2014-15 General Bulletin

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203 DeGrace Hall
www.case.edu/artsci/biol
Phone: 216.368.3557; Fax: 216.368.4672
Christopher Cullis, Department Chair

The mission of the Department of Biology at Case Western Reserve University is to promote research programs of national and international prominence and to provide strong undergraduate and graduate educational programs that emphasize integrative approaches to biological problems. In doing so, our programs support preparation and professional development for careers related to the biological and health sciences.

The department offers courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Systems Biology, Bachelor of Arts, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy. Cooperative programs between the Department of Biology and the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Cleveland Botanical Garden, the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, the Holden Arboretum, the Cleveland Institute of Art, and other departments in Case Western Reserve University significantly extend the range of resources available to biology students. Undergraduate students are encouraged to conduct individual supervised research projects with biology faculty and with faculty in cooperating departments. A supervised research project is required of all students in the BS biology program.

The undergraduate programs in biology provide excellent preparation for graduate or professional schools, including medical, dental, and veterinary schools and the many specialized graduate programs in the biological sciences. A biology degree also prepares students for careers in industry and government. For students interested in biotechnology—a field with growing career opportunities—the department offers elective sequences within the BA and BS degrees.

In addition to formal courses for credit, the department offers weekly seminars during the academic year, presenting recent advances in biology. These seminars are held every Thursday at 4:15 p.m. and are open to the university community.

Department Faculty

Christopher A. Cullis, PhD
(University of East Anglia, United Kingdom)
Francis Hobart Herrick Professor of Biology; Chair
Plant molecular biology and genetics; modifications of the information content of plant cells

Karen C. Abbott, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Assistant Professor
Ecology; theoretical biology

Radhika Atit, PhD
(University of Cincinnati)
Associate Professor
Developmental biology and genetics; origin and patterning of skin

Michael F. Benard, PhD
(University of California, Davis)
George B. Mayer Chair in Urban and Environmental Studies; Assistant Professor
Ecology; evolutionary biology

Rebecca Benard, PhD
(University of California, Davis)
Instructor
Plant population ecology; physiology

Susan M. Burden-Gulley, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Instructor
Neuroscience; axonal growth; neural development; brain cancer

Jean H. Burns, PhD
(Florida State University)
Assistant Professor
Plant ecology; community assembly; invasibility; the role of phylogeny in assembly; the role of demographic processes in biological invasions

Arnold I. Caplan, PhD
(Johns Hopkins University)
Professor; Director, Skeletal Research Center
Developmental biology and biochemistry; molecular and cellular aspects of muscle, cartilage, and bone development

Leena Chakravarty, PhD
(Ohio State University)
Instructor
Microbial molecular genetics

Hillel J. Chiel, PhD
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Professor
Neurobiology and animal behavior; cellular dynamics of neuronal computation

Sarah E. Diamond, PhD
(University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Assistant Professor
Evolutionary ecology; global change biology; invertebrate immunology; multivariate statistics

Richard F. Drushel, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Instructor; Executive Officer
Vertebrate anatomy and physiology; kinematic modeling and neural control; autonomous robotics

Jessica L. Fox, PhD
(University of Washington)
Assistant Professor
Neurobiology of behavior

Stephen E. Haynesworth, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Associate Professor; Associate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Developmental and aging biology

Valerie Haywood, PhD
(University of California, Davis)
Instructor
Plant developmental biology; molecular biology

Emmitt R. Jolly, PhD
(University of California, San Francisco)
Assistant Professor
Molecular biology and genetics; developmental biology; parasitology; schistosomiasis

Barbara A. Kuemerle, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Instructor
Molecular biology and genetics; developmental neuroscience

Ryan A. Martin, PhD
(University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Assistant Professor
Evolutionary ecology; behavioral ecology; ecology’s role in evolutionary diversification; causes and consequences of phenotypic plasticity

Claudia M. Mizutani, PhD
(Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Assistant Professor
Developmental biology and genetics; embryonic body-axis formation

Ronald G. Oldfield, PhD
(University of Michigan)
Instructor
Evolutionary ecology of cichlid fishes; ichthyology

Roy E. Ritzmann, PhD
(University of Virginia)
Professor
Neurobiology of behavior; insect locomotion and brain studies

Charles E. Rozek, PhD
(Wayne State University)
Associate Professor; Vice Provost and Dean of Graduate Studies
Molecular genetics; developmental biology

Robin Snyder, PhD
(University of California, Santa Barbara)
Associate Professor
Theoretical ecology

Mark A. Willis, PhD
(University of California, Riverside)
Professor
Neurobiology and behavior; sensorimotor control of insect flight; animal behavior


Research Faculty

Jean F. Welter, MD, PhD
(Leopold Franzens Universität, Austria; Case Western Reserve University)
Research Associate Professor
Tissue engineering and cell-based therapies; bioreactor design; mechanobiology; bone transplantation; imaging; fluorescence spectroscopy; drug delivery


Secondary Faculty

Darin Croft, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine
Vertebrate paleontology and fieldwork; mammals, especially those of South America; paleoecology and ancient ecosystems

Brian M. McDermott, PhD
(Columbia University)
Assistant Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospitals of Cleveland
Neurobiology; hearing and deafness; zebrafish; mechanotransduction; synapse development

Scott W. Simpson, PhD
(Kent State University)
Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine
Homind paleonotology and fieldwork; hominid dentition; locomotor capacities of early Homo erectus

Peter Thomas, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, and Statistics
Synchronization and reliability of neural activity; gradient sensing, signal transduction and information theory; pattern formation in the visual cortex; malaria informatics


Adjunct Faculty

James Bader, MS
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Lecturer; Executive Director, Gelfand STEM Center
STEM education; aquatic biology

David J. Burke, PhD
(Rutgers University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Holden Arboretum
Rhizosphere ecology; plant-microbe interactions; molecular microbial ecology; plant ecology

Pam Dennis, PhD, DVM
(Ohio State University; College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Clinical Assistant Professor, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Veterinary wildlife epidemiology in zoo and free-ranging animal populations

Nancy DiIulio, PhD
(Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine)
Adjunct Instructor; Assistant Dean, Undergraduate Studies
Cell biology; biochemistry

Christopher Kuhar, PhD
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Executive Director, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Conservation and education program evaluation; experimental psychology; animal behavior

Ana B. Locci, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Director, University Farm
Aquatic ecology and population biology

Kristen E. Lukas, PhD
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Curator, Conservation and Science, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Applied animal behavior; behavior and health; visitor attitudes and behavior

Audrey Lynn, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Instructor
Human genetics; chromosome behavior during meiosis; mitochondrial disorders

Kurt Smemo, PhD
(Cornell University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Holden Arboretum
Soil biogeochemistry

Gavin J. Svenson, PhD
(Brigham Young University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Curator/Head, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History
Phylogenetics and systematics

Mandi M. Vick, PhD
(University of Kentucky)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Associate Research Curator, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Endocrinology and reproductive physiology

Peter A. Zimmerman, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Professor, Center for Global Health and Diseases, School of Medicine
Infectious diseases; genetics; genomic epidemiology and evolution


Lecturers

Deborah L. Harris, MS
(Wright State University)
Full-time Lecturer
Aquatic biofouling; mycology

Dianne M. Kube, PhD
(University of North Dakota School of Medicine)
Full-time Lecturer
Cell biology, cystic fibrosis


Emeritus Faculty

Robert P. Davis, PhD
(Cornell University)
Associate Professor of Biology Emeritus and Dean of Collegiate Affairs Emeritus
Developmental biology

Morris Burke, PhD
(University of New South Wales, Australia)
Professor Emeritus
Muscle physiology; protein chemistry

Darhl L. Foreman, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Professor Emerita
Reproductive physiology

Joseph F. Koonce, PhD
(University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Professor Emeritus
Aquatic ecology; systems ecology

Martin J. Rosenberg, PhD
(State University of New York, Stony Brook)
Senior Instructor Emeritus
Herpetology; vertebrate biology; human anatomy and physiology

Norman B. Rushforth, PhD
(Cornell University)
Professor Emeritus
Epidemiology; animal behavior; population biology

Joanne Westin, PhD
(Cornell University)
Senior Instructor Emerita
Neurobiology and behavior; physiology

James E. Zull, PhD
(University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Professor Emeritus
Human learning; brain function in education

BA Biology  |  BS Biology  |  Teacher Licensure  I  BS Systems Biology  |  Minors

Undergraduate Programs

Majors

Major programs share a core of foundation courses and provide options for specialization in a variety of areas, including biotechnology and genetic engineering, molecular and cellular biology, genetics, immunology, chemical biology, physiology and biophysics, neurobiology and animal behavior, developmental biology, population biology, ecology, and environmental science. Theoretical, mathematical, and computational approaches to these fields are emphasized in the Systems Biology BS program. Individual research projects form a significant part of the curriculum for many undergraduates in all programs, and are specifically required for students in the Biology BS program. Advanced biology majors may register, with permission, for graduate-level courses in the department and in the School of Medicine.

The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees. Thirty hours of biology are required for the Biology BA, 39 hours for the Biology BS, and 30 hours for the Systems Biology BS. Ordinarily, all students begin their biology programs in the freshman year. All students must complete the SAGES seminar and General Education Requirements (GER) of the College of Arts and Sciences. While some BIOL courses serve as SAGES Departmental Seminars or SAGES Capstones, none of these are required courses for biology degree candidates, with the specific exception of BIOL 388S Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone for the Biology BS degree. A Biology BA student, for example, is free to take a non-BIOL SAGES Departmental Seminar or SAGES Capstone course, assuming that prerequisites are met (or waived by the instructor).


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Bachelor of Arts in Biology

The Biology BA degree program provides a general background in biology, and has the most flexible scheduling of the three biology degrees offered. It is especially recommended for students who are pre-professional, have multiple majors, intend to do a junior year abroad or an internship program, or have significant extracurricular commitments (e.g., varsity athletics, student government, Greek life, or other campus involvement). Since the Biology BA degree does not formally require undergraduate research, students interested in graduate research careers should plan to take at least one semester of undergraduate research as an elective (BIOL 388 Undergraduate Research orBIOL 388S Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone) sometime during the senior year.

Biology core courses
BIOL 214Genes, Evolution and Ecology3
BIOL 214LGenes, Evolution and Ecology Lab1
BIOL 215Cells and Proteins3
BIOL 215LCells and Proteins Laboratory1
BIOL 216Development and Physiology3
BIOL 216LDevelopment and Physiology Lab1
One genetics course3
Genetics (effective Fall 2014; previously a cell/molecular elective)
One course from any two of the following three subject areas (breadth requirement)6
Cell and molecular biology
Molecular Biology
Fundamental Immunology
Introduction to Stem Cell Biology
Cell Biology
Plant Genomics and Proteomics
Structural Biology
Parasitology
Microbiology
Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans
Organismal biology
Vertebrate Biology
Human Learning and the Brain
Introductory Entomology
Sensory Biology
Ichthyology
Human Physiology
Human Anatomy
Principles of Developmental Biology
Neurobiology of Behavior
Seminar on Biological Processes in Learning and Cognition
Population biology and ecology
Evolution
Evolutionary Biology of the Invertebrates
Aquatic Biology
Principles of Ecology
Animal Behavior
Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology
Topics in Evolutionary Biology
Reading and Writing Like an Ecologist
Seminar in Evolutionary Biology
Two additional laboratory courses (excluding BIOL 388, BIOL 388S, and BIOL 390)4-8
Vertebrate Biology
Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology
Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering
Fitting Models to Data: Maximum Likelihood Methods and Model Selection
Herpetology
Quantitative Biology Laboratory
Design and Analysis of Biological Experiments
Aquatic Biology Laboratory
Laboratory for Microbiology
Mammal Diversity and Evolution
Principles of Ecology Laboratory
Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Animal Behavior
Experimental Developmental Biology
Introduction to Neurobiology (effective Fall 2014; previously an organismal elective)
Neurobiology Laboratory
Biorobotics Team Research
Biology electives (excluding 100-level courses, BIOL 240, BIOL 250, BIOL 251, and BIOL 390)3-6
Mathematics core courses
MATH 125Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci I4
or MATH 121 Calculus for Science and Engineering I
MATH 126Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci II4
or MATH 122 Calculus for Science and Engineering II
Chemistry core courses
CHEM 105Principles of Chemistry I3
CHEM 106Principles of Chemistry II3
CHEM 113Principles of Chemistry Laboratory2
CHEM 223Introductory Organic Chemistry I3
or CHEM 323 Organic Chemistry I
CHEM 224Introductory Organic Chemistry II3
or CHEM 324 Organic Chemistry II
CHEM 233Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory I2
Physics core courses
PHYS 115Introductory Physics I4
or PHYS 121 General Physics I - Mechanics
PHYS 116Introductory Physics II4
or PHYS 122 General Physics II - Electricity and Magnetism
Total Units60-67

At least 15 hours of the selected electives and additional laboratory courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

BA Biology, Suggested Sequence of Courses

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Genes, Evolution and Ecology (BIOL 214)3  
Genes, Evolution and Ecology Lab (BIOL 214L)1  
SAGES First Seminar4  
PHED Physical Education0  
Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci I (MATH 125)
or Calculus for Science and Engineering I (MATH 121)
4  
Principles of Chemistry I (CHEM 105)3  
Principles of Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 113)  2
SAGES University Seminar  3
Cells and Proteins (BIOL 215)  3
Cells and Proteins Laboratory (BIOL 215L)  1
PHED Physical Education  0
Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci II (MATH 126)
or Calculus for Science and Engineering II (MATH 122)
  4
Principles of Chemistry II (CHEM 106)  3
Year Total: 15 16
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Introductory Organic Chemistry I (CHEM 223)
or Organic Chemistry I (CHEM 323)
3  
Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory I (CHEM 233)2  
SAGES University Seminar3  
GER Course3  
Development and Physiology (BIOL 216)3  
Development and Physiology Lab (BIOL 216L)1  
Genetics (BIOL 326) (or BIOL Elective)  3
Introductory Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 224)
or Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 324)
  3
SAGES Departmental Seminar  3
GER Course  3
Open Elective  3
Year Total: 15 15
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Genetics (BIOL 326)3  
Introductory Physics I (PHYS 115)
or General Physics I - Mechanics (PHYS 121)
4  
GER Course3  
Open Elective3  
or BIOL Elective
BIOL Laboratory2-4  
BIOL Elective  3
BIOL Laboratory  2-4
Introductory Physics II (PHYS 116)
or General Physics II - Electricity and Magnetism (PHYS 122)
  4
GER Course  3
Open Elective  3
Year Total: 15-17 15-17
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
BIOL Elective3  
or SAGES Capstone
Open Electives12  
SAGES Capstone  3
or BIOL Elective
BIOL Elective (if needed)  3
or Open Elective
Open Electives  9
Year Total: 15 15
 
Total Units in Sequence:  121-125

Teacher Licensure

Students may become eligible for teacher licensure in the field of Life Sciences (Adolescents and Young Adults) by completing content area requirements as well as 34 semester hours in education courses (including student teaching) offered through CWRU. For more details, please contact James Bader, executive director of the Gelfand STEM Center.

