology, and physiology (ANAT 410)    6
Cell Biology of Neurodegenerative Disorders (PATH 524)    3
Attendance optional in summer semester
Students may apply to laboratories to do research projects in related fields (e.g. cancer, immunology, neuropathology)
Pre-professional students may wish to spend time on school applications
Year Total: 10 10 9
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511) ( )1  
Electives: 6-9  
Current Topics in Cancer (PATH 422)
Oxidative Stress and Disease Pathogenesis (PATH 430)
Advanced Immunobiology (PATH 465)
Immunology of Infectious Diseases (PATH 481)
Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology (PATH 488)
Protein Misfolding and Human Disease: Molecular Basis and Clinical Implications (PATH 525)
Other electives upon approval
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Electives:   6-9
Cytoskeleton and Disease (PATH 415)
Current Topics in Vision Research (PATH 432)
Neurodegenerative Diseases:Pathological,Cell. & Molecular Perspectives (PATH 444)
Introduction to Microarrays (PATH 460)
Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology (PATH 488)
Special Topics in Cancer Biology and Clinical Oncology (PATH 521)
Cell Biology of Neurodegenerative Disorders (PATH 524)
Special Problems (PATH 601)
Other electives upon approval
Year Total: 7-10 7-10
 
Total Units in Sequence:  43-49

Accelerated Curriculum

First YearUnits
SummerFallSpring
Cadaver dissection-based human anatomy with histology, neuroanatomy, embryology, and physiology (ANAT 410)6    
Histology and Ultrastructure (ANAT 412)
& General Histology Laboratory (ANAT 413)
  6  
Cell and Molecular Foundations of Pathology (PATH 475)  3  
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)  1  
Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (PATH 510)    4
Fundamental Immunology (PATH 416)    4
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)    1
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)    1
Special Problems (PATH 601)    1 - 18
Year Total: 6 10 11-28
 
Second YearUnits
Summer
Special Problems (PATH 601)1 - 18
Year Total: 1-18
 
Total Units in Sequence: 28-62
First YearUnits
Summer
Cadaver dissection-based human anatomy with histology, neuroanatomy, embryology, and physiology (ANAT 410)6
Year Total: 6
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Histology and Ultrastructure (ANAT 412)4    
General Histology Laboratory (ANAT 413)2    
Cell and Molecular Foundations of Pathology (PATH 475)3    
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1    
Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (PATH 510)  4  
Fundamental Immunology (PATH 416)  4  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)  1  
Special Problems (PATH 601)  2  
Special Problems (PATH 601)    3
Year Total: 10 12 3
 
Total Units in Sequence:   31

 * Students with a significant background in Cell and Molecular Biology may take Path 525 (Transport and targeting of macromolecules in health and disease) or Path 488 (Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology) instead.

Admission Criteria

Applicants will be screened by the Pathology Department Admissions Committee. Students will be required to supply a GRE or MCAT score, a transcript, three letters of recommendation and an application essay that details the student’s interest in the Program. Students will be interviewed on campus of via electronic media (i.e. FaceTime or Skype). Although there are no set requirements, successful applicants would be expected to have an MCAT >26, GRE verbal >150 and GRE quantitative > 150, and an undergraduate GPA around 3.0. Applications will be accepted throughout the year with a deadline of June 1st; final decisions for Fall matriculation will be made by July 1st. Prospective students are advised to submit their applications well in advance of the deadline, since the class may fill completely before that date.

Tuition

 

Financial aid will not be provided by the Department. Students may apply for financial aid through the federal government at http://www.fafsa.ed.gov/.  Tuition is currently $1546/credit hour. The total cost of the Program is based on tuition for the credits taken each term. Credits taken in excess of 12 per semester incur no additional cost (e.g. the cost of 12 credits is $18,552, if a student takes 15 credits in a semester the cost will be limited to $18,552).

MS in Pathology (part-time)

A part-time program leading to the Master of Science degree in Pathology is available to laboratory staff who are employed by Case Western Reserve University. Students in this program must be full-time university employees and must have the agreement of their supervisor to begin studies as a part-time student. Courses are available as an employee fringe benefit (up to 6 credits per semester for Fall and Spring, and 3 credits for Summer) and can only be taken as limited by the fringe benefit regulations.

A formal application for this program must be submitted to the graduate school. Prior to submission of this application, the employee, the supervisor, and the Director of the Pathology Graduate Program must meet to review and facilitate the student’s application for admission.

