2014-15 General Bulletin

frame image
frame image
605 Crawford Hall
www.case.edu/artsci/cogs
Phone: 216.368.4753; Fax: 216.368.3821
Todd Oakley, Department Chair

Cognitive science is the scientific study of the mind in a transdisciplinary framework. The Department of Cognitive Science at Case Western Reserve University is specifically dedicated to the study of human higher cognition, including language, gesture, advanced social cognition, mathematical invention, scientific discovery, art, religion, music, literature, advanced tool use and advanced technology, theater and dance, fashions of dress, sign systems, creativity, and culture. The department draws on methods of research in the biological sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. Its educational mission is to provide students with the best possible opportunity to integrate a wide variety of approaches and apply them to the study of human higher cognition.

The department provides basic training in core disciplines, as well as in a range of philosophical, evolutionary, linguistic, and computational issues bearing on cognitive science. It seeks to place cognitive science in a wider, more ecologically valid context than traditional programs in this field have typically allowed, so as to broaden our theories of those high-end cognitive capacities that mark human beings as distinctive.

The department offers an undergraduate major and minor in cognitive science and a master’s degree in cognitive linguistics. By developing wide-ranging expertise in at least two or three relevant disciplines, our students can prepare for a variety of career options. Training in several disciplines will also provide increased choices for postgraduate study.

Department Faculty

Todd Oakley, PhD
(University of Maryland)
Professor and Chair
Cognitive linguistics; discourse analysis; attention

William Deal, PhD
(Harvard)
Severance Professor in the History of Religion
The Cognitive Science of Religion

Anthony Jack, PhD
(University College London)
Associate Professor
Cognitive neuroscience; social cognition; consciousness; neuroimaging

Fey Parrill, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Associate Professor
Language and co-speech gesture

Vera Tobin, PhD
(University of Maryland)
Assistant Professor
Cognitive linguistics, pragmatics, literature; evolution & development

Mark Turner, PhD
(University of California, Berkeley)
Institute Professor
Higher-order cognition and creativity; conceptual integration


Secondary Faculty

Florin Berindeanu, PhD
(University of Georgia)
Instructor, Department of Classics

Richard J. Boland, Jr., PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Professor, Department of Information Systems, Weatherhead School of Management

Richard E. Boyatzis, PhD
(Harvard University)
Professor, Department of Organizational Behavior, Weatherhead School of Management

Daniela Calvetti, PhD
(University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
James Wood Williamson Professor, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, and Statistics

Angela Ciccia, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychological Sciences

Fred Collopy, PhD
(Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania)
Professor, Department of Information Systems, Weatherhead School of Management

Heath A. Demaree, PhD
(Virginia Institute of Technology)
Professor, Department of Psychological Sciences

Robert L. Greene, PhD
(Yale University)
Professor, Department of Psychological Sciences

Sandra Russ, PhD
(University of Pittsburgh)
Distinguished University Professor and Louis D. Beaumont University Professor, Department of Psychological Sciences

Peter Thomas, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, and Statistics

Peter J. Whitehouse, MD, PhD
(Johns Hopkins University)
Professor, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine

Stuart Youngner, MD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Professor, Department of Bioethics, School of Medicine


Adjunct Faculty

Per Aage Brandt, Doctorat d'Etat
(Sorbonne I, Paris)

Merlin W. Donald, PhD
(McGill University)

Yohannes Haile-Selassie, PhD
(University of California, Berkeley)
Curator and Head of Physical Anthropology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Paul Marasco, PhD
(Vanderbilt University)
Principal Investigator in the Advanced Platform Technology Center at the Louis Stokes Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Kristina Hooper Woolsey, PhD
(University of California, San Diego)

Undergraduate Programs

Major

In addition to meeting general education requirements, cognitive science majors must complete a minimum of 30 semester hours in cognitive science and approved related course work: 15 hours in the foundation component and 15 hours of elective course work. The foundation courses provide all students with a common basis for further study. They consist of:

COGS 101Introduction to Cognitive Science3
COGS 102Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience3
COGS 201Human Cognition in Evolution and Development3
COGS 202Human Cognition Viewed from a Cultural Perspective3
One of the following quantitative methods courses:3
Introduction to Statistical Analysis in the Social Sciences
Quantitative Methods in Psychology
Basic Statistics for Social and Life Sciences
Five elective courses (three must be at the 200 or 300 level)15
Total Units30

 

Minor

The minor requires students to take the following:

COGS 101Introduction to Cognitive Science3
One of the following:3
Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
Human Cognition in Evolution and Development
Human Cognition Viewed from a Cultural Perspective
Three COGS courses at the 200 or 300 level9
Total Units15

The minor provides a good basic grounding in cognitive science, and allows students to narrow their exposure to those aspects of the field most relevant to their other academic interests. Individual programs can be developed in consultation with the chair of the department.

Graduate Program

MA in Cognitive Linguistics

“Cognitive linguistics goes beyond the visible structure of language and investigates the considerably more complex backstage operations of cognition that create grammar, conceptualization, discourse, and thought itself. The theoretical insights of cognitive linguistics are based on extensive empirical observation in multiple contexts, and on experimental work in psychology and neuroscience. Results of cognitive linguistics, especially from metaphor theory and conceptual integration theory, have been applied to wide ranges of nonlinguistic phenomena.”