Subject Area Requirements

Biology core courses
BIOL 214Genes, Evolution and Ecology3
BIOL 214LGenes, Evolution and Ecology Lab1
BIOL 215Cells and Proteins3
BIOL 215LCells and Proteins Laboratory1
BIOL 216Development and Physiology3
BIOL 216LDevelopment and Physiology Lab1
BIOL 223Vertebrate Biology3
Mathematics core courses
MATH 125Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci I4
MATH 126Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci II4
Chemistry core courses
CHEM 105Principles of Chemistry I3
CHEM 106Principles of Chemistry II3
CHEM 113Principles of Chemistry Laboratory2
CHEM 223Introductory Organic Chemistry I3
CHEM 224Introductory Organic Chemistry II3
CHEM 233Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory I2
Physics core courses
PHYS 115Introductory Physics I4
PHYS 116Introductory Physics II4
One of the following earth, environmental, and planetary sciences (EEPS) courses3
The Earth and Planets
Physical Geology
Introduction to Oceanography
Weather and Climate
One of the following genetics, cell and molecular biology, or microbiology courses3-4
Molecular Biology
Genetics
Microbiology
Principles of Developmental Biology
One of the following genetics, cell and molecular biology, or microbiology courses2-3
Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering
Laboratory for Microbiology
Principles of Developmental Biology
One of the following behavior courses3-4
Animal Behavior
Introduction to Neurobiology
Neurobiology of Behavior
One of the following zoology or ecology courses3-4
Herpetology
Introductory Entomology
Aquatic Biology
Ichthyology
Principles of Ecology
Total Units61-65

Bachelor of Science in Biology

The Biology BS degree program is intended to prepare students for work as traditional bench or field research scientists. In addition to a general background in biology (the same as provided by the Biology BA program), the Biology BS program requires two semesters of undergraduate research, plus additional courses in quantitative methods (computer programming, statistics, data analysis) and physical chemistry. The research may be done at the university or at any of its affiliated institutions, but the biology department does not formally place students into laboratories. Because of the extra course work and research requirements, the Biology BS program may present scheduling challenges to students who wish to pursue multiple majors, a junior year abroad or internship, or significant extracurricular activities. Early, careful planning in consultation with the major advisor is essential to stay on schedule.

Biology core courses
BIOL 214Genes, Evolution and Ecology3
BIOL 214LGenes, Evolution and Ecology Lab1
BIOL 215Cells and Proteins3
BIOL 215LCells and Proteins Laboratory1
BIOL 216Development and Physiology3
BIOL 216LDevelopment and Physiology Lab1
One genetics course3
Genetics
One course from any two of the following three subject areas (breadth requirement)6
Cell and molecular biology
Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering (effective Fall 2014, no longer satisfies the Genetics requirement)
Molecular Biology
Fundamental Immunology
Introduction to Stem Cell Biology
Cell Biology
Plant Genomics and Proteomics
Structural Biology
Parasitology
Microbiology
Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans
Organismal biology
Vertebrate Biology
Human Learning and the Brain
Introductory Entomology
Sensory Biology
Ichthyology
Human Physiology
Human Anatomy
Principles of Developmental Biology
Neurobiology of Behavior
Seminar on Biological Processes in Learning and Cognition
Population biology and ecology
Evolution
Evolutionary Biology of the Invertebrates
Aquatic Biology
Principles of Ecology
Animal Behavior
Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology
Topics in Evolutionary Biology
Reading and Writing Like an Ecologist
Seminar in Evolutionary Biology
One quantitative biology laboratory course3
Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology
Fitting Models to Data: Maximum Likelihood Methods and Model Selection
Quantitative Biology Laboratory
Design and Analysis of Biological Experiments
Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Introduction to Neurobiology (effective Fall 2014; previously an organismal elective)
One additional laboratory course (excluding BIOL 388, BIOL 388S, and BIOL 390)2-4
Vertebrate Biology
Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology
Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering
Fitting Models to Data: Maximum Likelihood Methods and Model Selection
Herpetology
Quantitative Biology Laboratory
Design and Analysis of Biological Experiments
Aquatic Biology Laboratory
Laboratory for Microbiology
Mammal Diversity and Evolution
Principles of Ecology Laboratory
Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Animal Behavior
Experimental Developmental Biology
Neurobiology Laboratory
Biorobotics Team Research
Biology electives (excluding 100-level courses, BIOL 240, BIOL 250, and BIOL 251)3-6
Undergraduate research6
Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone
   and Advanced Undergraduate Research
Mathematics core courses
MATH 125Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci I4
or MATH 121 Calculus for Science and Engineering I
MATH 126Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci II4
or MATH 122 Calculus for Science and Engineering II
Chemistry core courses
CHEM 105Principles of Chemistry I3
CHEM 106Principles of Chemistry II3
CHEM 113Principles of Chemistry Laboratory2
CHEM 223Introductory Organic Chemistry I3
or CHEM 323 Organic Chemistry I
CHEM 224Introductory Organic Chemistry II3
or CHEM 324 Organic Chemistry II
CHEM 233Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory I2
CHEM 301Introductory Physical Chemistry I3
Physics core courses
PHYS 115Introductory Physics I4
or PHYS 121 General Physics I - Mechanics
PHYS 116Introductory Physics II4
or PHYS 122 General Physics II - Electricity and Magnetism
One advanced mathematics or statistics course3
Introduction to Linear Algebra
Discrete Mathematics
Basic Statistics for Engineering and Science
One computer programming course3
Elementary Computer Programming
Total Units76-81

At least 11 hours of the selected electives and additional laboratory courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

BS Biology, Suggested Sequence of Courses

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Genes, Evolution and Ecology (BIOL 214)3  
Genes, Evolution and Ecology Lab (BIOL 214L)1  
Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci I (MATH 125)
or Calculus for Science and Engineering I (MATH 121)
4  
Principles of Chemistry I (CHEM 105)3  
SAGES First Seminar4  
PHED Physical Education0  
Cells and Proteins (BIOL 215)  3
Cells and Proteins Laboratory (BIOL 215L)  1
Math and Calculus Applications for Life, Managerial, and Social Sci II (MATH 126)
or Calculus for Science and Engineering II (MATH 122)
  4
Principles of Chemistry II (CHEM 106)  3
Principles of Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 113)  2
SAGES University Seminar  3
PHED Physical Education  0
Year Total: 15 16
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Development and Physiology (BIOL 216)3  
Development and Physiology Lab (BIOL 216L)1  
Introductory Organic Chemistry I (CHEM 223)
or Organic Chemistry I (CHEM 323)
3  
Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory I (CHEM 233)2  
SAGES University Seminar3  
GER Course3  
Genetics (BIOL 326)  3
Introductory Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 224)
or Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 324)
  3
Elementary Computer Programming (ENGR 131)  3
Open Elective  3
GER Course  3
Year Total: 15 15
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
BIOL Elective3  
BIOL Elective2-4  
or BIOL Laboratory
Advanced Mathematics or Statistics Course3  
Introductory Physics I (PHYS 115)
or General Physics I - Mechanics (PHYS 121)
4  
GER Course3  
BIOL Elective  3
Quantitative BIOL Laboratory  3
or other BIOL Laboratory
Introductory Physics II (PHYS 116)
or General Physics II - Electricity and Magnetism (PHYS 122)
  4
SAGES Departmental Seminar  3
GER Course  3
Year Total: 15-17 16
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone (BIOL 388S) (SAGES Capstone)3  
BIOL Elective3  
BIOL Laboratory2-4  
or Quantative BIOL Laboratory (if needed)
Introductory Physical Chemistry I (CHEM 301)3  
Open Elective3  
Advanced Undergraduate Research (BIOL 390)  3
BIOL Elective  3
BIOL Elective (if needed)  3
or Open Elective
Open Electives  6
Year Total: 14-16 15
 
Total Units in Sequence:  121-125

Bachelor of Science in Systems Biology

Systems biology is a rapidly emerging area of research activity at the interface of mathematics, computer science, and the biological sciences. Many modern areas of biology research (e.g., biochemical, neural, behavioral, and ecosystem networks) require the mastery of advanced quantitative and computational skills. The Systems Biology BS degree program is intended to provide the quantitative and multidisciplinary understanding that is necessary for work in these areas. This skill set is different from that produced by traditional undergraduate programs in biology. Consequently, the Systems Biology BS program includes a specialized four-course core curriculum (different from the three-course core used in the Biology BA and BS programs), as well as foundation courses from computer science and advanced mathematics.  Undergraduate research is recommended as BIOL 388S Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone and BIOL 390 Advanced Undergraduate Research), but is not required.

Systems Biology core courses
BIOL 250Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology Systems3
BIOL 251Introduction to Organismal and Population Systems3
BIOL 300Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology3
BIOL 306Dynamics of Biological Systems II: Tools for Mathematical Biology3
Approved subspecialty sequence (choose one of the following four sequences)6
Neuroscience (any two BIOL courses)
Introduction to Neurobiology
Neurobiology of Behavior
Neurobiology Laboratory
Computational Neuroscience
Computational Neuroscience
Bioinformatics and genetics (any two courses; genetics must be BIOL, but bioinformatics may be any department)
Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering
Molecular Biology
Genetics
Plant Genomics and Proteomics
Bioinformatics in Practice
Introduction to Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics for Systems Biology
Bioinformatics for Systems Biology
Ecology and evolutionary biology (any two BIOL courses)
Herpetology
Evolutionary Biology of the Invertebrates
Aquatic Biology
Mammal Diversity and Evolution
Principles of Ecology
Animal Behavior
Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology
Topics in Evolutionary Biology
Cellular and molecular biology (any two BIOL courses)
Molecular Biology
Fundamental Immunology
Introduction to Stem Cell Biology
Cell Biology
Structural Biology
Parasitology
Microbiology
Principles of Developmental Biology
Experimental Developmental Biology
Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans
BIOL Electives (excluding 100-level courses, BIOL 214, BIOL 215, BIOL 216, and BIOL 240)12
(Undergraduate research recommended)
Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone
   and Advanced Undergraduate Research
Mathematics and statistics core courses
MATH 121Calculus for Science and Engineering I4
MATH 122Calculus for Science and Engineering II4
or MATH 124 Calculus II
MATH 223Calculus for Science and Engineering III3
or MATH 227 Calculus III
MATH 224Elementary Differential Equations3
or MATH 228 Differential Equations
STAT 312Basic Statistics for Engineering and Science3
Chemistry core courses
CHEM 105Principles of Chemistry I3
CHEM 106Principles of Chemistry II3
CHEM 113Principles of Chemistry Laboratory2
Physics core courses
PHYS 121General Physics I - Mechanics4
or PHYS 123 Physics and Frontiers I - Mechanics
PHYS 122General Physics II - Electricity and Magnetism4
or PHYS 124 Physics and Frontiers II - Electricity and Magnetism
Computer science core courses
EECS 132Introduction to Programming in Java3
EECS 233Introduction to Data Structures4
EECS 302Discrete Mathematics3
or MATH 304 Discrete Mathematics
Systems Electives (any two of the following)6
Largely computer science
Signal Processing
Modeling and Simulation of Continuous Dynamical Systems
Algorithms
Introduction to Database Systems
Complex Systems Biology
Largely mathematical
Signals and Systems
Fitting Models to Data: Maximum Likelihood Methods and Model Selection
Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology
Introduction to Linear Algebra
Computational Neuroscience
Computational Neuroscience
Optimization Modeling
Total Units79

Systems Biology - Suggested Sequence of Courses

First YearUnits
FallSpring
Calculus for Science and Engineering I (MATH 121)4  
Principles of Chemistry I (CHEM 105)3  
Principles of Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 113)2  
SAGES First Seminar4  
Open Elective3  
PHED Physical Education0  
Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology Systems (BIOL 250)  3
Calculus for Science and Engineering II (MATH 122)
or Calculus II (MATH 124)
  4
Principles of Chemistry II (CHEM 106)  3
Introduction to Programming in Java (EECS 132)  3
SAGES University Seminar  3
PHED Physical Education  0
Year Total: 16 16
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpring
Introduction to Organismal and Population Systems (BIOL 251)3  
General Physics I - Mechanics (PHYS 121)
or Physics and Frontiers I - Mechanics (PHYS 123)
4  
Calculus for Science and Engineering III (MATH 223)
or Calculus III (MATH 227)
3  
SAGES University Seminar3  
GER Course3  
Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology (BIOL 300)  3
General Physics II - Electricity and Magnetism (PHYS 122)
or Physics and Frontiers II - Electricity and Magnetism (PHYS 124)
  4
Elementary Differential Equations (MATH 224)
or Differential Equations (MATH 228)
  3
Open Elective  3
GER Course  3
Year Total: 16 16
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpring
Dynamics of Biological Systems II: Tools for Mathematical Biology (BIOL 306)3  
Discrete Mathematics (EECS 302)
or Discrete Mathematics (MATH 304)
3  
BIOL Elective3  
Open Elective3  
GER Course3  
Basic Statistics for Engineering and Science (STAT 312)  3
Introduction to Data Structures (EECS 233)  4
BIOL Elective  3
SAGES Departmental Seminar  3
GER Course  3
Year Total: 15 16
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpring
SAGES Capstone3  
Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone (BIOL 388S) (recommended)
Subspecialty Elective3  
Systems Elective3  
Open Electives6  
BIOL Elective  3
Advanced Undergraduate Research (BIOL 390) (recommended)
Subspecialty Elective  3
Systems Elective  3
BIOL Elective (if needed) or  3
Open Elective
Open Elective  3
Year Total: 15 15
 
Total Units in Sequence:  125

Concentrations in Areas of the Biological Sciences

Students are encouraged to utilize their elective courses in the biology major to take advantage of concentrations in various specialized areas. These concentrations have been developed between the biology department, the basic science departments of the School of Medicine, and other departments. Currently, concentrations have been developed in the following areas: biotechnology and genetic engineering; computational biology; developmental biology; genetics; cell and molecular biology; neurobiology and animal behavior; population biology, ecology and environmental science. Note: these concentrations are informal; they are not declared, and will not appear on the student’s diploma or transcript.