This program can lead to an M.S. degree through Plan A.  Required core courses include CBIO 453 Cell Biology I (4 credits), CBIO 455 Molecular Biology I (4 credits), PATH 510 Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (4 credits), and participation in a seminar course (PATH 511 Experimental Pathology Seminar I and/or PATH 512 Experimental Pathology Seminar II) for at least one semester. CBIO 453 Cell Biology I, CBIO 455 Molecular Biology I and must be taken as graded courses (not P/F).

Plan A requires a minimum of 27 total coursework credits. In addition to the required core courses, the student must take a minimum of 6 credits of PATH 651 Thesis, which involves research in the laboratory of the supervisor (who serves as the M.S. Thesis Mentor) and thesis preparation. The student must register for at least one credit of PATH 651 Thesis M.S. every semester until graduation. A GPA of 2.75 or better must be maintained for a terminal M.S. (Students considering using the M.S. in Pathology as a "stepping stone" to the Ph.D. degree must maintain a GPA of 3.0 or better.)  An M.S. thesis must be prepared based on the research, and the student must pass an M.S. Degree Examination in which the thesis is defended.

MD/MS Biomedical Investigation--Pathology Track

For Program Admissions and MD requirements, see MD Dual Degree Programs.  This track is designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the cellular basis of disease or immunity. During the first year of medical school the student should identify a mentor and begin planning coursework and a research project leading to the MS degree. Because the background and interest of applicants varies widely, members of the Program Oversight Committee will assist each student in designing an individualized schedule of graduate courses for any track.

Students are expected to complete at least two graduate courses (3 credits each or total 6 credits) before beginning the laboratory research period (year 3), and students should take three graduate courses before the research period if this is possible. For students to receive graduate credit for any medical coursework (as IBIS credit, e.g. IBIS 403 Integrated Biological Sciences III), they must register at the beginning of the semester. Students in the MD/MS joint degree program must attain a cumulative GPA of 3.0 in the graduate courses. Students in this program may participate in any of the three tracks of the Department of Pathology Graduate Program.  

For information about the Pathology Track in the MD/MS program, contact Dr. James Anderson, 216.368.0279, or Dr. Clive Hamlin, 216.368.0512.

Students in the Pathology track must complete:

PATH 601Special Problems18
PATH 511Experimental Pathology Seminar I1
or PATH 512 Experimental Pathology Seminar II
IBIS 600Exam in Biomedical Investigation0

And 9 credits from the Pathology courses listed below or other Approved courses. Other department's graduate level course may be accepted provided it is appropriate to the student's project and is approved by his/her Thesis Committee or the Graduate Program Director in Pathology.

PATH 410Aging and the Nervous System1
PATH 415Cytoskeleton and Disease1
PATH 416Fundamental Immunology4
PATH 417Cytokines: Function, Structure, and Signaling3
PATH 430Oxidative Stress and Disease Pathogenesis1
PATH 432Current Topics in Vision Research3
PATH 444Neurodegenerative Diseases:Pathological,Cell. & Molecular Perspectives3
PATH 480Logical Dissection of Biomedical Investigations3
PATH 481Immunology of Infectious Diseases3
PATH 488Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology3
PATH 510Basic Pathologic Mechanisms4
PATH 525Protein Misfolding and Human Disease: Molecular Basis and Clinical Implications3

Example Plan of Study of Minimum Coursework:

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
MD Curriculum
Graduate course*  3  
MD Curriculum
Special Problems (PATH 601) (optional)    1-3
Year Total:   3 1-3
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Integrated Biological Sciences III (IBIS 403)6  
Graduate Course*3  
MD Curriculum
Graduate Course*  3
Year Total: 9 3
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Special Problems (PATH 601)8  
Special Problems (PATH 601)  7
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)
or Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)
  1
Exam in Biomedical Investigation (IBIS 600)  0
Year Total: 8 8
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
MD Curriculum
MD Curriculum
Year Total:    
 
Fifth YearUnits
FallSpring
MD Curriculum
MD Curriculum
Year Total:    
 
Total Units in Sequence:  32-34
*

 15 graded credits of graduate school courses should be taken in the first 2 years, including IBIS 403 Integrated Biological Sciences III (6 credits) and three PATH graduate courses (3 credits each).  Students may defer a maximum of one 3-credit hour course to Year 3. 