—Gilles Fauconnier, Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (2006)

Candidates may apply for admission to the degree program in cognitive linguistics with the purpose of pursuing the MA, or for non-degree status with the purpose of taking courses for credit that can be transferred to other institutions. The MA follows Plan A as described in the School of Graduate Studies section of this bulletin. Accordingly, it requires 30 credit hours and a written MA thesis.

 

Courses

COGS 101. Introduction to Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

This course introduces students to the field of cognitive science. Cognitive scientists are interested in the nature of the human mind--basically, we ask how humans think. This is a huge question, and has been addressed in one way or another by pretty much every academic field. Cognitive science tries to unite work from many different fields, including computer science, neuroscience, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, music, art, and literary theory. In this course, you'll get a basic introduction to some of the topics that are central to human cognition, such as intelligence, categorization, language, and creativity. We'll ask what can be gained by taking an integrated, cognitive scientific approach to these topics.

COGS 102. Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

A survey of the fundamental methods, findings, and theories that attempt to understand the human mind from a neuroscientific standpoint. The course provides the student with background knowledge of brain processes underlying such psychological phenomena as consciousness, sensation, perception, thought, language, and voluntary action. Since many fields of neuroscience have contributed to cognitive neuroscience, the approach of this course is cross-disciplinary. It introduces theories and data from clinical and experimental neuropsychology, brain imaging, neuroelectric and neuromagnetic brain activity, the neuroscience of language, and behavioral neuroscience, among other fields.

COGS 201. Human Cognition in Evolution and Development. 3 Units.

COGS 201 covers mind unfolding in time, including the fundamental methods, findings, and theories of human mental phylo- and onto-genesis. It provides the student with background knowledge about the unfolding of cognitive structures and functions over time, in both the deep temporal perspective of evolution (measured across many lifetimes) and the shorter one of development (measured within single lifetimes). The approach of the course is cross-disciplinary, including approaches that come from anthropology, archaeology, philosophy, computing science, comparative psychology, primatology, and comparative linguistics, among others.

COGS 202. Human Cognition Viewed from a Cultural Perspective. 3 Units.

This course studies the human mind in its natural environment: culture. It covers the fundamental methods, findings, and theories that attempt to understand the growth and evolution of cognition from either a social science or humanistic standpoint. It provides the student with background knowledge of theories of human cultural evolution and change, of the relationship between the cognizing individual and larger social-cognitive structures, and of such phenomena as distributed networks, cooperative mental work, and the phenomenology of human experience. Many disciplines have contributed to this knowledge; hence the approach of this course is cross-disciplinary, including ideas from cultural anthropology, literary studies, art and art history, musicology, philosophy, and the history of technology, among others.

COGS 205. Cognition and Design. 3 Units.

Urbanism is design; architecture is design; of course, the aesthetic shaping of artifacts (such as computers, cars, and coffee machines) is design. Configuring surfaces, volumes, and portions of space in special ways, creating and changing formats for things and places that allow cultural practices to unfold while delimiting them, are essential 'designing" endeavors of human civilization and are, necessarily, activities based on the cognitive capacities and constraints of our species. We 'cognize' the human world in terms and frames of 'designed' surroundings. Design is a basic expressive activity, by which we interact with our artificial and natural surroundings and create 'interfaces' between mind and reality, thus upholding and interpretable world. Landscapes and cityscapes, work spaces of all sorts, buildings and parks, exteriors and interiors of homes, factories, institutions, and temples; furniture, artifacts such as machines, tools, weapons, symbolic objects, even the configuration ('building') of our own bodies, are design. An inquiry into cultural cognition, aiming to understand how humans as socio-cultural beings think and feel, therefore needs to explore this dimension of spatial expressivity and to acknowledge it as a constitutive fact of human meaning production; it needs to study the aesthetic and pragmatic, political and historical, philosophical and religious, and simply everyday practical, semiotic aspects of this basic form of human creativity. This course will focus on spatial expressivity--design--in several primary keys and scales, including design for learning; design for verbal and technical communication, interaction, and commerce; design for expressions of authority and deliberation; and design for emotional display.

COGS 206. Theory of Cognitive Linguistics I. 3 Units.

This is the first course in a two-course sequence presenting theory and practice of cognitive linguistics. Offered as COGS 206 and COGS 406.

COGS 272. Morality and Mind. 3 Units.

Recent research in cognitive science challenges ethical perspectives founded on the assumption that rationality is key to moral knowledge or that morality is the product of divine revelation. Bedrock moral concepts like free will, rights, and moral agency also have been questioned. In light of such critiques, how can we best understand moral philosophy and religious ethics? Is ethics primarily informed by nature or by culture? Or is ethics informed by both? This course examines 1) ways in which cognitive science--and related fields such as evolutionary biology--impact traditional moral perspectives, and 2) how the study of moral philosophy and comparative ethics forces reconsideration of broad cognitive science theories about the nature of ethics. The course examines the concept of free will as a case study in applying these interpretive viewpoints. Interdisciplinary readings include literature from moral philosophy, religious ethics, cognitive science, and evolutionary biology. Offered as COGS 272, RLGN 272.