Co-op Program in Biology

The Co-op (Cooperative Education) program offers full-time undergraduate students in good academic standing the opportunity to engage in full-time, paid employment consistent with their major fields of study. Typically students participate in the co-op program for one or two seven-month periods, such as summer-fall and/or spring-summer, beginning after their sophomore or junior year. Although participation in this program extends the time required to achieve a bachelor’s degree, students often benefit from higher starting salaries and greater lifetime earnings that can result from the experience acquired in co-op assignments. Co-op employment opportunities may exist at local companies engaged in biotechnology research, pharmaceuticals, or other areas involving the life sciences. Students interested in this program should contact the biology department office.

Advising

Biology faculty advisors are assigned to students at the time of major or minor declaration. All biology majors are required to meet with their departmental advisors at least once each semester to discuss their academic program, receive clearance for electronic course registration, and obtain approval for any drops, adds, or withdrawals. Contact Katie Bingman, undergraduate coordinator for the Department of Biology, for information about major or minor declaration.

Departmental Honors

To receive a bachelor’s degree "with Honors in Biology" (formally noted on the transcript), the student must meet the following criteria:

  1. Maintain a 3.4 overall grade point average, with a 3.6 in BIOL courses
  2. Carry out two semesters of independent research (taken as BIOL courses) at Case Western Reserve University
  3. Write a senior honors thesis with the approval of the faculty supervisor
  4. Submit the thesis for review by an ad hoc honors committee
  5. Successfully defend the thesis at an oral examination

Additional information and application forms are available from the biology department office.


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Minors

Two tracks are available for the minor, each requiring a total of 16 hours of biology courses. One track consists of any two of the three biology core lectures with their associated laboratories, plus electives:

Any two of the the following biology core classes (and associated labs)8
Genes, Evolution and Ecology
   and Genes, Evolution and Ecology Lab
Cells and Proteins
   and Cells and Proteins Laboratory
Development and Physiology
   and Development and Physiology Lab
BIOL electives (excluding 100-level courses, BIOL 240, BIOL 250, BIOL 251, and BIOL 390)8
Total Units16

An alternative track, for students using the Systems Biology core, consists of:

Required courses
BIOL 250Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology Systems3
BIOL 251Introduction to Organismal and Population Systems3
BIOL electives (excluding 100-level courses, BIOL 214, BIOL 215, BIOL 216, BIOL 240, and BIOL 390)10
Total Units16

 BA Biology | BS Biology | Teacher Licensure I BS Systems Biology | Minors

Graduate Programs

Master of Science

The Department of Biology offers both thesis and non-thesis Master of Science degree programs. Both programs require a minimum of 30 semester hours of courses at the 300 level or higher. A minimum of 18 semester hours of formal course work is required for the thesis degree, and a minimum of 24 semester hours of formal course work for the non-thesis degree. The remaining credits may be research credits (BIOL 601 Research and BIOL 651 Thesis M.S.). The Entrepreneurial Biotechnology (EB) is a two-year Plan A professional MS degree in Biology. The program includes four (4) required courses, an internship and electives to make up the 30 semester hours. The thesis is based on a real entrepreneurial project with an existing company or your own startup (the internship).

Plan A (Thesis)

The Plan A Master of Science degree in biology is a thesis graduate degree program. The purpose of the program is to provide advanced exposure to biology for interested professionals, to provide additional training for those wishing to resume or change careers, or to provide additional preparation in biology for students interested in pursuing professional studies in the health sciences. Students are required to write a Master of Science thesis.

Program of Study

All candidates must complete a total of 30 credit hours in course work at the 300 level or higher within 5 years of matriculation into the graduate program. At least 18 of these credit hours must be must be at the 400 level or above. Further, at least 15 credit hours must be in courses offered by the biology department. The remaining course work may include courses offered by any department within the University, subject to an advisor’s approval and School of Graduate Studies regulations. Candidates are limited to 3 credit hours of BIOL 601 Research, but may take up to 9 credit hours of BIOL 651 Thesis M.S. According to rules of the School of Graduate Studies, once a candidate registers for BIOL 651, the registration must continue for a minimum of 1 credit per semester until completion of the degree program. Students who are uncertain about completing requirements for a Plan A master’s degree should consult the regulations for the Plan B Master’s degree. These two master’s degrees have different regulations concerning use of BIOL 601. A candidate may wish to use BIOL 599 Advanced Independent Study for Graduate Students; the letter grade assigned will reflect the evaluation by the entire Advisory Committee. The candidate’s program of study must also include a formal oral presentation in a seminar or journal club on a topic different from the candidate’s research topic.

Plan A (Thesis) Entrepreneurial Biotechnology

The Entrepreneurial Biotechnology (EB) students study state-of-the-art biotechnology, practical business, and technology innovation while working on a real-world entrepreneurial project with an existing company or their own startup. The EB helps to connect students with mentors, advisors, partners, funding sources and job opportunities. EB prepares students to work in diverse research or technology-centered environments. The Entrepreneurial Biotechnology Program (EB) requires students to write a thesis in order to graduate with a Master of Science in Biology, Entrepreneurship Track. The thesis must be based on a project of significant time investment on the part of the student and must be grounded in the real world (i.e., not simply an academic exercise). Thus, each student is required to work as an intern, employee, or entrepreneur, typically with a start-up, existing company, early-stage investment firm, or affiliate of a research organization. The duration must be at least one year, with one semester reserved for full-time work outside of the classroom (usually the fourth and final semester). Under this requirement, international students will be permitted no more than one semester of full-time curricular practical training (CPT).

Plan B (Non-thesis)

The Plan B Master of Science degree in biology is a non-thesis graduate degree program. The purpose of the program is to provide advanced exposure to biology for interested professionals, to provide additional training for those wishing to resume or change careers, or to provide additional preparation in biology for students interested in pursuing professional studies in the health sciences. Students are not required to write a Master of Science thesis, but the program does require independent study of all degree candidates.

Program of Study

All candidates must complete a total of 30 credit hours in course work at the 300 level or higher. At least 18 of these credit hours must be at the 400 levels or above. Further, at least 15 credit hours must be in courses offered by the Biology Department. At least one course must be taken in each of the following areas of biology: cell and molecular biology (including chemical biology), organismal biology, and population biology. The remaining course work may include courses offered by any department within the University, subject to the advisor’s approval and School of Graduate Studies regulations. Candidates are limited to a total of 6 credit hours of independent study (BIOL 599 Advanced Independent Study for Graduate Students or BIOL 601 Research). Both of these courses require completion of a Course Proposal Form (available in the Biology Departmental Office) and approval by the advisor. In the case of enrollment in BIOL 599, the letter grade assigned will reflect the evaluation by a three person committee recruited by the student and advisor.

Doctor of Philosophy

The degree of Doctor of Philosophy is awarded in recognition of in-depth knowledge in a major field and comprehensive understanding of related subjects together with a demonstration of ability to perform independent investigation and to communicate the results of such investigation in an acceptable dissertation.

Students entering with a bachelor’s degree will satisfactorily complete a minimum of 36 credit hours (which may include independent study/research taken as BIOL 601 Research), tutorials, and seminars. For students entering with an approved master’s degree, completion of at least 18 semester hours of course work is required. A minimum of 18 semester hours of dissertation research (BIOL 701 Dissertation Ph.D.) is required for all doctoral students.

Teaching experience is an integral part of the graduate training. Students are involved in supervised laboratory teaching in selected undergraduate courses taking into account both the specialized areas of interest of the student and his or her broader professional development. The normal teaching requirement consists of four semesters.

Courses

BIOL 114. Principles of Biology. 3 Units.

A one-semester course in biology designed for the non-major. A primary objective of this course is to demonstrate how biological principles impact an individual's daily life. BIOL 114 introduces students to the molecules of life, cell structure and function, respiration and photosynthesis, molecular genetics, heredity and human genetics, evolution, diversity of life, and ecology. Minimal background is required; however, some exposure to biology and chemistry at the high school level is helpful. This course is not open to students with credit for BIOL 214 or BIOL 250. This course does not count toward any Biology degree.

BIOL 116. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 3 Units.

This is the first course in a two-semester sequence that covers human anatomy and physiology for the non-major. BIOL 116 covers homeostasis, cell structure and function, membrane transport, tissue types and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular and nervous systems. This course is not open to students with credit for BIOL 216, BIOL 251, BIOL 340, or BIOL 346. This course does not count toward any Biology degree. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 114.

BIOL 117. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II. 3 Units.

This is the second course in a two-semester sequence that covers human anatomy and physiology for the non-major. BIOL 117 covers the endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, lymphatic, urinary systems including acid-base regulation, and reproductive systems. This course is not open to students with credit for BIOL 216, BIOL 251, BIOL 340, or BIOL 346. This course does not count toward any Biology degree. Prereq: BIOL 114 and BIOL 116.

BIOL 214. Genes, Evolution and Ecology. 3 Units.

First in a series of three courses required of the Biology major. Topics include: biological molecules (focus on DNA and RNA); mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, gene expression, genetics, population genetics, evolution, biological diversity and ecology. Prereq or Coreq: CHEM 105 or CHEM 111.

BIOL 214L. Genes, Evolution and Ecology Lab. 1 Unit.

First in a series of three laboratory courses required of the Biology major. Topics include: biological molecules (with a focus on DNA and RNA); basics of cell structure (with a focus on malaria research); molecular genetics, biotechnology; population genetics and evolution, ecology. Assignments will be in the form of a scientific journal submission. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 214.

BIOL 215. Cells and Proteins. 3 Units.

Second in a series of three courses required of the Biology major. Topics include: biological molecules (focus on proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids); cell structure (focus on membranes, energy conversion organelles and cytoskeleton); protein structure-function; enzyme kinetics, cellular energetics, and cell communication and motility strategies. Prereq: BIOL 214 and (CHEM 105 or CHEM 111). Prereq or Coreq: CHEM 106 or ENGR 145.

BIOL 215L. Cells and Proteins Laboratory. 1 Unit.

Second in a series of three laboratory courses required of the Biology major. Topics to include: protein structure-function, enzymes kinetics; cell structure; cellular energetics, respiration and photosynthesis. In addition, membrane structure and transport will be covered. Laboratory and discussion sessions offered in alternate weeks. This course is not available for students who have taken BIOL 215 as a 4-credit course. Prereq: BIOL 214L and Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 215.

BIOL 216. Development and Physiology. 3 Units.

This is the final class in the series of three courses required of the Biology major. As with the two previous courses, BIOL 214 and 215, this course is designed to provide an overview of fundamental biological processes. It will examine the complexity of interactions controlling reproduction, development and physiological function in animals. The Developmental Biology section will review topics such as gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, the genetic control of development, stem cells and cloning. Main topics included in the Physiology portion consist of: homeostasis, the function of neurons and nervous systems; the major organ systems and processes involved in circulation, excretion, osmoregulation, gas exchange, feeding, digestion, temperature regulation, endocrine function and the immunologic response. There are two instructional modes for this course: lecture mode and hybrid mode. In the lecture mode students attend class for their instruction. In the hybrid mode students watch online lectures from the course instructor and attend one discussion section with the course instructor each week. The online content prepares students for the discussion. Which mode is offered varies depending on the term. Students are made aware of what mode is offered at the time of registration. The total student effort and course content is identical for both instructional modes. Either instructional mode fulfills the BIOL 216 requirement for the BA and BS in Biology. Prereq: BIOL 214.

BIOL 216L. Development and Physiology Lab. 1 Unit.

Third in a series of three laboratory courses required of the Biology major. Students will conduct laboratory experiments designed to provide hands-on, empirical laboratory experience in order to better understand the complex interactions governing the basic physiology and development of organisms. Laboratories and discussion sessions offered in alternate weeks. Prereq: BIOL 214L. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 216.

BIOL 223. Vertebrate Biology. 3 Units.

A survey of vertebrates from jawless fishes to mammals. Functional morphology, physiology, behavior and ecology as they relate to the groups' relationships with their environment. Evolution of organ systems. Two lectures and one laboratory per week. The laboratory will involve a study of the detailed anatomy of the shark and cat used as representative vertebrates. Students are expected to spend at least three hours of unscheduled laboratory each week. This course fulfills a laboratory requirement for the biology major.

BIOL 225. Evolution. 3 Units.

Multidisciplinary study of the course and processes of organic evolution provides a broad understanding of the evolution of structural and functional diversity, the relationships among organisms and their environments, and the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of organisms. Topics include the genetic basis of micro- and macro-evolutionary change, the concept of adaptation, natural selection, population dynamics, theories of species formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory. Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, EEPS 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.