PhD in Pathology

PhD Training in the Pathology Graduate Program occurs in three tracks that share a common core curriculum but provide additional track-specific curricular offerings. This provides a cohesive program that addresses the specific needs of different Pathology-related areas of research training. Section II of the handbook “Pathology PhD Program” describes core features of the program that are shared and provides detailed descriptions of the three training tracks:

·Molecular and Cellular Basis of Disease Training Program (MCBTP)

·Immunology Training Program (ITP)

·Cancer Biology Training Program (CBTP)

To earn a PhD in Pathology, a student must complete rotations in at least three laboratories followed by selection of a research advisor, and complete Core and Elective coursework including responsible conduct of research as described in the Course of Study, below. Students who previously completed relevant coursework, (for example, with a MS) may petition to complete alternative courses. Each training track follows the overall regulations established and described in CWRU Graduate Studies and documented to the Regents of the State of Ohio.  Completion of the PhD degree will require 36 hours of coursework (24 hours of which are graded) and 18 hours of PATH 701 Dissertation Ph.D..

In addition, each PhD student must successfully complete a qualifier examination for advancement to candidacy in the form of a short grant proposal with oral defense. The qualifier is generally completed in the summer after year two. During the dissertation period, students are expected to meet twice a year with the thesis committee, present seminars in the department, and fulfill journal publication requirements. Throughout the doctoral training, students are expected to be enthusiastic participants in seminars, journal clubs, and research meetings in the lab and program.

§

  Please also see Graduate Studies Academic Requirements for Doctoral Degrees

Molecular and Cellular Basis of Disease Training Program (MCBTP)

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453)*4    
Molecular Biology I (CBIO 455)*4    
Research Rotation in Biomedical Sciences Training Program (BSTP 400)^0 - 9    
Mentor and track chosen
Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (PATH 510)*  4  
Fundamental Immunology (PATH 416)*  4  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
Thesis committee chosen; preproposal meeting scheduled
Special Problems (PATH 601)  1-9  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)    1
Year Total: 8-17 10-18 1
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1    
MCBDTP Track Elective3    
MCBDTP Track or other Elective3    
Special Problems (PATH 601)1-9    
Thesis proposal defense and advancement to candidacy within next 9 months+
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)  1  
Electives (Core, MCBDTP track or other)  4-6  
Special Problems (PATH 601)
or Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)
  1-9  
Thesis proposal defense and advancement to candidacy must be completed++
Year Total: 8-16 6-16  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)**1-9  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)**  1-9
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)**1-9  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)**  1-9
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Fifth YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)**1-9  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)**  1-9
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Total Units in Sequence:  45-128
*

Alternate courses for MSTP students:  IBIS 401-404.  MSTP students in the MCBDTP do not need to take CBIO 453 Cell Biology I, CBIO 455 Molecular Biology I, PATH 510 Basic Pathologic Mechanisms or PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology although PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology may still be taken as a Track Elective

^

Alternate course is MSTP 400 Research Rotation in Medical Scientist Training Program for MSTP students and PATH 601 Special Problems for direct admit students

Immunology Training Program (ITP)

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453)4    
Molecular Biology I (CBIO 455)4    
Research Rotation in Biomedical Sciences Training Program (BSTP 400)^0 - 9    
Immunology Journal Club (optional this sememster)
Mentor and Track chosen
Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (PATH 510)  4  
Fundamental Immunology (PATH 416)  4  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
Immunology Journal Club (optional this semester)
Special Problems (PATH 601)  1-9  
Thesis committe chosen; preproposal meeting scheduled
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)    1
Year Total: 8-17 10-18 1
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1    
ITP Track Elective3    
Electives (Core, ITP Track or other)**3    
Special Problems (PATH 601)1-9    
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Thesis proposal and advancement to candidacy within 9 months+
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
Electives (Core, ITP Track or other)**  4-6  
Special Problems (PATH 601)
or Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)
  1-9  
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Thesis proposal defense and advancement to candidacy must be completed++
Year Total: 8-16 6-16  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***1-9  
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***  1-9
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***1-9  
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***  1-9
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Fifth YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)1-9  
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester0
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***  1-9
Immunology Journal Club (required this semester)
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Total Units in Sequence:  45-128
*

Alternate courses for MSTP students: IBIS 401-404.  MSTP students in the ITP do not need to take CBIO 453 Cell Biology I, CBIO 455 Molecular Biology I or PATH 510 Basic Pathologic MechanismsPATH 416 Fundamental Immunology is required for MSTP students in the ITP unless they have sufficient prior immunology background as determined by the ITP Chair and curriculum coordinators (e.g. Drs. Harding and Nedrud)

^

Alternate course is MSTP 400 Research Rotation in Medical Scientist Training Program for MSTP students and PATH 601 Special Problems for direct admit students.