COGS 301. Special Topics in Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

Special Topics in Cognitive Science. Topics vary. Permission of department is required. Offered as COGS 301 and COGS 401.

COGS 302. SAGES Departmental Seminar: Methods and Theories in Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

This course takes a look at the discipline of cognitive science by exploring the methods that cognitive scientists use in their research. We'll discuss how different methods reflect different approaches and traditions of thought and how they provide different answers to particular questions. We'll also discuss the process of translating research into writing and talk about how different kinds of writing reflect the many different methods used in cognitive science. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 102, COGS 201, COGS 202. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

COGS 303. SAGES Departmental Seminar: Current Controversies in Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

This course takes a look at the discipline of cognitive science by exploring the current controversies that impact cognitive scientists in their research. We'll discuss how different controversies effect different approaches and traditions of thought and how they elicit different answers to particular questions. We'll also discuss the process of translating research into writing and talk about how different kinds of writing reflect the many different controversial issues presented in cognitive science. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 102, COGS 201, and COGS 202. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

COGS 304. Conceptual Integration. 3 Units.

Conceptual Integration, otherwise known as "blending", is a defining feature of higher-order human cognition, indispensable for all behaviors typically taken as distinctive to human beings. This course presents the cognitive mechanisms of conceptual integration, the constraints on its operation, and its deployment and expression in a range of human behaviors such as learning, invention, mathematical and scientific discovery, language, art music, gesture, social understanding, institutional performance, reasoning, decision, judgment, choice, design, and engineering. A student in the class will work on an individual research project in any of a variety of fields, including engineering (e.g. designing with blends), computer science, the arts, the humanities, the social sciences, cognitive neuroscience, and linguistics. Only one of COGS 304 and COGS 404 can be taken for credit within any degree program. Offered as COGS 304 and COGS 404.

COGS 305. Departmental Seminar: Moral Boundaries and Limits of Science. 3 Units.

Cognitive Science is essentially interdisciplinary, and this seminar will focus on deep issues that lie at the intersection between science and philosophy. The class will explore how, and to what extent, science might both shape our ethical judgments and help us to understand them. We will also consider what, if anything, our deep moral intuitions, as evidenced by strong sentiments such as disgust or repugnance, tell us about the nature of morality. Current scholarship in moral psychology, moral neuroscience, and moral philosophy are shedding new light on these issues. We will focus on moral boundaries: distinctions between things that have powerful ethical and emotional significance, at least for some people. We will consider the following boundaries: -Male/female and moral responses to homosexuality; -Human/animal and moral responses to bestiality and stem cell research that inserts human stem cells into animals; -Life/death and moral responses to euthanasia; -Human/machine and the moral responses to artificial intelligence, robots, and the use of steroids to enhance athletes and warfighters. In addition to learning and writing about relevant psychological and neuroscientific research, the course contains two other essential aspects. First, students will engage with relevant philosophical issues and arguments. Are there moral facts? If so, what is their basis? Second, the course will include experiential aspects--students will be asked to examine their own ethical responses, and to reexamine them in light of what they are learning. Recommended Preparation: (any two of following pre-requisites) COGS 101, COGS 102, COGS 201, COGS 202. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

COGS 307. Cog Linguistics Theory II. 3 Units.

This is the second course in a two-course sequence presenting theory and practice of cognitive linguistics. Offered as COGS 307 and COGS 407. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

COGS 310. Cognitive Science of Religion. 3 Units.

This course introduces theories and methods in the cognitive science of religion. Particular emphasis is placed on applying cognitive scientific concepts and theories to such religious issues as belief in deities, religious ritual, and morality. We examine such topics as the relationship of religious studies to evolution and cognition, cognitive theories or religious ritual, anthropomorphism and religious representation, religion as an evolutionary adaptation, and cognitive semantics and religious language. Course work includes student-led discussions, a research-intensive journal-length essay on a topic chosen in consultation with the Instructor, and presentation of research findings to the class. Course readings are taken from the humanities, the social sciences, and natural sciences. Offered as: COGS 310, COGS 410, RLGN 310, RLGN 410.

COGS 311. Mind and Media. 3 Units.

An introduction to the study of mind and media, including the study of multimodal communication. This course investigates patterns of human cognition that are ancient to human beings and upon which media have converged for powerful, immersive effect. The cognitive processes studied include perception, sensation, imagination, joint attention, narrative conception, simulation, dreaming, identity construction, imaginative play, and implicit learning. Students engage in hands-on media analysis to study how basic human menal operations are used in media to achieve a variety of effects. Students will be given access to a private website of instructions, readings, and materials for the course, and will be introduced to a range of vast, rich, searchable databases of media. Students will have ample opportunity to do research inside such databases. Offered as: COGS 311 and COGS 411.

COGS 313. Special Topics in Cognitive Linguistics. 3 Units.

This course covers special topics in the field of cognitive linguistics. Topics will vary from semester to semester. Offered as COGS 313 and COGS 413.