BIOL 240. Personalized Medicine. 3 Units.

The emphasis of clinical practice is slowly shifting from one-disease and one-treatment-fits-all to more personalized care based on molecular markers of disease risk, disease subtype, drug effectiveness, and adverse drug reactions. This course, designed for non-biology majors, will introduce how the developments in gene sequencing, genetic markers, and stem cells can be applied for predictive testing and personalized therapies. Core concepts to be covered include the principles of genetics including the inheritance of traits determined by single genes and by multiple genes, the assignment of risk to particular genetic constitutions, and the nature and use of stem cells. The emergence of private companies as resources for the performance of the tests, and how the general public will be able to interpret their own data (with or without the access to genetic counselors), will also be covered. The course will include hands-on laboratory experiences of DNA manipulation and detection using the polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis. The ethical, legal, and social issues associated with personal genetic testing will also be covered. This course does not count towards any Biology degree, nor towards the Biology minor.

BIOL 250. Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology Systems. 3 Units.

This course will emphasize an understanding of living organisms at the cellular level from a molecular view point. Topics to be covered will include: unity and diversity of living things, evolutionary relatedness, cells, tissues and organelles, life as a biochemical process, molecular building blocks of life, gene structure and function, uses of model organisms and molecular experimental methods. The topics to be covered are relevant to current practices in biotechnology, medicine and agriculture and these connections will be highlighted. This course is not open to students who have received credit for BIOL 214 and/or BIOL 215.

BIOL 251. Introduction to Organismal and Population Systems. 3 Units.

This course will emphasize an understanding of the regulation of the structure and function of organismal and population systems. Adopting an evolutionary perspective, the course will provide students with a comparative analysis of plant and animal solutions to the problem of multicellularity. Detailed exploration of animals will focus on the development of tissue and organ systems and their coordination at an organismal level. This systems approach will then be extended to regulation of ecosystems and abundance of organisms in populations.

BIOL 300. Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology. 3 Units.

This course will introduce students to dynamic biological phenomena, from the molecular to the population level, and models of these dynamical phenomena. It will describe a biological system, discuss how to model its dynamics, and experimentally evaluate the resulting models. Topics will include molecular dynamics of biological molecules, kinetics of cell metabolism and the cell cycle, biophysics of excitability, scaling laws for biological systems, biomechanics, and population dynamics. Mathematical tools for the analysis of dynamic biological processes will also be presented. Students will manipulate and analyze simulations of biological processes, and learn to formulate and analyze their own models. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major. Offered as BIOL 300 and EBME 300.

BIOL 301. Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering. 3 Units.

Laboratory training in recombinant DNA techniques. Basic microbiology, growth, and manipulation of bacteriophage, bacteria and yeast. Students isolate and characterize DNA, construct recombinant DNA molecules, and reintroduce them into eukaryotic cells (yeast, plant, animal) to assess their viability and function. Two laboratories per week. Offered as BIOL 301 and BIOL 401. Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOL 250.

BIOL 302. Human Learning and the Brain. 3 Units.

This course focuses on the question, "How does the human brain learn?" Through assigned readings, extensive class discussions, and a major paper, each student will explore personal perspectives on learning. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: the brain's cycle of learning; neocortex structure and function; emotion and limbic brain; synapse dynamics and changes in learning; images in cognition; symbolic brain (language, mathematics, music); memory formation; and creative thought and brain mechanisms. The major paper will be added to each student's SAGES writing portfolio. In addition, near the end of the semester, each student will make an oral presentation on a chosen topic. Offered as BIOL 302 and COGS 322. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

BIOL 304. Fitting Models to Data: Maximum Likelihood Methods and Model Selection. 3 Units.

This course will introduce students to maximum likelihood methods for fitting models to data and to ways of deciding which model is best supported by the data (model selection). Along the way, students will learn some basic tenets of probability and develop competency in R, a commonly used statistical package. Examples will be drawn from ecology, epidemiology, and potentially other areas of biology. The second half of the course is devoted to in-class projects, and students are encouraged to bring their own data. Offered as BIOL 304 and BIOL 404. Prereq: MATH 121 and MATH 122 OR MATH 125 and MATH 126.

BIOL 305. Herpetology. 4 Units.

Amphibians and reptiles exhibit tremendous diversity in development, physiology, anatomy, behavior and ecology. As a result, amphibians and reptiles have served as model organisms for research in many different fields of biology. This course will cover many aspects of amphibian and reptile biology, including anatomy, evolution, geographical distribution, physiological adaptations to their environment, reproductive strategies, moisture-, temperature-, and food-relations, sensory mechanisms, predator-prey relationships, communication (vocal, chemical, behavioral), population biology, and the effects of venomous snake bite. Laboratory sessions will be devoted to learning species identification and evolutionary relationships, discussion of the ecology of Ohio's amphibians and reptiles, survey techniques for determining population size and structure, and observations of the behavior of live reptiles and amphibians. Laboratory sessions may include trips to Squire Valleevue Farm, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 306. Dynamics of Biological Systems II: Tools for Mathematical Biology. 3 Units.

Building on the material in Biology 300, this course focuses on the mathematical tools used to construct and analyze biological models, with examples drawn largely from ecology but also from epidemiology, developmental biology, and other areas. Analytic "paper and pencil" techniques are emphasized, but we will also use computers to help develop intuition. By the end of the course, students should be able to recognize basic building blocks in biological models, be able to perform simple analysis, and be more fluent in translating between verbal and mathematical descriptions. Offered as BIOL 306 and MATH 376. Prereq: BIOL 300 or MATH 224 or MATH 228.

BIOL 307. Evolutionary Biology of the Invertebrates. 3 Units.

Important events in the evolution of invertebrate life, as well as structure, function, and phylogeny of major invertebrate groups.

BIOL 308. Molecular Biology. 4 Units.

An examination of the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Topics include: nucleic acid structure; mechanisms and control of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis; recombinant DNA; and mRNA processing and modification. Where possible, eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems are compared. Special topics include yeast as a model organism, molecular biology of cancer, and molecular biology of the cell cycle. Current literature is discussed briefly as an introduction to techniques of genetic engineering. Recommended preparation: BIOC 307. Offered as BIOC 308, BIOL 308, BIOC 408, and BIOL 408. Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOC 307.

BIOL 311A. Survey of Bioinformatics: Technologies in Bioinformatics. 1 Unit.

SYBB 311/411A is a 5-week course that introduces students to the high-throughput technologies used to collect data for bioinformatics research in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. In particular, we will focus on mass spectrometer-based proteomics, DNA and RNA sequencing, genotyping, protein microarrays, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. This is a lecture-based course that relies heavily on out-of-class readings. Graduate students will be expected to write a report and give an oral presentation at the end of the course. SYBB 311/411A is part of the SYBB survey series which is composed of the following course sequence: (1) Technologies in Bioinformatics, (2) Data Integration in Bioinformatics, (3) Translational Bioinformatics, and (4) Programming for Bioinformatics. Each standalone section of this course series introduces students to an aspect of a bioinformatics project - from data collection (SYBB 311/411A), to data integration (SYBB 311/411B), to research applications (SYBB 311/411C), with a fourth module (SYBB 311/411D) introducing basic programming skills. Graduate students have the option of enrolling in all four courses or choosing the individual modules most relevant to their background and goals with the exception of SYBB411D, which must be taken with SYBB411A. Offered as SYBB 311A, BIOL 311A and SYBB 411A. Prereq: (BIOL 214 and BIOL 215) or BIOL 250. Coreq: BIOL 311B, BIOL 311C, and BIOL 311D.

BIOL 311B. Survey of Bioinformatics: Data Integration in Bioinformatics. 1 Unit.

SYBB 311/411B is a five week course that surveys the conceptual models and tools used to analyze and interpret data collected by high-throughput technologies, providing an entry points for students new to the field of bioinformatics. The knowledge structures that we will cover include: biomedical ontologies, signaling pathways, and interaction networks. We will also cover tools for genome exploration and analysis. The SYBB survey series is composed of the following course sequence: (1) Technologies in Bioinformatics, (2) Data Integration in Bioinformatics, (3) Translational Bioinformatics, and (4) Programming for Bioinformatics. Each standalone section of this course series introduces students to an aspect of a bioinformatics project - from data collection (SYBB 311/411A), to data integration (SYBB 311/411B), to research applications (SYBB 311/411C), with a fourth module (SYBB 311/411D) introducing basic programming. Graduate students have the option of enrolling in all four courses or choosing the individual modules most relevant to their background and goals with the exception of SYBB411D, which must be taken with SYBB411A. Offered as SYBB 311, BIOL 311B, and SYBB 411B. Prereq: (BIOL 214 and BIOL 215) or BIOL 250. Coreq: BIOL 311A, BIOL 311C, and BIOL 311D.

BIOL 311C. Survey of Bioinformatics: Translational Bioinformatics. 1 Unit.

SYBB 311/411C is a longitudinal course that introduces students to the latest applications of bioinformatics, with a focus on translational research. Topics include: `omic drug discovery, pharmacogenomics, microbiome analysis, and genomic medicine. The focus of this course is on illustrating how bioinformatic technologies can be paired with data integration tools for various applications in medicine. The course is organized as a weekly journal club, with instructors leading the discussion of recent literature in the field of bioinformatics. Students will be expected to complete readings beforehand; students will also work in teams to write weekly reports reviewing journal articles in the field. The SYBB survey series is composed of the following course sequence: (1) Technologies in Bioinformatics, (2) Data Integration in Bioinformatics, (3) Translational Bioinformatics, and (4) Programming for Bioinformatics. Each standalone section of this course series introduces students to an aspect of a bioinformatics project - from data collection (SYBB 311/411A), to data integration (SYBB 311/411B), to research applications (SYBB 311/411C), with a fourth module (SYBB 311/411D) introducing basic programming. Graduate students have the option of enrolling in all four courses or choosing the individual modules most relevant to their background and goals with the exception of SYBB411D, which must be taken with SYBB411A. Offered as SYBB 311C, BIOL 311C and SYBB 411C. Prereq: (BIOL 214 and BIOL 215) or BIOL 250. Coreq: BIOL 311A, BIOL 311B, and BIOL 311D.

BIOL 311D. Survey of Bioinformatics: Programming for Bioinformatics. 1 Unit.

SYBB 311D/411D is a 1 credit, 5-week long course that will introduce students to bioinformatics software and programming in the R language; this course is designed for those with little or no prior programming experience. Students will gain hands-on experience working with R packages and functions designed for bioinformatics applications. Programming for Bioinformatics short course focuses on a platform, in this case R-project (rproject.org), and introduces students to basic programming in R, what packages are available for their use, and teaches an introductory hands-on experience working with R by walking through the students in analyzing a large-omics dataset. At the end of the class, the students are assessed with a small-scale project, where they analyze a publicly available dataset and produce a short report. The SYBB survey series is composed of the following course sequence: (1) Technologies in Bioinformatics, (2) Data Integration in Bioinformatics, (3) Translational Bioinformatics, and (4) Programming for Bioinformatics. Each standalone section of this course series introduces students to an aspect of a bioinformatics project - from data collection (SYBB 311/411A), to data integration (SYBB 311/411B), to research applications (SYBB 311/411C), with a fourth module (SYBB 311/411D) introducing basic programming. Graduate students have the option of enrolling in all four courses or choosing the individual modules most relevant to their background and goals with the exception of SYBB411D, which must be taken with SYBB411A. Offered as SYBB 311D, BIOL 311D and SYBB 411D. Prereq: (BIOL 214 and BIOL 215) or BIOL 250. Coreq: BIOL 311A, BIOL 311B, and BIOL 311C.

BIOL 313. Genetics Laboratory. 2 Units.

This laboratory exposes students to the methods used to study the genetics of a wide range of organisms. Some of the topics covered are: gene mapping in diploids, tetrad analysis, mutagenesis, complementation, and mitotic recombination. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the genotype and the biochemical events which determine the phenotype. One laboratory per week. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 326.

BIOL 315. Quantitative Biology Laboratory. 3 Units.

This course will apply a range of quantitative techniques to explore structure-function relations in biological systems. Using a case study approach, students will explore causes of impairments of normal function, will assemble diverse sets of information into a database format for the analysis of causes of impairment, will analyze the data with appropriate statistical and other quantitative tools, and be able to communicate their results to both technical and non-technical audiences. The course has one lecture and one lab per week. Students will be required to maintain a journal of course activities and demonstrate mastery of quantitative tools and statistical techniques. Graduate students will have a final project that applies these techniques to a problem of their choice. Offered as BIOL 315 and BIOL 415. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 316. Fundamental Immunology. 4 Units.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, and PATH 416. Prereq: BIOL 215 and 215L.

BIOL 318. Introductory Entomology. 4 Units.

The goal of this course is to discover that, for the most part, insects are not aliens from another planet. Class meetings will alternate; with some structured as lectures, while others are laboratory exercises. Sometimes we will meet at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, or in the field to collect and observe insects. The 50 minute discussion meeting once a week will serve to address questions from both lectures and lab exercises. The students will be required to make a small but comprehensive insect collection. Early in the semester we will focus on collecting the insects, and later, when insects are gone for the winter, we will work to identify the specimens collected earlier. Students will be graded based on exams, class participation and their insect collections. Offered as BIOL 318 and BIOL 418. Prereq: BIOL 214 and BIOL 215 and BIOL 216 or BIOL 250 and BIOL 251

BIOL 319. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology. 3 Units.