**

PATH 520 Basic Cancer Biology and the Interface with Clinical Oncology + PATH 521 Special Topics in Cancer Biology and Clinical Oncology is included as a Track Elective for ITP students

Cancer Biology Training Program (CBTP) 

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Cell Biology I (CBIO 453)*4    
Molecular Biology I (CBIO 455)*4    
Research Rotation in Biomedical Sciences Training Program (BSTP 400)^0 - 9    
Mentor and track chosen
Basic Pathologic Mechanisms (PATH 510)  4  
Basic Cancer Biology and the Interface with Clinical Oncology (PATH 520)  3  
Special Topics in Cancer Biology and Clinical Oncology (PATH 521)  1  
On Being a Professional Scientist: The Responsible Conduct of Research (IBMS 500)  1  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
Special Problems (PATH 601)  1-9  
Thesis committe chosen: prepropsal committee meeting scheduled
Year Total: 8-17 11-19  
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1    
CBTP Track Elective3    
Electives (Core, CBTP track or other)**3    
Special Problems (PATH 601)1-9    
Thesis proposal defensse and advancement to candidacy with next 9 months+
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1  
Electives (Core, CBTP track or other)**  4-6  
Special Problems (PATH 601)
or Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)
  1-9  
Thesis proposal defense and advancement to candidacy must be completed++
Year Total: 8-16 6-16  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***1-9  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***  1-9
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***1-9  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***  1-9
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Fifth YearUnits
FallSpring
Experimental Pathology Seminar I (PATH 511)1  
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***1-9  
Experimental Pathology Seminar II (PATH 512)  1
Dissertation Ph.D. (PATH 701)***  1-9
Year Total: 2-10 2-10
 
Total Units in Sequence:  45-128
*

Alternative courses for MSTP students: IBIS 401-404.  MSTP students in the CBTP do not need to take CBIO 453 Cell Biology I, CBIO 455 Molecular Biology I, PATH 510 Basic Pathologic Mechanisms, or PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology, although PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology may still be taken as a Track Elective.

^

Alternate course is MSTP 400 Research Rotation in Medical Scientist Training Program for MSTP students with PATH 601 Special Problems for direct admit students

**

PATH 416 Fundamental Immunology is included as a Track Elective for CBTP students

+

Petition to convert 601 credits to 701 credits for semester in which advancement occurs

++

Once 36 credits including 24 graded credits have been completed, register for up to 6 credits of PATH 701 Dissertation Ph.D.

#

Exception: Take 1-3 credits of PATH 701 Dissertation Ph.D.

***

Important: Students should take the following steps to reduce charges to their mentor and department:  AFTER ADVANCE TO CANDIDACY, IT IS NO LONGER NECESSARY TO REGISTER FOR 9 CREDITS PER SEMESTER TO MAINTAIN FULL-TIME STUDENT STATUS.  In the first semester after advancement to candidacy, students should register only for the number of credits of PATH 701 Dissertation Ph.D. needed to bring their total number of accumulated credits of PATH 701 to 9 by the end of the semester (and should register for no other courses).  In subsequent semesters, students should register for only 1 credit of PATH 701 (and no other courses), except that in the final semester registration should be for the number of credits of PATH 701 needed to complete a total of 18 credits by the end of the semester.  EXCEPTION: IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAXIMIZE THE NUMBER OF PATH 701 CREDITS THAT CAN BE COMPLETED DURING PERIODS WHERE TRAINING GRANT SUPPORT IS AVAILABLE.  If the student is on the NIH T32 training grant of NRSA award or other funding mechanism that supports this level of tuition, registration should be for the full 9 credits during semesters when grant support for tuition will be available, until a total of 18 credits of PATH 701 is accumulated, after which registration should be for only 1 credit of PATH 701 each semester until graduation.  Even prior to advancing to candidacy, if a student has completed 36 "foundation" credits of graduate courses (at least 24 of which must be graded courses), the student should enroll in as many credits of PATH 701 as possible up to a maximum of 6 credits with the remaining credits to be graded courses or PATH 601.  In the semester in which the student advances to candidacy, any PATH 601 credits for that semester that are beyond the 36 "foundation" credits should be converted to PATH 701 by petition to Graduate Studies.  Students registering for PATH 601, PATH 651 or PATH 701 must indicated their thesis advisor as the Instructor.  If a Class Section does not exist with your Thesis Advisor as Instructor, please see the Student Affairs Coordinator to add the Section in order for you to register.
NOTE:  Schedule beyond year 5 will generally be the same as year 5.