COGS 315. Mental Space Theory. 3 Units.

This course covers theory of mental spaces and methodology of mental space analysis, with special emphasis on the use of mental space theory to analyze human performance in various areas of cognition, including reasoning, judgment, decision, counterfactual thought, inference, planning, communication and language, gesture, social cognition, cognitive design and engineering, representation, learning, humor, symbol systems, and invention. It includes a consideration of experimental methods that have arisen under the influence of mental space theory. A student may earn credit for either COGS 315 or COGS 415, but not both. Offered as COGS 315 and COGS 415.

COGS 316. Decision-Making. 3 Units.

This course is a topical introduction to decision-making, a major area of cognitive social science, with connections to economics, law, political science, business, policy, and related fields. Topics include game theory and rational calculation, equilibria, kinds of choice, heuristics, the role of affect in decision, framing, bounded rationality, mechanisms of choice such as heuristics, the role of social cognition in choice, concepts of self and other, and computer modeling of choice. The course also includes an introduction to the design of empirical behavioral research. Offered as COGS 316 and COGS 416.

COGS 317. Cognitive Diversity. 3 Units.

This course surveys research from cognitive science (psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, etc.) on the ways that different people think differently. We will consider dimensions such as sec, gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, bodily differences, cultural differences, and effects of speaking different languages. Students will choose the last two topics at the end of the semester (Different religions? Different ages? Whatever interests the class!). Offered as COGS 317 and COGS 417. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

COGS 318. Thinking Communication in Ancient and Medieval Literature. 3 Units.

The ancients were much concerned with the nature and validity of signs: Important decisions depended on the flight of birds or the coloration of the liver of a sacrificial victim. The relationship of language to truth, i.e., a reality beyond the contingent, was a crucial issue, not least because of the rise of sophistic rhetoric: for an orator, language was a tool in a contest rather than a means to true understanding. The discipline of medicine, developed by such important figures as Galen and Hippocrates, depended on the interpretation of physical signs to diagnose and treat ailments of mind and body. The term for the theory of signs--semiotics--is derived from the Greek term "semeiotike," and for many Greek philosophers and their Roman and medieval successors the sign was a key issue. For Christians especially, new forms of vision and discerning truth presented particular problems: after all, the Christian God revealed his intentions through "portents" that had to be read and interpreted. And even if sacred scripture was in some way understood as encapsulating the whole word, there were countless passages requiring clarification or adaptation to contemporary situations. In other words, the concern was with the relationship between a universe of structured signs (the subject of semiotics) and structures of interpersonal communication (pragmatics). Offered as CLSC 313 and COGS 318. Prereq: WLIT 211 or WLIT 212.

COGS 322. Human Learning and the Brain. 3 Units.

This course focuses on the question, "How does the human brain learn?" Through assigned readings, extensive class discussions, and a major paper, each student will explore personal perspectives on learning. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: the brain's cycle of learning; neocortex structure and function; emotion and limbic brain; synapse dynamics and changes in learning; images in cognition; symbolic brain (language, mathematics, music); memory formation; and creative thought and brain mechanisms. The major paper will be added to each student's SAGES writing portfolio. In addition, near the end of the semester, each student will make an oral presentation on a chosen topic. Offered as BIOL 302 and COGS 322. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

COGS 324. Discourse and Cognition. 3 Units.

This course explores discourse and interaction from a cognitive linguistic perspective, with special emphasis on mental space, conceptual integration, and cognitive grammar. Cognitive linguistics is a paradigm of language study that seeks to understand language structure, acquisition, and use as a function of embodied conceptualization. This means that it seeks to describe and explain language as a symbolic activity involving general cognitive processes, such as perception, attention, memory, categorization, framing and sensory-motor activities. Another burgeoning area of interest among cognitive linguists is social-cognition, gesture, and interaction. In each of these endeavors, the goal is to explain as much about language without having to posit autonomous and language-specific faculties. While cognitive linguists have always been seen discourse as a legitimate object of study, many still take the sentence, clause, and phrase as their primary unit of analysis. In this course, we shall focus on the relationship between discourse and relevant cognitive processes such as attention, memory, categorization, framing, and kinesthetic experience, with the intention of exploring who these cognitive processes shape discourse in English and other languages. We will subsequently reverse our orientation and explore how discourse (in text as well as embodied/face-to-face) in turn shapes how we pay attention, remember, categorize, frame, and even experience the world. The readings, discussion, and/or research projects for this course may include the following topics: interactional conduct, intersubjectivity, consciousness, co-speech gesture, mental spaces, prosody, time and temporality, and working memory. The international structure of this course will likely lead to focused discussion and research projects on English as a Second & Foreign Language. Offered as COGS 324 and COGS 424.

COGS 325. Cognitive Approaches to Literature. 3 Units.

This course approaches literature as a window into language, in which cognition is characterized by the same imaging and imaginary properties as artistic literature. It is an attempt to identify and analyze procedures as aesthetically interesting and generally relevant forms of human thinking, feeling, imagining, fantasizing, and conceptualizing. The course introduces current theories of literature in relation to language and mind, and it presents and discusses practical applications in critical reading and text analysis, using examples from modern literature in the main genres. A student may earn credit for either COGS 325 or COGS 425 but not both. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 202. Offered as COGS 325 and COGS 425.