Applications of probability and stochastic processes to biological systems. Mathematical topics will include: introduction to discrete and continuous probability spaces (including numerical generation of pseudo random samples from specified probability distributions), Markov processes in discrete and continuous time with discrete and continuous sample spaces, point processes including homogeneous and inhomogeneous Poisson processes and Markov chains on graphs, and diffusion processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Biological topics will be determined by the interests of the students and the instructor. Likely topics include: stochastic ion channels, molecular motors and stochastic ratchets, actin and tubulin polymerization, random walk models for neural spike trains, bacterial chemotaxis, signaling and genetic regulatory networks, and stochastic predator-prey dynamics. The emphasis will be on practical simulation and analysis of stochastic phenomena in biological systems. Numerical methods will be developed using both MATLAB and the R statistical package. Student projects will comprise a major part of the course. Offered as BIOL 319, EECS 319, MATH 319, BIOL 419, EBME 419, and PHOL 419. Prereq: MATH 224 or MATH 223 and BIOL 300 or BIOL 306 and MATH 201 or MATH 307 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 321. Design and Analysis of Biological Experiments. 3 Units.

In this laboratory course, students will learn how to use a computer programming language (MATLAB) to design, execute, and analyze biological experiments. The course will begin with basic programming and continue to data output and acquisition, image analysis, and statistics. Students who are interested in carrying out research projects in any lab setting are encouraged to take this course and use the skills acquired to better organize and analyze their experiments. No prior programming knowledge is assumed. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement of the B.A. in biology. This course satisfies a laboratory or quantitative laboratory requirement of the B.S. in biology. Students will complete a final project on a topic of their choice; graduate students will be required to give an oral presentation of this project. Offered as BIOL 321 and BIOL 421. Counts for CAS Quantitative Reasoning Requirement. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 322. Sensory Biology. 3 Units.

The task of a sensory system is to collect, process, store, and transmit information about the environment. How do sensory systems convert information from the environment into neural information in an animal's brain? This course will explore the ecology, physiology, and behavior of the senses across the animal kingdom. We will cover introductory neurobiology and principles of sensory system organization before delving more deeply into vision, olfaction, audition, mechanosensation, and multi-modal sensory integration. For each sensory modality, we will consider how the sensory system operates and how its operation affects the animal's behavior and ecology. We will also explore the evolution of sensory systems and their specialization for specific behavioral tasks. Students will finish the course with a research project on a topic of their choice; graduate students will present this project to the class. Offered as BIOL 322 and BIOL 422. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 324. Introduction to Stem Cell Biology. 3 Units.

This discussion-based course will introduce students to the exciting field of stem cell research. Students will first analyze basic concepts of stem cell biology, including stem cell niche, cell quiescence, asymmetric cell division, cell proliferation and differentiation, and signaling pathways involved in these processes. This first part of the course will focus on invertebrate genetic models for the study of stem cells. In the second part of the course, students will search for primary research papers on vertebrate and human stem cells, and application of stem cell research in regenerative medicine and cancer. Finally, students will have the opportunity to discuss about ethical controversies in the field. Students will rotate in weekly presentations, and will write two papers during the semester. Students will improve skills on searching and reading primary research papers, gain presentation skills, and further their knowledge in related subjects in the fields of cell biology, genetics and developmental biology. This course may be used as a cell/molecular subject area elective for the B.A. and B.S. Biology degrees. Offered as BIOL 324 and BIOL 424. Prereq: BIOL 325 or BIOL 326 or BIOL 362.

BIOL 325. Cell Biology. 3 Units.

This course will emphasize an understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic cells from a molecular viewpoint. We will explore cell activities by answering the questions what do cells do and how do they do it. The answers to these questions will be developed using experimental evidence from the literature and explanations from the text. An important part of this course will be appreciation of the experimental evidence which supports our current understanding of cell function. To achieve this aim, students will read papers from the primary literature to supplement the text. Topics will include cell structure, protein structure and function, internal organization of the eukaryotic cell, membrane structure and function, protein sorting, organelle biogenesis, and cytoskeleton structure and function. The course will also cover the life cycles of cells, their interactions and finally use the immune response as a model of cell behavior. Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOL 250.

BIOL 326. Genetics. 3 Units.

Transmission genetics, nature of mutation, microbial genetics, somatic cell genetics, recombinant DNA techniques and their application to genetics, human genome mapping, plant breeding, transgenic plants and animals, uniparental inheritance, evolution, and quantitative genetics. Offered as BIOL 326 and BIOL 426. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 250.

BIOL 328. Plant Genomics and Proteomics. 3 Units.

The development of molecular tools has impacted agriculture as much as human health. The application of new techniques to improve food crops, including the development of genetically modified crops, has also become controversial. This course covers the nature of the plant genome and the role of sequenced-based methods in the identification of the genes. The application of the whole suite of modern molecular tools to understand plant growth and development, with specific examples related agronomically important responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, is included. The impact of the enormous amounts of data generated by these methods and their storage and analysis (bioinformatics) is also considered. Finally, the impact on both the developed and developing world of the generation and release of genetically modified food crops will be covered. Recommended preparation: BIOL 326. Offered as BIOL 328 and BIOL 428.

BIOL 334. Structural Biology. 3 Units.

Introduces basic chemical properties of proteins and discusses the physical forces that determine protein structure. Topics include: the elucidation of protein structure by NMR and by X-ray crystallographic methods; the acquisition of protein structures from data bases; and simple modeling experiments based on protein structures. Offered as BIOC 334, BIOL 334, BIOC 434, and BIOL 434.

BIOL 336. Aquatic Biology. 3 Units.

Physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of lake ecosystems. Factors governing the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater organisms. Offered as BIOL 336 and BIOL 436. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 338. Ichthyology. 3 Units.

Biology of fishes. Students will first develop fundamental understanding of the evolutionary history and systematics of fishes to provide a context within which they can address diverse aspects of biology including anatomy, physiology (e.g., in species that change sex; osmoregulation in freshwater vs. saltwater), and behavior (e.g. visual, auditory, chemical, electric communication; social structures). Finally, this knowledge will be used to explore the biodiversity of fishes around the world, with emphasis on Ohio species, by examining preserved specimens in class and making two local field trips to (1) observe captive living specimens, and (2) to observe, capture, and identify wild fishes in their natural habitats. The course will conclude with an analysis of the current global fisheries crisis that has resulted from human activities. Fishes will be used to address broad topics in ecology and evolutionary biology that transcend the pure study of ichthyology. Recommended preparation for BIOL 438: BIOL 216. Offered as BIOL 338 and BIOL 438. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 339. Aquatic Biology Laboratory. 2 Units.

The physical, chemical, and biological limnology of freshwater ecosystems will be investigated. Emphasis will be on identification of the organisms inhabiting these systems and their ecological interactions with each other. This course will combine both field and laboratory analysis to characterize and compare the major components of these ponds. Students will have the opportunity to design and conduct individual projects. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 336.

BIOL 340. Human Physiology. 3 Units.

This course will provide functional correlates to the students' previous knowledge of human anatomy. Building upon the basic principles covered in BIOL 216 and 346, the physiology of organs and organ systems of humans, including the musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, excretory, reproductive, and endocrine systems, will be studied at an advanced level. The contribution of each system to homeostasis will be emphasized. Prereq: BIOL 346 and BIOL 215 and BIOL 216 or BIOL 346 and BIOL 250 and BIOL 251

BIOL 342. Parasitology. 3 Units.

This course will introduce students to classical and current parasitology. Students will discuss basic principles of parasitology, parasite life cycles, host-parasite interaction, therapeutic and control programs, epidemiology, and ecological and societal considerations. The course will explore diverse classes of parasitic organisms with emphasis on protozoan and helminthic diseases and the parasites' molecular biology. Group discussion and selected reading will facilitate further integrative learning and appreciation for parasite biology. This course counts as an elective in the cell/molecular biology subject area for the Biology BA and BS degrees. Offered as BIOL 342 and BIOL 442. Prereq: BIOL 214, 215, 216 and 326.

BIOL 343. Microbiology. 3 Units.

The physiology, genetics, biochemistry, and diversity of microorganisms. The subject will be approached both as a basic biological science that studies the molecular and biochemical processes of cells and viruses, and as an applied science that examines the involvement of microorganisms in human disease as well as in workings of ecosystems, plant symbioses, and industrial processes. The course is divided into four major areas: bacteria, viruses, medical microbiology, and environmental and applied microbiology. Offered as BIOL 343 and BIOL 443. Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOL 250.

BIOL 344. Laboratory for Microbiology. 2 Units.

Practical microbiology, with an emphasis on bacteria as encountered in a variety of situations. Sterile techniques, principles of identification, staining and microscopy, growth and nutritional characteristics, genetics, enumeration methods, epidemiology, immunological techniques (including ELISA and T cell identification), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, chemical diagnostic tests, sampling the human environment, and commercial applications. One lab per week. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 343.

BIOL 345. Mammal Diversity and Evolution. 4 Units.

This course focuses on the anatomical and taxonomic diversity of mammals in an evolutionary context. The emphasis is living (extant) mammals, but extinct mammals are also discussed. By the end of the course, students will be able to: (1) describe the key anatomical and physiological features of mammals; (2) name all orders and most families of living mammals; (3) identify a mammal skull to order and family; (4) understand how to create and interpret a phylogenetic tree; (5) appreciate major historical patterns in mammal diversity and biogeography as revealed by the fossil record. Two student-led seminars and one lab each week. Most labs will take place at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. One weekend field trip to Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major. Offered as ANAT 445, BIOL 345, and BIOL 445. Prereq: BIOL 214.

BIOL 346. Human Anatomy. 3 Units.

Gross anatomy of the human body. Two lectures and one laboratory demonstration per week. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 351. Principles of Ecology. 3 Units.

This lecture course explores spatial and temporal relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. An underlying theme of the course will be neo-Darwinian evolution through natural selection with an emphasis on organismal adaptations to abiotic and biotic environments. Studies and models will illustrate ecological principles, and there will be some emphasis on the applicability of these principles to ecosystem conservation. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on some aspect of ecological theory. Offered as BIOL 351 and BIOL 451. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 351L. Principles of Ecology Laboratory. 2 Units.

Students in this laboratory course will conduct a variety of ecological investigations that are designed to examine relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. Descriptive and hypothesis-driven investigations will take place at Case Western Reserve University's Squire Valleevue Farm, in both field and greenhouse settings. The course is designed to explore as well as test a variety of ecological paradigms. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on a select number of lab investigations. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors. Recommended preparation for BIOL 451L: prior or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 451. Offered as BIOL 351L and BIOL 451L. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 351.

BIOL 352. Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases. 3 Units.

This course explores the effects of infectious diseases on populations of hosts, including humans and other animals. We will use computer models to study how infectious diseases enter and spread through populations, and how factors like physiological and behavioral differences among host individuals, host and pathogen evolution, and the environment affect this spread. Our emphasis will be on understanding and applying quantitative models for studying disease spread and informing policy in public health and conservation. To that end, computer labs are the central component of the course. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement of the B.A. in biology. This course satisfies a laboratory or quantitative laboratory requirement of the B.S. in biology. Offered as BIOL 352 and BIOL 452. Prereq: (BIOL 214 or BIOL 251) and (MATH 121 or MATH 125) and (MATH 122 or MATH 126).

BIOL 357. Backyard Behavior Capstone. 3 Units.

Interesting animal behavior is all around us. We need not go into a laboratory to observe it, but laboratory tools can help to understand the behaviors that we encounter every day. We interact with animals in our homes, in forests and wilderness areas and even in our own backyards. As pet dogs or cats interact with wild squirrels and birds, they provide insights regarding predation, neuromechanics, and mating behaviors, just to list a few concepts. This course takes advantage of the rich behavior that exists around us to provide a capstone experience for students who have an interest in animal behavior. The course will be open to 10 senior Biology majors who have emphasized the animal behavior and neurobiology courses offered by the Biology department. Each student will have taken at least one advanced course in Animal Behavior, Neurobiology, or Neuroethology. Entry into the course will be by permit, and permits will be issued only after an interview in which each student demonstrates to the instructor a deep interest in animal behavior and underlying neural control systems. Through classroom discussion, viewing of behaviorally-based video shows, and field trips, each student will choose one behavior to investigate in detail over the course of the semester. In order to move beyond casual observation to in-depth analysis, video cameras will be available to the students, as well as computer based motion analysis systems. The class will meet as a group twice weekly. During this formal classroom period, students will discuss behaviors in general and , as the course progresses, the specific topics that each student is investigating. They will present journal articles that are relevant to their topics, a prospectus on their intended study, and ultimately describe their projects outside of class time and will present a poster at a public poster fair. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone. Prereq: BIOL 305 or BIOL 318 or BIOL 358 or BIOL 373 or BIOL 374.

BIOL 358. Animal Behavior. 4 Units.

Ultimately the success or failure (i.e., life or death) of any individual animal is determined by its behavior. The ability to locate and capture food, avoid being food, acquiring and defending territory, and successfully passing your genes to the next generation, are all dependent on complex interactions between an animal's design, environment and behavior. This course will be an integrative approach emphasizing experimental studies of animal behavior. You will be introduced to state-of-the-art approaches to the study of animal behavior, including neural and hormonal mechanisms, genetic and developmental mechanisms and ecological and evolutionary approaches. We will learn to critique examples of current scientific papers, and learn how to conduct observations and experiments with real animals. We will feature guest appearances by the Curator of Research from the Cleveland MetroParks Zoo and visits to working animal behavior research labs here at CWRU. Group discussions and writing will be emphasized. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors. Offered as BIOL 358 and BIOL 458. Prereq: BIOL 214 and BIOL 215 and BIOL 216 or BIOL 250 and BIOL 251

BIOL 359. Genetic Basis of Behavior. 3 Units.

In this course, students will discuss scientific papers on Drosophila behavior. Emphasis will be given to studies that employ the powerful genetic tools available in Drosophila to the study of behavior. The topics covered will include: innate behaviors (e.g. sexual behavior); learning and memory; sensory information processing; anatomy of the Drosophila adult brain; genetic screenings for behavioral mutants; genetic tools to interfere with behavioral response. Students will be required to write and develop an objective project that combines genetics with behavioral tests. Students will be graded in presentations as well as a final grant proposal. Lab component will consist of experimentation in files using genetics and behavioral analyses, to be carried out in the last 6 weeks of the course. Counts as a Biology laboratory course for the B.A. and B.S. Biology degrees. Offered as BIOL 359 and BIOL 459. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 362. Principles of Developmental Biology. 3 Units.