Courses

PATH 316. Fundamental Immunology. 4 Units.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, PATH 316 and PATH 416. Prereq: BIOL 215 and 215L.

PATH 390. Undergraduate Research in Cancer Biology, Immunology, or Pathology. 1 - 3 Unit.

Students undertake a research project directly related to ongoing research in the investigator's/instructor's laboratory. Written proposal outlining research topic, a schedule of meetings and format and length of final written report to be prepared prior to registration for credit. Recommended preparation: One year of college chemistry and consent of instructor.

PATH 395. Selected Readings in Immunology, Cancer Biology, or Pathology. 1 - 3 Unit.

Relevant readings and literature search on particular immunology, cancer biology or pathology topic(s) chosen by the student and directed by the instructor. Written proposal outlining chosen topic, type of work to be done, a schedule of meetings and format and length of final written report to be prepared prior to registration for credit.

PATH 405. Discussions in Molecular Immunology (Health and Disease). 2 Units.

Targeted student population would be undergraduate (Biology major), PhD, MD, or MD/PhD students interested in emerging research on the mechanisms of molecular immunology and effects on health and defects in disease. Readings will be assigned, and students will come to class prepared for discussions. P/NP grades will be based on these discussions. 5 or fewer students will be selected for this class. Prereq: Undergraduate Biology majors, PhD, MD, or MD/PhD students.

PATH 410. Aging and the Nervous System. 1 Unit.

Lectures and discussion on aspects of neurobiology of aging in model systems; current research on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

PATH 415. Cytoskeleton and Disease. 1 Unit.

Discussion of recent papers that have added to knowledge of normal cytoskeletal functions and their alterations in disease.

PATH 416. Fundamental Immunology. 4 Units.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, PATH 316 and PATH 416. Prereq: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.

PATH 417. Cytokines: Function, Structure, and Signaling. 3 Units.

Regulation of immune responses and differentiation of leukocytes is modulated by proteins (cytokines) secreted and/or expressed by both immune and non-immune cells. Course examines the function, expression, gene organization, structure, receptors, and intracellular signaling of cytokines. Topic include regulatory and inflammatory cytokines, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, cytokine and cytokine receptor gene families, intracellular signaling through STAT proteins and tyrosine phosphorylation, clinical potential, and genetic defects. Lecture format using texts, scientific reviews and research articles. Recommended preparation: PATH 416 or equivalent. Offered as BIOL 417, CLBY 417, and PATH 417.

PATH 418. Tumor Immunology. 3 Units.

Interactions between the immune system and tumor cells. Topics include the historical definition of tumor specific transplantation antigens, immune responses against tumor cells, the effects of tumor cell products on host immune responses, molecular identification of tumor specific transplantation antigens and recent advances in the immunotherapy of human cancers. Prereq: PATH 416.

PATH 422. Current Topics in Cancer. 3 Units.

The concept of cancer hallmarks has provided a useful guiding principle in our understanding of the complexity of cancer. The hallmarks include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, enabling replicative immortality, activating invasion and metastasis, inducing angiogenesis, resisting cell death, deregulating cellular energetics, avoiding immune destruction, tumor-promoting inflammation, and genome instability and mutation. The objectives of this course are to (1) examine the principles of some of these hallmarks, and (2) explore potential therapies developed based on these hallmarks of cancer. This is a student-driven and discussion-based graduate course. Students should have had some background on the related subjects and have read scientific papers in their prior coursework. Students will be called on to present and discuss experimental design, data and conclusions from assigned publications. There will be no exams or comprehensive papers but students will submit a one-page critique (strengths and weaknesses) of one of the assigned papers prior to each class meeting. The course will end with a full-day student-run symposium on topics to be decided jointly by students and the course director. Grades will be based on class participation, written critiques, and symposium presentations. Offered as BIOC 420, MBIO 420, MVIR 420, PATH 422, and PHRM 420. Prereq: CBIO 453 and CBIO 455.

PATH 430. Oxidative Stress and Disease Pathogenesis. 1 Unit.