COGS 326. Cognitive Approaches to Music. 3 Units.

This course will study the ways in which the presence of music relates to cognition and the semiotics of inter-subjective communication at large--the emergence of language, gesture, and symbolization of time. Topics of interests include: the ways that specific works of musical art invite semantic interpretation; how intelligible musical structure relates to meaning; how musical activities correspond to brain activity; and how music relates to and/or induces emotion. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 202. Offered as COGS 326 and COGS 426.

COGS 327. Gesture in Cognition and Communication. 3 Units.

Most people never notice that when they are talking, they're also gesturing. Why do we produce these gestures? What can studying them tell us about the human mind? This course surveys scientific research on gesture, exploring topics such as the role of gesture in communication, cross-cultural differences in gesture, and the relationship between gesture and signed languages. The course will focus on gestures produced with speech, but will cover symbolic and ritualized gesture in the visual arts and in dance. Offered as COGS 327 and COGS 427 and MLIT 327.

COGS 328. Cognition and Visual Aesthetic Experience. 3 Units.

This course is offered as a reciprocal exchange between new research on the mind/brain and existing theories of visual aesthetics. It would appeal to students from diverse majors, ranging from art, language or philosophy, to psychology, computer science or pre-medicine. The material covered links a traditional approach to philosophical aesthetics with a most up-to-date research on visual perception and brain functioning. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 202.

COGS 329. Performance and the Embodied Mind. 3 Units.

In the past twenty years cognitive scientists working in neuroscience, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and related fields have made great progress in understanding perception, empathy, the human mind's sense of space and movement, emotions, meaning-making, and many other cognitive areas that are crucial to producing, enacting, and responding to performances on stage. This course will look at ways of incorporating many of the insights of cognitive science into the existing work of theatre and performance scholarship. The course will thus link a more traditional approach to the body in theatre and dance studies, where it has commonly been considered one of the main means of communication, to a most up-to-date research on embodied cognition. Observation of live and pre-recorded dance and theatre performances will regularly be used to supplement the theoretical discussion. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 202.

COGS 340. Seminar in Enlightenment Art and Literature: Piranesi and Vico. 3 Units.

This course explores aspects of the European eighteenth century as a transformative epoch in the history of western culture. Though the Enlightenment is usually associated especially with France, in this course we will focus on Italy, as the irresistible goal of travelers taking part in the "Grand Tour," and as a landscape of powerful ancient and modern architecture and artworks universally recognized as exemplary. In particular we will study one of the strangest and most fascinating visual artists of the period, the self-proclaimed architect Giovani Battista Piranesi (1720-1778) famous no less now than in his own time for his fantastic prison engravings as well as his views of Rome, involving a radical rethinking of the city as a particular kind of inhabited as well as imagined space. Piranesi's polemical response to the advocates of the Greek revival, then coming into fashion, will lead into discussion of the key philosophical debates and aesthetic shifts of the time, notably the emergence of the notion of the sublime as a category eventually subversive of western ideals of rationality and still present -- and potent -- in our own culture. Finally we will place Piranesi within a current of discussion of the origins and nature of language and of human society in general, not least as manifested in architecture and other symbolic practices. The leading figure here is the Neapolitan G.B. Vico, whose New Science of 1725 remains one of the most stimulating texts in the western intellectual tradition. Offered as CLSC 340, COGS 340, WLIT 340, CLSC 440, and WLIT 440.

COGS 349. Biocultural Approaches to Religion. 3 Units.

This course studies religious beliefs and rituals from a biocultural perspective. A biocultural approach to religion is based on the idea that human religiosity is informed by both our evolutionary biological makeup and by our ability to construct culture to adapt to variable social worlds and environments. According to a biocultural view, humans are biologically constrained but have the cultural capacity to adapt to the world in a variety of ways. Thus, a biocultural approach to religion asserts that biology and culture operate in tandem and that both biological and cultural insights are required in order to understand and explain religious beliefs and practices. This course explores these assumptions and examines them against specific religious data. This course introduces students to major ideas, concepts, and questions that motivate biocultural approaches to religion. The course requires students to apply course material to a final research project that explores particular religious beliefs and/or practices in terms of the intersection of cultural choices and biological constraints. Students will present their research findings to the class. Students who take this course under the COGS designation are expected to engage substantively with the contemporary scientific study of the human mind in their research project and other course work. Offered as RLGN 349, RLGN 449 and COGS 349.

COGS 352. Language, Cognition, and Religion. 3 Units.

This course utilizes theoretical approaches found in cognitive semantics -- a branch of cognitive linguistics -- to study the conceptual structures and meanings of religious language. Cognitive semantics, guided by the notion that conceptual structures are embodied, examines the relationship between conceptual systems and the construction of meaning. We consider such ideas as conceptual metaphor theory, conceptual blending, Image schemas, cross-domain mappings, metonymy, mental spaces, and idealized cognitive models. We apply these ideas to selected Christian, Buddhist, and Chinese religious texts in order to understand ways in which religious language categorizes and conceptualizes the world. We examine both the universality of cognitive linguistic processes and the culturally specific metaphors, conceptual blends, image schemas, and other cognitive operations that particular texts and traditions utilize. Offered as RLGN 352, RLGN 452, COGS 352 and COGS 452.