The descriptive and experimental aspects of animal development. Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, morphogenesis, induction, differentiation, organogenesis, growth, and regeneration. Students taking the graduate-level course will prepare an NIH-format research proposal as the required term paper. Offered as BIOL 362 and BIOL 462 and ANAT 462. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251 or EBME 201 and EBME 202

BIOL 363. Experimental Developmental Biology. 3 Units.

This laboratory course will teach concepts and techniques in developmental biology. Emphasis will be on the mechanisms that pattern the embryo during development and how these mechanisms are explored using molecular, cellular, and genetic approaches. A term research paper is required. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal. One laboratory and one lecture per week. Offered as BIOL 363 and BIOL 463. Prereq: BIOL 362.

BIOL 364. Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The process of evolution explains not only how the present diversity of life on earth has formed, but also provides insights into current pressing issues today, including the spread of antibiotic resistance, the causes of geographic variation in genetic diseases, and explanations for modern patterns of extinction risk. Students in Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology will be introduced to several of the major research approaches of evolutionary biology, including methods of measuring natural selection on the phenotypic and genotypic levels, quantifying the rate of evolution, reconstructing evolutionary relationships, and assessing the factors that affect rates of speciation and extinction. The course will consist of a combination of interactive lectures, in-class problem solving and data analysis, and the discussion of peer-reviewed scientific papers. Grades are based on participation in class, discussions and written summaries of published papers, in-class presentations, and two writing assignments. Offered as BIOL 364 and BIOL 464. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 365. Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans. 3 Units.

This discussion-based course offers a detailed introduction to Evolutionary Developmental Biology. The field seeks to explain evolutionary events through the mechanisms of Developmental Biology and Genetics. The course is structured into different modules. First we will look at the developmental genetic mechanisms that can cause variation. Then we focus on how alterations of these mechanisms can generate novel structural changes. We will then examine a few areas of active debate, where Evo-Devo is attempting to solve major problems in evolutionary biology. We will conclude with two writing assignments. Students will be required to present, read, and discuss primary literature in each module. Offered as BIOL 365 and BIOL 465. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Prereq: BIOL 225 or BIOL 251 or BIOL 362

BIOL 368. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467. Prereq: BIOL 225 or equivalent.

BIOL 369. Evolutionary Biology Capstone. 3 Units.

This course focuses on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology that will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. Students will participate in discussions and lead class seminars on evolutionary topics and in collaboration with an advisor or advisors, select a topic for a research paper or project. Each student will write a major research report or complete a major project and will make a public presentation of her/his findings. Offered as ANTH 368, BIOL 369, and PHIL 368. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

BIOL 373. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Units.

How nervous systems control behavior. Biophysical, biochemical and molecular biological properties of nerve cells, their organization into circuitry, and their function within networks. Emphasis on quantitative methods for modeling neurons and networks, and on critical analysis of the contemporary technical literature in the neurosciences. Term paper required for graduate students. This course satisfies a lab requirement for the B.A. in Biology, and a Quantitative Laboratory requirements for the B.S. in Biology. Offered as BIOL 373, BIOL 473, and NEUR 473.

BIOL 374. Neurobiology of Behavior. 3 Units.

In this course, students will examine how neurobiologists interested in animal behavior study the linkage between neural circuitry and complex behavior. Various vertebrate and invertebrate systems will be considered. Several exercises will be used in this endeavor. Although some lectures will provide background and context on specific neural systems, the emphasis of the course will be on classroom discussion of specific journal articles. In addition, students will each complete a project in which they will observe some animal behavior and generate both behavioral and neurobiological hypotheses related to it. In lieu of examinations, students will complete three written assignments, including a theoretical grant proposal, a one-page Specific Aims paper related to the project, and a final project paper. These assignments are designed to give each student experience in writing biologically-relevant documents. Classroom discussions will help students understand the content and format of each type document. They will also present their projects orally to the entire class. Offered as BIOL 374, BIOL 474, and NEUR 474. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

BIOL 376. Neurobiology Laboratory. 3 Units.

Introduction to the basic laboratory techniques of neurobiology. Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques, forms of synaptic plasticity, patch clamping, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. During the latter weeks of the course students will be given the opportunity to conduct an independent project. One laboratory and one discussion session per week. Recommended preparation for BIOL 476 and NEUR 476: BIOL 216. Offered as BIOL 376, BIOL 476 and NEUR 476. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 377. Biorobotics Team Research. 3 Units.

Many exciting research opportunities cross disciplinary lines. To participate in such projects, researchers must operate in multi-disciplinary teams. The Biorobotics Team Research course offers a unique capstone opportunity for undergraduate students to utilize skills they developed during their undergraduate experience while acquiring new teaming skills. A group of eight students form a research team under the direction of two faculty leaders. Team members are chosen from appropriate majors through interviews with the faculty. They will research a biological mechanism or principle and develop a robotic device that captures the actions of that mechanism. Although each student will cooperate on the team, they each have a specific role, and must develop a final paper that describes the research generated on their aspect of the project. Students meet for one class period per week and two 2-hour lab periods. Initially students brainstorm ideas and identify the project to be pursued. They then acquire biological data and generate robotic designs. Both are further developed during team meetings and reports. Final oral reports and a demonstration of the robotic device occur in week 15. Offered as BIOL 377, EMAE 377, BIOL 477, and EMAE 477. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

BIOL 378. Computational Neuroscience. 3 Units.

Computer simulations and mathematical analysis of neurons and neural circuits, and the computational properties of nervous systems. Students are taught a range of models for neurons and neural circuits, and are asked to implement and explore the computational and dynamic properties of these models. The course introduces students to dynamical systems theory for the analysis of neurons and neural learning, models of brain systems, and their relationship to artificial and neural networks. Term project required. Students enrolled in MATH 478 will make arrangements with the instructor to attend additional lectures and complete additional assignments addressing mathematical topics related to the course. Recommended preparation: MATH 223 and MATH 224 or BIOL 300 and BIOL 306. Offered as BIOL 378, COGS 378, MATH 378, BIOL 478, EBME 478, EECS 478, MATH 478 and NEUR 478.

BIOL 382. Drugs, Brain, and Behavior. 3 Units.

This course is concerned with the mechanisms underlying neurochemical signaling and the impact of drugs on those mechanisms. The first half of the course emphasizes the fundamental mechanisms underlying intra- and extracellular communication of neurons and the basic principles of how drugs interact with the nervous system. The second half of the course emphasizes understanding the neural substrates of disorders of the nervous system, and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of drugs at the cellular and behavioral levels. This course will consist of lectures designed to give the student necessary background for understanding these basic principles and class discussion. The class discussion will include viewing video examples of behavioral effects of disorders of the nervous system, and analysis of research papers. The goal of the class discussions is to enhance the critical thinking skills of the student and expose the student to contemporary research techniques. Offered as BIOL 382, BIOL 482, and NEUR 482. Prereq: BIOL 215 and BIOL 216 or BIOL 250 and BIOL 251

BIOL 384. Reading and Writing Like an Ecologist. 3 Units.

Students usually learn from textbooks, but scientists communicate with each other through journal articles. The purpose of this class is to help you learn to read and write like an ecologist. We will spend our time reading and discussing journal articles about three or four issues in ecology, including papers from both empirical and theoretical perspectives. In addition to the science, we'll talk about strategies for how to keep reading when you encounter something you don't understand and what makes a paper well or poorly written. At the end of each section, you will synthesize your ideas into a review article. Your initial paper will be submitted to me as hypothetical journal editor. I will send your paper out for review to two fellow classmates, and I'll send their comments back to you along with brief comments of my own. As all scientists know, it is virtually unheard of for a journal to accept a paper for publication without revisions. After this peer review, you will revise your papers and resubmit them to me. Your grade will be based on your participation in class discussions, your papers (both drafts) and your work as a reviewer for other students. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Prereq: BIOL 214 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 385. Seminar on Biological Processes in Learning and Cognition. 3 Units.

Students will read and discuss research papers on a range of topics relevant to the biological processes that lead to cognition and learning in humans. Sample topics are: cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory; visual sensory detection of images, movement, and color; role of slow neurotransmitters in synaptic plasticity; cortical distribution of cognitive functions such as working memory, decision making, and image analysis; functions of emotion-structures and their role in cognition; brain structures and mechanisms involved in language creation; others. Some papers will be assigned and others will be selected by students. Discussions will focus on the methods used, the experimental results, and the interpretations of significance. Students will work in groups on a semester project to be presented near the end of the semester. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone. Prereq: BIOL 302.

BIOL 388. Undergraduate Research. 1 - 3 Unit.

Guided laboratory research under the sponsorship of a biology faculty member. May be carried out within the biology department or in associated departments. Appropriate forms must be secured in the biology department office. A written report must be approved by the biology sponsor and submitted to the chairman of the biology department before credit is granted. Only 3 credit-hours may count towards the biology majors or minor. Offered as BIOL 388 and SYBB 388.

BIOL 388S. Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone. 3 Units.

Guided laboratory research under the sponsorship of a biology faculty member. May be carried out within the biology department or in associated departments. May be taken only one semester during the student's academic career. Appropriate forms must be secured in the biology department office. A written report must be approved by the biology sponsor and submitted to the chairman of the biology department before credit is granted. A public presentation is required. Offered as BIOL 388S and SYBB 388S. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

BIOL 389. Selected Topics. 1 - 3 Unit.

Individual library research projects completed under the guidance of a biology sponsor. May be carried out within the biology department or in associated departments. Appropriate forms must be secured in the biology department office. A written report must be approved by the biology sponsor and submitted to the chairman of the biology department before credit is granted. Only 3 credit-hours may count towards the biology majors or minor.

BIOL 389S. Selected Topics in Biology--SAGES Capstone. 3 Units.

Individual library research projects under the guidance of a biology sponsor. A major paper must be submitted and approved before credit is awarded. A public presentation is required. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

BIOL 390. Advanced Undergraduate Research. 1 - 3 Unit.

Offered on a credit only basis. Students may carry out research in biology or related departments, but a biology sponsor is required. Does not count toward the 30 hours required for a major in biology, but may be counted toward the total number of hours required for graduation. A written report must be submitted to the chairman's office and approved before credit is granted. Prereq: BIOL 388 or BIOL 388S

BIOL 394. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners' conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, EEPS 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, EEPS 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

BIOL 395. Research Discussions. 1 Unit.

This is a seminar course which provides a forum within which students performing undergraduate research, or who have done so previously, can present and discuss their projects. Discussions will cover all aspects of the students' research projects: background material, experimental design and methods, results and their analysis and conclusions. At the beginning of the semester, each student will briefly outline his or her project and distribute a few key papers to provide background reading for all participants. After this introductory phase, each student will make a presentation of his/her own research. Graded as pass/fail, based upon attendance and participation. Prereq: BIOL 388. Prereq or coreq: BIOL 390.

BIOL 396. Undergraduate Research in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

Students propose and conduct guided research on an aspect of evolutionary biology. The research will be sponsored and supervised by a member of the CASE faculty or other qualified professional. A written report must be submitted to the Evolutionary Biology Steering Committee before credit is granted. Offered as ANTH 396, BIOL 396, EEPS 396, and PHIL 396.

BIOL 401. Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering. 3 Units.

Laboratory training in recombinant DNA techniques. Basic microbiology, growth, and manipulation of bacteriophage, bacteria and yeast. Students isolate and characterize DNA, construct recombinant DNA molecules, and reintroduce them into eukaryotic cells (yeast, plant, animal) to assess their viability and function. Two laboratories per week. Offered as BIOL 301 and BIOL 401.

BIOL 402. Principles of Neural Science. 3 Units.

Lecture/discussion course covering concepts in cell and molecular neuroscience, principles of systems neuroscience as demonstrated in the somatosensory system, and fundamentals of the development of the nervous system. This course will prepare students for upper level Neuroscience courses and is also suitable for students in other programs who desire an understanding of neurosciences. Recommended preparation: CBIO 453. Offered as BIOL 402 and NEUR 402.

BIOL 404. Fitting Models to Data: Maximum Likelihood Methods and Model Selection. 3 Units.

This course will introduce students to maximum likelihood methods for fitting models to data and to ways of deciding which model is best supported by the data (model selection). Along the way, students will learn some basic tenets of probability and develop competency in R, a commonly used statistical package. Examples will be drawn from ecology, epidemiology, and potentially other areas of biology. The second half of the course is devoted to in-class projects, and students are encouraged to bring their own data. Offered as BIOL 304 and BIOL 404. Prereq: MATH 121 and 122 OR MATH 125 and 126 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 407. Introduction to Biochemistry: From Molecules To Medical Science. 4 Units.

Overview of the macromolecules and small molecules key to all living systems. Topics include: protein structure and function; enzyme mechanisms, kinetics and regulation; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics; hormone action; intermediary metabolism, including pathways and regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide biosynthesis and breakdown. The material is presented to build links to human biology and human disease. One semester of biology is recommended. Offered as BIOC 307, BIOC 407, and BIOL 407. Prereq: CHEM 223 and CHEM 224.

BIOL 408. Molecular Biology. 4 Units.

An examination of the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Topics include: nucleic acid structure; mechanisms and control of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis; recombinant DNA; and mRNA processing and modification. Where possible, eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems are compared. Special topics include yeast as a model organism, molecular biology of cancer, and molecular biology of the cell cycle. Current literature is discussed briefly as an introduction to techniques of genetic engineering. Recommended preparation: BIOC 307. Offered as BIOC 308, BIOL 308, BIOC 408, and BIOL 408. Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOC 307.

BIOL 415. Quantitative Biology Laboratory. 3 Units.