Oxidative stress and free radicals are implicated in a number of disease processes including aging, arthritis, emphysema, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Lecture course with discussion of recent studies concerning the formation and destructive mechanisms of free radicals in the context of various disease processes. Students read assigned papers and discuss these in class.

PATH 432. Current Topics in Vision Research. 3 Units.

Vision research is an exciting and multidisciplinary area that draws on the disciplines of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, structural biology, neuroscience, and pathology. This graduate level course will provide the student with broad exposure to the most recent and relevant research currently being conducted in the field. Topics will cover a variety of diseases and fundamental biological processes occurring in the eye. Regions of the eye that will be discussed include the cornea, lens, and retina. Vision disorders discussed include age-related macular degeneration, retinal ciliopathies, and diabetic retinopathy. Instructors in the course are experts in their field and are members of the multidisciplinary visual sciences research community here at Case Western Reserve University. Students will be exposed to the experimental approaches and instrumentation currently being used in the laboratory and in clinical settings. Topics will be covered by traditional lectures, demonstrations in the laboratory and the clinic, and journal club presentations. Students will be graded on their performance in journal club presentations (40%), research proposal (40%), and class participation (20%). Offered as NEUR 432, PATH 432, PHRM 432 and BIOC 432.

PATH 435. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 3 Units.

This course will provide advanced coverage of tissue engineering with a focus on stem cell-based research and therapies. Course topics of note include stem cell biology and its role in development, modeling of stem cell function, controlling stem cell behavior by engineering materials and their microenvironment, stem cells' trophic character, and state-of-the-art stem cell implementation in tissue engineering and other therapeutic strategies. Offered as EBME 425 and PATH 435. Prereq: EBME 325 or equivalent or graduate standing.

PATH 444. Neurodegenerative Diseases:Pathological,Cell. & Molecular Perspectives. 3 Units.

This course, taught by several faculty members, encompasses the full range of factors that contribute to the development of neurodegeneration. Subjects include pathological aspects, neurodegeneration, genetic aspects, protein conformation and cell biology in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion diseases. Students read assigned primary literature and present and discuss these in class.

PATH 450. Interdisciplinary Musculoskeletal Research. 3 Units.

This is an advanced graduate level course for students interested in the morphogenesis, structure, function, and maintenance of the skeletal system taught jointly by faculty from Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF), and the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). It will meet twice per week for 90 minutes per session. The format will include an overview of the topic by the responsible faculty, followed by a discussion of important papers on the topic. The students will be expected to discuss the papers for each session and grading will be based on those discussions. The intent of the course is to enable students to understand the important problems in skeletal biology and both classical and modern approaches for solving them.

PATH 460. Introduction to Microarrays. 3 Units.

Microarray technology is an exciting new technique that is used to analyze gene expression in a wide variety of organisms. The goal of this course is to give participants a hands-on introduction to this technology. The course is intended for individuals who are preparing to use this technique, including students, fellows, and other investigators. This is a hands-on computer-based course, which will enable participants to conduct meaningful analyses of microarray data. Participants will gain an understanding of the principles underlying microarray technologies, including: theory of sample preparation, sample processing on microarrays, familiarity with the use of Affymetrix Microarray Suite software and generation of data sets. Transferring data among software packages to manipulate data will also be discussed. Importation of data into other software (GeneSpring and DecisionSite) will enable participants to mine the data for higher-order patterns. Participants will learn about the rationale behind the choice of normalization and data filtering strategies, distance metrics, use of appropriate clustering choices such as K-means, Hierarchical, and Self Organizing Maps. Course Offered as BIOC 460, PATH 460, CNCR 460.

PATH 465. Advanced Immunobiology. 4 Units.

This course will cover fundamental (innate and adaptive responses, antigen recognition, cell activation, etc.) and applied (immune evasion, autoimmunity, allergy, transplantation, vaccines, etc.) immunology topics, highlighting the most important and recent advancements found in the primary literature. Lectures will be derived largely from the primary literature, but will also include modern techniques and fundamental background knowledge to enhance the learning environment for the immunology concepts presented. Course organization consists of two lectures per week by the immunology faculty, midterm and final examinations, and an oral presentation. Enrolled students have the option of concurrent enrollment in PATH 466 Writing for Immunologists. Prereq: PATH 416

PATH 466. Proposal Writing for Immunologists. 1 Unit.