COGS 365. Advanced Topics in Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

This course focuses on specific areas of research in cognitive neuroscience in some depth. The first half of the semester covers basics and fundamental research areas (e.g., perception, attention) and examines the (sometimes controversial) theoretical issue of what cognitive neuroscience techniques tell us about the mind. The second half of the semester is dedicated to examining selected research topics of interest to students. Students research and write 'grant proposals' for cognitive neuroscience experiments. The class culminates with students and invited faculty simulating a funding panel, and deciding which grants to 'fund' from a limited budget. Prereq: COGS 102.

COGS 366. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 3 Units.

fMRI is the workhorse of cognitive neuroscience research. This course will take an in-depth look at this methodology, including hands on experience analyzing imaging data. The course will address the following issues: How do MRI and fMRI work? What does fMRI actually measure and how does that relate to cognition? What are the standard steps involved in processing and analyzing fMRI data to help answer specific questions? The course culminates in the production of a report of a novel analysis of imagining data that the students have performed (in small groups), including a broader description of what that analysis reveals about the neural basis of cognition. Prereq: COGS 102.

COGS 373. Intelligence and Cognition. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the notion and meaning of intelligence. What is intelligence? How is it measured, and are these measures adequate to the task? Is there more than one kind of intelligence? What is the relationship between individuals, genetic factors, biological factors, and socio-cultural-economic factors in the development of intelligence? How are language and thought related to intelligence? What is the difference between intelligence and talent? Intelligence seems to be necessary for culture, art, religious belief, the creation of theories and the quest for knowledge, truth and morality; thus intelligence is a necessary condition for the study of itself. To attempt to understand intelligence is an undertaking in which we will ask questions about the self and the common nature of humanity, while simultaneously examining the abilities of animals and machines. What is the mark of intelligence? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or COGS 201. Offered as COGS 373 and PHIL 373.

COGS 378. Computational Neuroscience. 3 Units.

Computer simulations and mathematical analysis of neurons and neural circuits, and the computational properties of nervous systems. Students are taught a range of models for neurons and neural circuits, and are asked to implement and explore the computational and dynamic properties of these models. The course introduces students to dynamical systems theory for the analysis of neurons and neural learning, models of brain systems, and their relationship to artificial and neural networks. Term project required. Students enrolled in MATH 478 will make arrangements with the instructor to attend additional lectures and complete additional assignments addressing mathematical topics related to the course. Recommended preparation: MATH 223 and MATH 224 or BIOL 300 and BIOL 306. Offered as BIOL 378, COGS 378, MATH 378, BIOL 478, EBME 478, EECS 478, MATH 478 and NEUR 478.

COGS 381. Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the various methodologies used in the cognitive neurosciences, and explore their strengths and weaknesses from scientific and philosophical standpoints. We will begin by examining baseline measures (including IQ tests, tasks of cognitive flexibility, verbal and visual memory, causal/sequential thinking and narrative tasks) and their experimental design. Lesion methods will follow, with an eye toward understanding the strength of inferences that can be drawn from such data. The course will also focus on imaging techniques (CAT, PET, SPECT, fMRI, TMS, etc.) as well as measures of electrical activity such as EEG and single-cell recordings. Students will become familiar with many fundamental assumptions necessary for the implementation of each method, and philosophical questions associated with these endeavors and their potential impact on our knowledge and society. Recommend preparation: PHIL 101 or COGS 201. Offered as COGS 381 and PHIL 381.

COGS 390. Introduction to General Semiotics. 3 Units.

Semiotics, the study of meaning and signs conveying meaning, is a central part of cognitive semiotics, or 'high level' cognitive semantics. This discipline is typically taught in departments of linguistics, cognitive science, philosophy, or cultural studies. The domain of semiotics is in fact widely intersecting with other disciplines (general linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience, anthropology, music, literature, architecture, and the arts). Sign theory, text theory, studies of narrative structure, enunciation, natural logic, rhetoric and poetics, speech act forms, are important components in this field.

COGS 391. Introduction to Text Semiotics. 3 Units.

Introduction to Text Semiotics addresses both students of Literature and students in Cognitive Science. Most of the authors included in the reading list extend their linguistic approach towards fields that intersect literature, psychology, philosophy, aesthetics, and anthropology. The scholarly traditions of text analysis and structural theory of meaning, including authors from classical formalism, structuralism, structural semiotics, and new criticism will be connected to cognitive theories of meaning construction in test, discourse, and cultural expressions in general. The focus of this course, taught as a seminar, is on empirical studies, specific text analyses, discourse analyses, speech act analyses, and other studies of speech, writing, and uses of language in cultural contexts. This course thus introduces to a study of literature and cultural expressions based on cognitive science and modern semiotics--the new view that has be coined Cognitive Semiotics. Offered as COGS 391 and WLIT 391.