This course will apply a range of quantitative techniques to explore structure-function relations in biological systems. Using a case study approach, students will explore causes of impairments of normal function, will assemble diverse sets of information into a database format for the analysis of causes of impairment, will analyze the data with appropriate statistical and other quantitative tools, and be able to communicate their results to both technical and non-technical audiences. The course has one lecture and one lab per week. Students will be required to maintain a journal of course activities and demonstrate mastery of quantitative tools and statistical techniques. Graduate students will have a final project that applies these techniques to a problem of their choice. Offered as BIOL 315 and BIOL 415.

BIOL 416. Fundamental Immunology. 4 Units.

Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article. Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, and PATH 416. Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 417. Cytokines: Function, Structure, and Signaling. 3 Units.

Regulation of immune responses and differentiation of leukocytes is modulated by proteins (cytokines) secreted and/or expressed by both immune and non-immune cells. Course examines the function, expression, gene organization, structure, receptors, and intracellular signaling of cytokines. Topic include regulatory and inflammatory cytokines, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, cytokine and cytokine receptor gene families, intracellular signaling through STAT proteins and tyrosine phosphorylation, clinical potential, and genetic defects. Lecture format using texts, scientific reviews and research articles. Recommended preparation: PATH 416 or equivalent. Offered as BIOL 417, CLBY 417, and PATH 417.

BIOL 418. Introductory Entomology. 4 Units.

The goal of this course is to discover that, for the most part, insects are not aliens from another planet. Class meetings will alternate; with some structured as lectures, while others are laboratory exercises. Sometimes we will meet at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, or in the field to collect and observe insects. The 50 minute discussion meeting once a week will serve to address questions from both lectures and lab exercises. The students will be required to make a small but comprehensive insect collection. Early in the semester we will focus on collecting the insects, and later, when insects are gone for the winter, we will work to identify the specimens collected earlier. Students will be graded based on exams, class participation and their insect collections. Offered as BIOL 318 and BIOL 418. Prereq: BIOL 214, and BIOL 215, and BIOL 216.

BIOL 419. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology. 3 Units.

Applications of probability and stochastic processes to biological systems. Mathematical topics will include: introduction to discrete and continuous probability spaces (including numerical generation of pseudo random samples from specified probability distributions), Markov processes in discrete and continuous time with discrete and continuous sample spaces, point processes including homogeneous and inhomogeneous Poisson processes and Markov chains on graphs, and diffusion processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Biological topics will be determined by the interests of the students and the instructor. Likely topics include: stochastic ion channels, molecular motors and stochastic ratchets, actin and tubulin polymerization, random walk models for neural spike trains, bacterial chemotaxis, signaling and genetic regulatory networks, and stochastic predator-prey dynamics. The emphasis will be on practical simulation and analysis of stochastic phenomena in biological systems. Numerical methods will be developed using both MATLAB and the R statistical package. Student projects will comprise a major part of the course. Offered as BIOL 319, EECS 319, MATH 319, BIOL 419, EBME 419, and PHOL 419.

BIOL 421. Design and Analysis of Biological Experiments. 3 Units.

In this laboratory course, students will learn how to use a computer programming language (MATLAB) to design, execute, and analyze biological experiments. The course will begin with basic programming and continue to data output and acquisition, image analysis, and statistics. Students who are interested in carrying out research projects in any lab setting are encouraged to take this course and use the skills acquired to better organize and analyze their experiments. No prior programming knowledge is assumed. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement of the B.A. in biology. This course satisfies a laboratory or quantitative laboratory requirement of the B.S. in biology. Students will complete a final project on a topic of their choice; graduate students will be required to give an oral presentation of this project. Offered as BIOL 321 and BIOL 421. Counts for CAS Quantitative Reasoning Requirement. Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 422. Sensory Biology. 3 Units.

The task of a sensory system is to collect, process, store, and transmit information about the environment. How do sensory systems convert information from the environment into neural information in an animal's brain? This course will explore the ecology, physiology, and behavior of the senses across the animal kingdom. We will cover introductory neurobiology and principles of sensory system organization before delving more deeply into vision, olfaction, audition, mechanosensation, and multi-modal sensory integration. For each sensory modality, we will consider how the sensory system operates and how its operation affects the animal's behavior and ecology. We will also explore the evolution of sensory systems and their specialization for specific behavioral tasks. Students will finish the course with a research project on a topic of their choice; graduate students will present this project to the class. Offered as BIOL 322 and BIOL 422. Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 424. Introduction to Stem Cell Biology. 3 Units.

This discussion-based course will introduce students to the exciting field of stem cell research. Students will first analyze basic concepts of stem cell biology, including stem cell niche, cell quiescence, asymmetric cell division, cell proliferation and differentiation, and signaling pathways involved in these processes. This first part of the course will focus on invertebrate genetic models for the study of stem cells. In the second part of the course, students will search for primary research papers on vertebrate and human stem cells, and application of stem cell research in regenerative medicine and cancer. Finally, students will have the opportunity to discuss about ethical controversies in the field. Students will rotate in weekly presentations, and will write two papers during the semester. Students will improve skills on searching and reading primary research papers, gain presentation skills, and further their knowledge in related subjects in the fields of cell biology, genetics and developmental biology. This course may be used as a cell/molecular subject area elective for the B.A. and B.S. Biology degrees. Offered as BIOL 324 and BIOL 424. Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 426. Genetics. 3 Units.

Transmission genetics, nature of mutation, microbial genetics, somatic cell genetics, recombinant DNA techniques and their application to genetics, human genome mapping, plant breeding, transgenic plants and animals, uniparental inheritance, evolution, and quantitative genetics. Offered as BIOL 326 and BIOL 426.

BIOL 427. Neural Development. 3 Units.

Topics include cell commitment, regulation of proliferation and differentiation, cell death and trophic factors, pathfinding by the outgrowing nerve fiber, synapse formation, relationships between center and periphery in development and the role of activity. Offered as BIOL 427 and NEUR 427.

BIOL 428. Plant Genomics and Proteomics. 3 Units.

The development of molecular tools has impacted agriculture as much as human health. The application of new techniques to improve food crops, including the development of genetically modified crops, has also become controversial. This course covers the nature of the plant genome and the role of sequenced-based methods in the identification of the genes. The application of the whole suite of modern molecular tools to understand plant growth and development, with specific examples related agronomically important responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, is included. The impact of the enormous amounts of data generated by these methods and their storage and analysis (bioinformatics) is also considered. Finally, the impact on both the developed and developing world of the generation and release of genetically modified food crops will be covered. Recommended preparation: BIOL 326. Offered as BIOL 328 and BIOL 428.

BIOL 431. Statistical Methods I. 3 Units.

Application of statistical techniques with particular emphasis on problems in the biomedical sciences. Basic probability theory, random variables, and distribution functions. Point and interval estimation, regression, and correlation. Problems whose solution involves using packaged statistical programs. First part of year-long sequence. Offered as ANAT 431, BIOL 431, EPBI 431, and MPHP 431.

BIOL 432. Statistical Methods II. 3 Units.

Methods of analysis of variance, regression and analysis of quantitative data. Emphasis on computer solution of problems drawn from the biomedical sciences. Design of experiments, power of tests, and adequacy of models. Offered as BIOL 432, EPBI 432, and MPHP 432. Prereq: EPBI 431 or equivalent.

BIOL 434. Structural Biology. 3 Units.

Introduces basic chemical properties of proteins and discusses the physical forces that determine protein structure. Topics include: the elucidation of protein structure by NMR and by X-ray crystallographic methods; the acquisition of protein structures from data bases; and simple modeling experiments based on protein structures. Offered as BIOC 334, BIOL 334, BIOC 434, and BIOL 434.

BIOL 436. Aquatic Biology. 3 Units.

Physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of lake ecosystems. Factors governing the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater organisms. Offered as BIOL 336 and BIOL 436.

BIOL 438. Ichthyology. 3 Units.

Biology of fishes. Students will first develop fundamental understanding of the evolutionary history and systematics of fishes to provide a context within which they can address diverse aspects of biology including anatomy, physiology (e.g., in species that change sex; osmoregulation in freshwater vs. saltwater), and behavior (e.g. visual, auditory, chemical, electric communication; social structures). Finally, this knowledge will be used to explore the biodiversity of fishes around the world, with emphasis on Ohio species, by examining preserved specimens in class and making two local field trips to (1) observe captive living specimens, and (2) to observe, capture, and identify wild fishes in their natural habitats. The course will conclude with an analysis of the current global fisheries crisis that has resulted from human activities. Fishes will be used to address broad topics in ecology and evolutionary biology that transcend the pure study of ichthyology. Recommended preparation for BIOL 438: BIOL 216. Offered as BIOL 338 and BIOL 438.

BIOL 442. Parasitology. 3 Units.

This course will introduce students to classical and current parasitology. Students will discuss basic principles of parasitology, parasite life cycles, host-parasite interaction, therapeutic and control programs, epidemiology, and ecological and societal considerations. The course will explore diverse classes of parasitic organisms with emphasis on protozoan and helminthic diseases and the parasites' molecular biology. Group discussion and selected reading will facilitate further integrative learning and appreciation for parasite biology. This course counts as an elective in the cell/molecular biology subject area for the Biology BA and BS degrees. Offered as BIOL 342 and BIOL 442. Prereq; Graduate standing and consent of instructor.

BIOL 443. Microbiology. 3 Units.

The physiology, genetics, biochemistry, and diversity of microorganisms. The subject will be approached both as a basic biological science that studies the molecular and biochemical processes of cells and viruses, and as an applied science that examines the involvement of microorganisms in human disease as well as in workings of ecosystems, plant symbioses, and industrial processes. The course is divided into four major areas: bacteria, viruses, medical microbiology, and environmental and applied microbiology. Offered as BIOL 343 and BIOL 443.

BIOL 445. Mammal Diversity and Evolution. 4 Units.

This course focuses on the anatomical and taxonomic diversity of mammals in an evolutionary context. The emphasis is living (extant) mammals, but extinct mammals are also discussed. By the end of the course, students will be able to: (1) describe the key anatomical and physiological features of mammals; (2) name all orders and most families of living mammals; (3) identify a mammal skull to order and family; (4) understand how to create and interpret a phylogenetic tree; (5) appreciate major historical patterns in mammal diversity and biogeography as revealed by the fossil record. Two student-led seminars and one lab each week. Most labs will take place at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. One weekend field trip to Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major. Offered as ANAT 445, BIOL 345, and BIOL 445. Prereq: BIOL 214.

BIOL 451. Principles of Ecology. 3 Units.

This lecture course explores spatial and temporal relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. An underlying theme of the course will be neo-Darwinian evolution through natural selection with an emphasis on organismal adaptations to abiotic and biotic environments. Studies and models will illustrate ecological principles, and there will be some emphasis on the applicability of these principles to ecosystem conservation. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on some aspect of ecological theory. Offered as BIOL 351 and BIOL 451.

BIOL 451L. Principles of Ecology Laboratory. 2 Units.

Students in this laboratory course will conduct a variety of ecological investigations that are designed to examine relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. Descriptive and hypothesis-driven investigations will take place at Case Western Reserve University's Squire Valleevue Farm, in both field and greenhouse settings. The course is designed to explore as well as test a variety of ecological paradigms. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on a select number of lab investigations. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors. Recommended preparation for BIOL 451L: prior or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 451. Offered as BIOL 351L and BIOL 451L.

BIOL 452. Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases. 3 Units.

This course explores the effects of infectious diseases on populations of hosts, including humans and other animals. We will use computer models to study how infectious diseases enter and spread through populations, and how factors like physiological and behavioral differences among host individuals, host and pathogen evolution, and the environment affect this spread. Our emphasis will be on understanding and applying quantitative models for studying disease spread and informing policy in public health and conservation. To that end, computer labs are the central component of the course. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement of the B.A. in biology. This course satisfies a laboratory or quantitative laboratory requirement of the B.S. in biology. Offered as BIOL 352 and BIOL 452. Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 454. Coadaptation of Organisms. 3 Units.

This graduate level course will examine biological interactions that result inorganismal coadaptation and its ecological implications. Darwin was an avid observer of biological interactions that result inorganismal coadaptation and its ecological implications. Darwin was an avid observer of biological interactions and his theory of evolution by natural selection focused primarily on one type of interaction; competition between individuals especially those of the same species. However, Darwin did not explicitly consider the role of cooperation in biological evolution. Nonetheless, cooperation can be a key agent in the coadaptation of organisms and in fact may have led to the evolution of eukaryotes. Three broad types of interactions will be examined in this course: competition, parasitism and cooperation. A particular focus of the course will be on biological cooperation or mutualism. Case studies will be presented to highlight the possible range of biological coadaptation. Lectures will be supplemented by discussion of the relevant literature.

BIOL 457. Conversations on Protein Structure and Function. 2 Units.

The goal of this course is to supplement the short and basic presentation of Proteins in C3MB by lectures and discussions for students with backgrounds in physical-chemical sciences or students who already have a good basic background in protein science. The course presents an overview of Protein structure/function. Following an introduction to the principles of protein structure, the physical basis of protein folding and stability, and a brief overview of structural and bioinformatics approaches to protein analysis is presented. Typically two lecture/discussion style presentations are followed by a student lead journal club on recent high profile papers. The way the Journal club is done is that one student presents a paper (background and figures in powerpoint slides) while presentation of the main figures is shared between the class. Papers and Figures will be assigned by instructor. Typically two papers will be presented per session. Offered as PHOL 456 and BIOL 457.

BIOL 458. Animal Behavior. 4 Units.

Ultimately the success or failure (i.e., life or death) of any individual animal is determined by its behavior. The ability to locate and capture food, avoid being food, acquiring and defending territory, and successfully passing your genes to the next generation, are all dependent on complex interactions between an animal's design, environment and behavior. This course will be an integrative approach emphasizing experimental studies of animal behavior. You will be introduced to state-of-the-art approaches to the study of animal behavior, including neural and hormonal mechanisms, genetic and developmental mechanisms and ecological and evolutionary approaches. We will learn to critique examples of current scientific papers, and learn how to conduct observations and experiments with real animals. We will feature guest appearances by the Curator of Research from the Cleveland MetroParks Zoo and visits to working animal behavior research labs here at CWRU. Group discussions and writing will be emphasized. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors. Offered as BIOL 358 and BIOL 458.