This course is an introduction to research proposal writing and evaluation for immunology graduate students. One of the most important aspects of being an active investigator in academia, biotechnology, or pharmaceutical industries is being a skilled communicator of one's ideas. This course is designed to teach these practical writing skills and will include lectures and discussions of key writing strategies. Throughout the semester, students will write a research proposal on a topic outside of their thesis research focus (but it can be related), present their ideas in front of the class, and take part in an end-of-semester review panel of the proposals of their classmates. Enrollment requires concurrent enrollment in PATH 465 Advanced Immunobiology and instructor permission. Prereq: PATH 416. Coreq: PATH 465.

PATH 475. Cell and Molecular Foundations of Pathology. 3 Units.

This course is designed for M.S. students in the Pathology Graduate Program, and is an introductory course covering normal cell and molecular biology as well as cell physiology. Additional topics to be discussed in the course will include cell structure and function, as well as correlates to cellular and molecular pathology. Recommended Preparation: Should have undergrad-level cell biology and biochemistry.

PATH 480. Logical Dissection of Biomedical Investigations. 3 Units.

PATH 480 is an upper level graduate course encompassing discussion and critical appraisal of both published and pre-published research papers, book chapters, commentaries and review articles. Emphasis will be placed on evaluating the logical relationships connecting hypotheses to experimental design and experimental data to conclusions drawn. Thus, the course will aim to develop students' capacities for independent thinking and critical analysis. Half of the course will be devoted to an analysis of fundamental conceptual issues pertaining to immunology, but this material will be applicable to a wide variety of fields. The other half of the course will be devoted to the analysis of papers that have been submitted for publication ( with the students acting as primary reviewers of these papers). Our expectation is that this course will have practical relevance for students by providing them with methods to review their own prepublication manuscripts and eliminate common errors. It should also give students the tools to question widely held beliefs in diverse biomedical fields. Recommended preparation is completion of the C3MB curriculum and 2nd year or higher graduate school training. Previous exposure to immunology and molecular biology will be helpful but not required.

PATH 481. Immunology of Infectious Diseases. 3 Units.

This course centers on mechanisms of immune defense, immune escape and disease pathogenesis caused by important human pathogens. Some of the infectious diseases covered in this course include AIDS, TB and Malaria. Most topics focus on immunology of viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal infections. Topics will also include aspects of epidemiology and global health. Classes will consist of literature review of current scientific articles, faculty lectures and student presentations. Grades will be determined by exams, class presentations, participation, and short reports. Graduate students will also be asked to write a brief research proposal. PATH 481 involves faculty from: Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Center for Global Health & Diseases, Department of Pathology. Prereq: PATH 416.

PATH 486. HIV Immunology. 3 Units.

This course will examine the unique immunology of HIV disease. The course content will include the study of HIV pathogenesis, immune control, immune dysfunctions, HIV prevention and immune restoration. Students will be expected to attend lectures and participate in class discussions. A strong emphasis will be placed on reviewing scientific literature. Students will be asked to help organize and to administer an HIV immunology journal club and will be asked to prepare a written proposal in the area of HIV immunology. Offered as PATH 486 and MBIO 486. Prereq: PATH 416 or permission from the instructor.

PATH 488. Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar course provides an introduction to the genetics and molecular biology of the yeasts S. cerevisiae and S. pombe by a discussion of current literature focusing primarily on topics in yeast cell biology. Students are first introduced to the tools of molecular genetics and special features of yeasts that make them important model eukaryotic organisms. Some selected topics include cell polarity, cell cycle, secretory pathways, vesicular and nuclear/cytoplasmic transport, mitochondrial import and biogenesis, chromosome segregation, cytoskeleton, mating response and signal transduction. Offered as CLBY 488, GENE 488, MBIO 488, and PATH 488.

PATH 510. Basic Pathologic Mechanisms. 4 Units.

An interdisciplinary introduction to the fundamental principles of molecular and cellular biology as they relate to the pathologic basis of disease. Lectures, laboratories, conferences.

PATH 511. Experimental Pathology Seminar I. 1 Unit.

Weekly discussions of current topics and research by students, staff and distinguished visitors.

PATH 512. Experimental Pathology Seminar II. 1 Unit.

Weekly discussions of current topics and research by students, staff and distinguished visitors.

PATH 520. Basic Cancer Biology and the Interface with Clinical Oncology. 3 Units.