COGS 397. SAGES Capstone in Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

Supervised original research on a topic in cognitive science, culminating in a public presentation. The research may be in the form of an independent research project, a literature review, or some other form approved by the department. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

COGS 399. Independent Studies in Cognitive Science. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course is for students with special interests and commitments that are not fully addressed in regular courses, and who wish to work independently.

COGS 401. Special Topics in Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

Special Topics in Cognitive Science. Topics vary. Permission of department is required. Offered as COGS 301 and COGS 401.

COGS 402. Advanced Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

This course takes an advanced look at how the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be used to inform theories of cognitive function, with implications for a range of disciplines. Students will be given an overview of methods, brain anatomy, and major findings in the field. In addition, they will read a number of primary source papers. The student may expect to come away from the course with a broad acquaintance with modern cognitive neuroscience, how its findings are relevant to a variety of fields, and how to critically assess primary source material. Cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly evolving field which synthesizes methodologies and conceptual frameworks from numerous different disciplines. No single individual can hope to master all the methods, background knowledge and conceptual systems which are of key importance to the discipline at any one point in time. Cognitive Neuroscience is therefore a group activity, in which progress is critically dependent on group interactions both at a local level (the `lab') and at more distributed levels (the wider scientific/academic community). The key objectives of this introductory course are therefore: 1. To give students a basic overview of current methods in cognitive neuroscience and the current state of knowledge in the field. 2. To enable students to go to, read, understand, research and evaluate the primary literature (i.e. journal articles). 3. To train students in the skills involved in group work, in particular through division of work and integration of acquired knowledge at a local level (i.e. lab-sized group), through effective and clear presentation of work, and through productive interactions with a large community. The first objective will be accomplished through lectures and assigned textbook readings. The second goal will be accomplished through assigned journal article readings. The third goal will be accomplished through a group structured format for accomplishing work, and through `journal club' style presentations to the class.

COGS 404. Conceptual Integration. 3 Units.

Conceptual Integration, otherwise known as "blending", is a defining feature of higher-order human cognition, indispensable for all behaviors typically taken as distinctive to human beings. This course presents the cognitive mechanisms of conceptual integration, the constraints on its operation, and its deployment and expression in a range of human behaviors such as learning, invention, mathematical and scientific discovery, language, art music, gesture, social understanding, institutional performance, reasoning, decision, judgment, choice, design, and engineering. A student in the class will work on an individual research project in any of a variety of fields, including engineering (e.g. designing with blends), computer science, the arts, the humanities, the social sciences, cognitive neuroscience, and linguistics. Only one of COGS 304 and COGS 404 can be taken for credit within any degree program. Offered as COGS 304 and COGS 404.

COGS 406. Theory of Cognitive Linguistics I. 3 Units.

This is the first course in a two-course sequence presenting theory and practice of cognitive linguistics. Offered as COGS 206 and COGS 406.

COGS 407. Cog Linguistics Theory II. 3 Units.

This is the second course in a two-course sequence presenting theory and practice of cognitive linguistics. Offered as COGS 307 and COGS 407. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Prereq: COGS 406 or consent of instructor.

COGS 408. Workshop on Cognitive Linguistics I. 3 Units.

This is the first in a two-course sequence (408 & 409) designed to provide experience in research methods in cognitive linguistics at the MA level. A workshop in which students read examples of cognitive linguistics research, develop their own topics (theoretical or empirical), and work on them to produce a final paper.

COGS 409. Workshop in Cognitive Linguistics II. 3 Units.

The second course in a two-course sequence (408 & 409) designed to provide experience in research methods in cognitive linguistics at the MA level. A workshop in which students read examples of cognitive linguistics research, develop their own topics (theoretical or empirical), and work on them to produce a final paper. Prereq: COGS 408 or consent of instructor.

COGS 410. Cognitive Science of Religion. 3 Units.

This course introduces theories and methods in the cognitive science of religion. Particular emphasis is placed on applying cognitive scientific concepts and theories to such religious issues as belief in deities, religious ritual, and morality. We examine such topics as the relationship of religious studies to evolution and cognition, cognitive theories or religious ritual, anthropomorphism and religious representation, religion as an evolutionary adaptation, and cognitive semantics and religious language. Course work includes student-led discussions, a research-intensive journal-length essay on a topic chosen in consultation with the Instructor, and presentation of research findings to the class. Course readings are taken from the humanities, the social sciences, and natural sciences. Offered as: COGS 310, COGS 410, RLGN 310, RLGN 410.

COGS 411. Mind and Media. 3 Units.

An introduction to the study of mind and media, including the study of multimodal communication. This course investigates patterns of human cognition that are ancient to human beings and upon which media have converged for powerful, immersive effect. The cognitive processes studied include perception, sensation, imagination, joint attention, narrative conception, simulation, dreaming, identity construction, imaginative play, and implicit learning. Students engage in hands-on media analysis to study how basic human menal operations are used in media to achieve a variety of effects. Students will be given access to a private website of instructions, readings, and materials for the course, and will be introduced to a range of vast, rich, searchable databases of media. Students will have ample opportunity to do research inside such databases. Offered as: COGS 311 and COGS 411.