BIOL 459. Genetic Basis of Behavior. 3 Units.

In this course, students will discuss scientific papers on Drosophila behavior. Emphasis will be given to studies that employ the powerful genetic tools available in Drosophila to the study of behavior. The topics covered will include: innate behaviors (e.g. sexual behavior); learning and memory; sensory information processing; anatomy of the Drosophila adult brain; genetic screenings for behavioral mutants; genetic tools to interfere with behavioral response. Students will be required to write and develop an objective project that combines genetics with behavioral tests. Students will be graded in presentations as well as a final grant proposal. Lab component will consist of experimentation in files using genetics and behavioral analyses, to be carried out in the last 6 weeks of the course. Counts as a Biology laboratory course for the B.A. and B.S. Biology degrees. Offered as BIOL 359 and BIOL 459. Prereq: BIOL 216 or BIOL 251.

BIOL 462. Principles of Developmental Biology. 3 Units.

The descriptive and experimental aspects of animal development. Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, morphogenesis, induction, differentiation, organogenesis, growth, and regeneration. Students taking the graduate-level course will prepare an NIH-format research proposal as the required term paper. Offered as BIOL 362 and BIOL 462 and ANAT 462.

BIOL 463. Experimental Developmental Biology. 3 Units.

This laboratory course will teach concepts and techniques in developmental biology. Emphasis will be on the mechanisms that pattern the embryo during development and how these mechanisms are explored using molecular, cellular, and genetic approaches. A term research paper is required. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal. One laboratory and one lecture per week. Offered as BIOL 363 and BIOL 463.

BIOL 464. Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The process of evolution explains not only how the present diversity of life on earth has formed, but also provides insights into current pressing issues today, including the spread of antibiotic resistance, the causes of geographic variation in genetic diseases, and explanations for modern patterns of extinction risk. Students in Research Methods in Evolutionary Biology will be introduced to several of the major research approaches of evolutionary biology, including methods of measuring natural selection on the phenotypic and genotypic levels, quantifying the rate of evolution, reconstructing evolutionary relationships, and assessing the factors that affect rates of speciation and extinction. The course will consist of a combination of interactive lectures, in-class problem solving and data analysis, and the discussion of peer-reviewed scientific papers. Grades are based on participation in class, discussions and written summaries of published papers, in-class presentations, and two writing assignments. Offered as BIOL 364 and BIOL 464. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Prereq: BIOL 214, BIOL 216, BIOL 251.

BIOL 465. Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans. 3 Units.

This discussion-based course offers a detailed introduction to Evolutionary Developmental Biology. The field seeks to explain evolutionary events through the mechanisms of Developmental Biology and Genetics. The course is structured into different modules. First we will look at the developmental genetic mechanisms that can cause variation. Then we focus on how alterations of these mechanisms can generate novel structural changes. We will then examine a few areas of active debate, where Evo-Devo is attempting to solve major problems in evolutionary biology. We will conclude with two writing assignments. Students will be required to present, read, and discuss primary literature in each module. Offered as BIOL 365 and BIOL 465. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

BIOL 467. Biorobotics Team Research. 3 Units.

Many exciting research opportunities cross disciplinary lines. To participate in such projects, researchers must operate in multi-disciplinary teams. The Biorobotics Team Research course offers a unique capstone opportunity for undergraduate students to utilize skills they developed during their undergraduate experience while acquiring new teaming skills. A group of eight students form a research team under the direction of two faculty leaders. Team members are chosen from appropriate majors through interviews with the faculty. They will research a biological mechanism or principle and develop a robotic device that captures the actions of that mechanism. Although each student will cooperate on the team, they each have a specific role, and must develop a final paper that describes the research generated on their aspect of the project. Students meet for one class period per week and two 2-hour lab periods. Initially students brainstorm ideas and identify the project to be pursued. They then acquire biological data and generate robotic designs. Both are further developed during team meetings and reports. Final oral reports and a demonstration of the robotic device occur in week 15. Offered as BIOL 377, EMAE 377, BIOL 477, and EMAE 477. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

BIOL 468. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467.

BIOL 471. Foundations of Advanced Ecology. 3 Units.

Advanced ecology, including discussion of the classic literature, in-depth study of key terms and concepts, applications of these foundational ideas to the modern literature, and current and future directions in the field. Intended for graduate students who have already taken undergraduate ecology (BIOL 351/451 or equivalent). Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 472. Foundations of Advanced Evolution. 3 Units.

Advanced evolutionary biology, including discussion of the classic literature, in-depth study of key terms and concepts, applications of these foundational ideas to the modern literature, and current and future directions in the field. Intended for graduate students who have already taken undergraduate evolution. Prereq: Graduate standing.

BIOL 473. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Units.

How nervous systems control behavior. Biophysical, biochemical and molecular biological properties of nerve cells, their organization into circuitry, and their function within networks. Emphasis on quantitative methods for modeling neurons and networks, and on critical analysis of the contemporary technical literature in the neurosciences. Term paper required for graduate students. This course satisfies a lab requirement for the B.A. in Biology, and a Quantitative Laboratory requirements for the B.S. in Biology. Offered as BIOL 373, BIOL 473, and NEUR 473.

BIOL 474. Neurobiology of Behavior. 3 Units.

In this course, students will examine how neurobiologists interested in animal behavior study the linkage between neural circuitry and complex behavior. Various vertebrate and invertebrate systems will be considered. Several exercises will be used in this endeavor. Although some lectures will provide background and context on specific neural systems, the emphasis of the course will be on classroom discussion of specific journal articles. In addition, students will each complete a project in which they will observe some animal behavior and generate both behavioral and neurobiological hypotheses related to it. In lieu of examinations, students will complete three written assignments, including a theoretical grant proposal, a one-page Specific Aims paper related to the project, and a final project paper. These assignments are designed to give each student experience in writing biologically-relevant documents. Classroom discussions will help students understand the content and format of each type document. They will also present their projects orally to the entire class. Offered as BIOL 374, BIOL 474, and NEUR 474. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

BIOL 476. Neurobiology Laboratory. 3 Units.

Introduction to the basic laboratory techniques of neurobiology. Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques, forms of synaptic plasticity, patch clamping, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. During the latter weeks of the course students will be given the opportunity to conduct an independent project. One laboratory and one discussion session per week. Recommended preparation for BIOL 476 and NEUR 476: BIOL 216. Offered as BIOL 376, BIOL 476 and NEUR 476.

BIOL 478. Computational Neuroscience. 3 Units.

Computer simulations and mathematical analysis of neurons and neural circuits, and the computational properties of nervous systems. Students are taught a range of models for neurons and neural circuits, and are asked to implement and explore the computational and dynamic properties of these models. The course introduces students to dynamical systems theory for the analysis of neurons and neural learning, models of brain systems, and their relationship to artificial and neural networks. Term project required. Students enrolled in MATH 478 will make arrangements with the instructor to attend additional lectures and complete additional assignments addressing mathematical topics related to the course. Recommended preparation: MATH 223 and MATH 224 or BIOL 300 and BIOL 306. Offered as BIOL 378, COGS 378, MATH 378, BIOL 478, EBME 478, EECS 478, MATH 478 and NEUR 478.

BIOL 480. Physiology of Organ Systems. 4 Units.

Our intent is to expand the course from the current 3 hours per week (1.5 hour on Monday and Wednesday) to 4 hours per week (1.5 hours on Monday and Wednesday plus 1 hour on Friday). Muscle structure and Function, Myasthenia gravis and Sarcopenia; Central Nervous System, (Synaptic Transmission, Sensory System, Autonomic Nervous System, CNS circuits, Motor System, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Paraplegia and Nerve Compression); Cardiovascular Physiology (Regulation of Pressure and flow; Circulation, Cardiac Cycle, Electrophysiology, Cardiac Function, Control of Cardiovascular function, Hypertension); Hemorragy, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrillation; Respiration Physiology (Gas Transport and Exchange, Control of Breathing, Acid/base regulation, Cor Pulmonaris and Cystic Fibrosis, Sleeping apnea and Emphysema); Renal Physiology (Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Function/transport, Glomerulonephritis, Tubulopaties); Gastro-Intestinal Physiology (Gastric motility, gastric function, pancreas and bile function, digestion and absorption, Liver Physiology; Pancreatitis, Liver Disease and cirrhosis); Endocrine Physiology (Thyroid, Adrenal glands, endocrine pancreas, Parathyroid, calcium sensing receptor, Cushing and diabetes, Reproductive hormones, eclampsia); Integrative Physiology (Response to exercise, fasting and feeding, aging). For all the classes, the students will receive a series of learning objectives by the instructor to help the students address and focus their attention to the key aspects of the organ physiology (and physiopathology). The evaluation of the students will continue to be based upon the students' participation in class (60% of the grade) complemented by a mid-term and a final exam (each one accounting for 20% of the final grade). Offered as BIOL 480 and PHOL 480.

BIOL 482. Drugs, Brain, and Behavior. 3 Units.

This course is concerned with the mechanisms underlying neurochemical signaling and the impact of drugs on those mechanisms. The first half of the course emphasizes the fundamental mechanisms underlying intra- and extracellular communication of neurons and the basic principles of how drugs interact with the nervous system. The second half of the course emphasizes understanding the neural substrates of disorders of the nervous system, and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of drugs at the cellular and behavioral levels. This course will consist of lectures designed to give the student necessary background for understanding these basic principles and class discussion. The class discussion will include viewing video examples of behavioral effects of disorders of the nervous system, and analysis of research papers. The goal of the class discussions is to enhance the critical thinking skills of the student and expose the student to contemporary research techniques. Offered as BIOL 382, BIOL 482, and NEUR 482.

BIOL 491. Contemporary Biology and Biotechnology for Innovation I. 3 Units.

The first half of a two-semester sequence providing an understanding of biology as a basis for successfully launching new high-tech ventures. The course will examine physical limitations to present technologies and the use of biology to identify potential opportunities for new venture creation. The course will provide experience in using biology in both identification of incremental improvements and as the basis for alternative technologies. Case studies will be used to illustrate recent commercially successful (and unsuccessful) biotechnology-based venture creation and will illustrate characteristics for success.

BIOL 492. Contemporary Biology and Biotechnology for Innovation II. 3 Units.

Continuation of BIOL 491 with an emphasis on current and prospective opportunities for Biotechnology Entrepreneurship. Longer term opportunities for Biotechnology Entrepreneurship in emerging areas including (but not limited to) applications of DNA sequence information in medicine and agriculture; energy and the environment; biologically-inspired robots. Recommended preparation: BIOL 491 or consent of department.

BIOL 493. Feasibility and Technology Analysis. 3 Units.

This course provides the tools scientists need to determine whether a technology is ready for commercialization. These tools include (but are not limited to): financial analysis, market analysis, industry analysis, technology analysis, intellectual property protection, the entrepreneurial process and culture, an introduction to entrepreneurial strategy and new venture financing. Deliverables will include a technology feasibility analysis on a possible application in the student's scientific area. Offered as BIOL 493, CHEM 493, and PHYS 493.

BIOL 494. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners' conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, EEPS 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, EEPS 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

BIOL 495. Introduction to Graduate School in the Biological Sciences. 1 Unit.

This course will help incoming Biology MS and Ph.D. students navigate their way through graduate school and participate in the scientific process. Students in the Biology graduate program will be strongly encouraged to take this course in their first year. This will be a skill-based course that will become part of their academic toolbox. In addition, there will be sessions to offer general tips for life in graduate school. Prereq: Graduate Standing.

BIOL 530. Seminar in the Rhizosphere. 1 - 2 Unit.

The rhizosphere is the dynamic zone of soil that surrounds plant roots. Chemical and physical processes in the rhizosphere are controlled by the interaction between plants and a diverse soil microflora. This graduate-level seminar course will explore these processes and interactions as they affect nutrient cycling and the fertility of natural systems. Each week one student will present and lead the discussion on a seminal or current key scientific article dealing with one of the following general topics: Rhizosphere biogeochemistry, diversity and function of the rhizosphere biota, interaction of organisms inhabiting the rhizosphere, influence of rhizospheric processes in plant fitness and ecosystem function.

BIOL 531. Seminar in Experimental Ecology. 1 - 3 Unit.


BIOL 541. Topics in Integrative Biology. 1 - 3 Unit.

The goal of this course is to encourage graduate students to think about any question in biology from a broad-based perspective, focusing on the integration of three major themes: 1) evolution and its effects, 2) the cellular basis of life, and 3) systems level control. Each semester, the course may focus on a different topic, but it will be examined from the perspectives of these three focus areas. One faculty instructor with strength in each of these areas will present a few introductory lectures to provide the class with a basic understanding of the topic as it is studied in their area. Then, each student will research a subject covered that semester and develop and present this subject to the class with an explicit evolutionary, cellular or systems level approach. Students will be graded on the quality of their presentations and the overall level of their participation in class.

BIOL 549. Mathematical Life Sciences Seminar. 1 - 3 Unit.

Continuing seminar on areas of current interest in the applications of mathematics to the life sciences. Allows graduate and advanced undergraduate students to become involved in research. Topics will reflect interests and expertise of the faculty and may include topics in mathematical biology, computational neuroscience, mathematical modeling of biological systems, models of infectious diseases, computational cell biology, mathematical ecology and mathematical biomedicine broadly construed. May be taken more than once for credit.

BIOL 550C. Seminar: Experimental Biology. 1 - 3 Unit.


BIOL 599. Advanced Independent Study for Graduate Students. 1 - 3 Unit.

Independent study of advanced topics in biology under the supervision of a biology faculty member. Registration requires submission of a proposal for a project or study and approval of the department.

BIOL 601. Research. 1 - 9 Unit.


BIOL 651. Thesis M.S.. 1 - 9 Unit.


BIOL 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 9 Unit.

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.