This is a graduate-level introductory course in cancer biology taught through the Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology. This course will give students a broad overview of current basic cancer biology, highlight recent advances in cancer therapeutics, and provide a clinical perspective of the pathogenesis and treatment of common cancers. Classes will be of lecture and discussion format, and will also include student discussion of journal research articles to develop critical thinking in cancer research and experimental design as well as presentation/communication skills. About 1 to 3 students per class will be scheduled to lead the presentation and discussion of the selected journal articles. However, all students will be required to read the material in advance and be ready for discussion. Topics will cover growth factor action and signal transduction, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA damage, apoptosis, cancer immunology, cancer stem cells, metastasis, angiogenesis, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapeutics, photodynamic therapy, targeting cancer stem cells, chemoprevention, and clinical aspects of cancers of the breast, prostate, lymphatic tissue, and colon. Offered as PATH 520 and PHRM 520.

PATH 521. Special Topics in Cancer Biology and Clinical Oncology. 1 Unit.

This one credit hour course in Cancer Biology is intended to give students an opportunity to do independent literature research while enrolled in PHRM 520/PATH 520. Students must attend weekly Hematology/Oncology seminar series and write a brief summary of each of the lectures attended. In addition, students must select one of the seminar topics to write a term paper which fully reviews the background related to the topic and scientific and clinical advances in that field. This term paper must also focus of Clinical Oncology, have a translational research component, and integrate with concepts learned in PHRM 520/PATH 520. Pharmacology students must provide a strong discussion on Therapeutics, while Pathology students must provide a strong component on Pathophysiology of the disease. Recommended preparation: CBIO 453 and CBIO 455, or concurrent enrollment in PHRM 520 or PATH 520. Offered as PATH 521 and PHRM 521.

PATH 523. Histopathology of Organ Systems. 3 Units.

Comprehensive course covering the underlying basic mechanisms of injury and cell death, inflammation, immunity, infection, and neoplasia followed by pathology of specific organ systems. Material will include histological ('structure') and physiological ('function') aspects related to pathology (human emphasis). Recommended preparation: ANAT 412 or permission of instructor. Offered as ANAT 523 and PATH 523.

PATH 524. Cell Biology of Neurodegenerative Disorders. 3 Units.

PATH 524 is a 3 credit hour introductory course on neurodegenerative disorders intended for Master's and first and second-year medical students. This course attempts to bridge the gap between molecular mechanisms at the cellular level with disease presentation and therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders of protein mis-folding and metal mis-metabolism. The course will cover topics related to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Prion diseases, disorders of iron and copper metabolism, and other disorders of interest to the students. The class will meet once every week, and following an introductory lecture, the students will discuss relevant scientific reports from recent literature. Students are expected to participate actively in class discussion, and write a 5-6 page research proposal following NIH guidelines for the final exam. The students are expected to present and defend their proposal in class. Grading criteria: Class participation (70%), final paper and presentation (30%).

PATH 525. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease: Molecular Basis and Clinical Implications. 3 Units.

This is a graduate-level seminar course that familiarizes the students with human diseases resulting from aberrations in protein folding, processing, and turnover. Contribution of associated inflammation and heavy metal mis-metabolism will be discussed where appropriate. Specific examples include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Prion disorders multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's Disease, and others based on popular demand. The students will be expected to discuss relevant research publications in an interactive format. Grading will be based on class participation and an R21 grant proposal on the subject of their choice that does not overlap with their current area of research. Recommended Preparation: Concurrent enrollment in PATH 526, on grant-writing skills, is highly recommended but not required. Offered as PATH 525 and CLBY 525.

PATH 526. Introduction to Scientific Grant Writing. 1 Unit.

PATH 526 is a graduate-level course that will familiarize students with grant writing and reviewing skills. The students will be exposed to material pertaining to different grant opportunities, the grant review process, and strategies to maximize your chances of success. Grading will be based on class participation and step-wise preparation of a R21 grant proposal on a topic of your choice that does not overlap with your current area of research. Coreq: PATH 525.

PATH 601. Special Problems. 1 - 18 Unit.

Research on the nature and causation of disease and on host factors which tend to protect against disease. Special courses and tutorials in subspecialty areas of general and/or systemic anatomic and/or clinical pathology.

PATH 650. Independent Study. 1 - 9 Unit.

Laboratory rotation experience in a selected faculty research laboratory designed to introduce the M.S. student to all aspects of modern laboratory research including the design, execution and analysis of original experimental work.

PATH 651. Thesis M.S.. 1 - 18 Unit.


PATH 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 9 Unit.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.