COGS 413. Special Topics in Cognitive Linguistics. 3 Units.

This course covers special topics in the field of cognitive linguistics. Topics will vary from semester to semester. Offered as COGS 313 and COGS 413.

COGS 415. Mental Space Theory. 3 Units.

This course covers theory of mental spaces and methodology of mental space analysis, with special emphasis on the use of mental space theory to analyze human performance in various areas of cognition, including reasoning, judgment, decision, counterfactual thought, inference, planning, communication and language, gesture, social cognition, cognitive design and engineering, representation, learning, humor, symbol systems, and invention. It includes a consideration of experimental methods that have arisen under the influence of mental space theory. A student may earn credit for either COGS 315 or COGS 415, but not both. Offered as COGS 315 and COGS 415.

COGS 416. Decision-Making. 3 Units.

This course is a topical introduction to decision-making, a major area of cognitive social science, with connections to economics, law, political science, business, policy, and related fields. Topics include game theory and rational calculation, equilibria, kinds of choice, heuristics, the role of affect in decision, framing, bounded rationality, mechanisms of choice such as heuristics, the role of social cognition in choice, concepts of self and other, and computer modeling of choice. The course also includes an introduction to the design of empirical behavioral research. Offered as COGS 316 and COGS 416.

COGS 417. Cognitive Diversity. 3 Units.

This course surveys research from cognitive science (psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, etc.) on the ways that different people think differently. We will consider dimensions such as sec, gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, bodily differences, cultural differences, and effects of speaking different languages. Students will choose the last two topics at the end of the semester (Different religions? Different ages? Whatever interests the class!). Offered as COGS 317 and COGS 417. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

COGS 424. Discourse and Cognition. 3 Units.

This course explores discourse and interaction from a cognitive linguistic perspective, with special emphasis on mental space, conceptual integration, and cognitive grammar. Cognitive linguistics is a paradigm of language study that seeks to understand language structure, acquisition, and use as a function of embodied conceptualization. This means that it seeks to describe and explain language as a symbolic activity involving general cognitive processes, such as perception, attention, memory, categorization, framing and sensory-motor activities. Another burgeoning area of interest among cognitive linguists is social-cognition, gesture, and interaction. In each of these endeavors, the goal is to explain as much about language without having to posit autonomous and language-specific faculties. While cognitive linguists have always been seen discourse as a legitimate object of study, many still take the sentence, clause, and phrase as their primary unit of analysis. In this course, we shall focus on the relationship between discourse and relevant cognitive processes such as attention, memory, categorization, framing, and kinesthetic experience, with the intention of exploring who these cognitive processes shape discourse in English and other languages. We will subsequently reverse our orientation and explore how discourse (in text as well as embodied/face-to-face) in turn shapes how we pay attention, remember, categorize, frame, and even experience the world. The readings, discussion, and/or research projects for this course may include the following topics: interactional conduct, intersubjectivity, consciousness, co-speech gesture, mental spaces, prosody, time and temporality, and working memory. The international structure of this course will likely lead to focused discussion and research projects on English as a Second & Foreign Language. Offered as COGS 324 and COGS 424.

COGS 425. Cognitive Approaches to Literature. 3 Units.

This course approaches literature as a window into language, in which cognition is characterized by the same imaging and imaginary properties as artistic literature. It is an attempt to identify and analyze procedures as aesthetically interesting and generally relevant forms of human thinking, feeling, imagining, fantasizing, and conceptualizing. The course introduces current theories of literature in relation to language and mind, and it presents and discusses practical applications in critical reading and text analysis, using examples from modern literature in the main genres. A student may earn credit for either COGS 325 or COGS 425 but not both. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 202. Offered as COGS 325 and COGS 425.

COGS 426. Cognitive Approaches to Music. 3 Units.

This course will study the ways in which the presence of music relates to cognition and the semiotics of inter-subjective communication at large--the emergence of language, gesture, and symbolization of time. Topics of interests include: the ways that specific works of musical art invite semantic interpretation; how intelligible musical structure relates to meaning; how musical activities correspond to brain activity; and how music relates to and/or induces emotion. Recommended preparation: COGS 101, COGS 202. Offered as COGS 326 and COGS 426.

COGS 427. Gesture in Cognition and Communication. 3 Units.

Most people never notice that when they are talking, they're also gesturing. Why do we produce these gestures? What can studying them tell us about the human mind? This course surveys scientific research on gesture, exploring topics such as the role of gesture in communication, cross-cultural differences in gesture, and the relationship between gesture and signed languages. The course will focus on gestures produced with speech, but will cover symbolic and ritualized gesture in the visual arts and in dance. Offered as COGS 327 and COGS 427 and MLIT 327.

COGS 452. Language, Cognition, and Religion. 3 Units.

This course utilizes theoretical approaches found in cognitive semantics -- a branch of cognitive linguistics -- to study the conceptual structures and meanings of religious language. Cognitive semantics, guided by the notion that conceptual structures are embodied, examines the relationship between conceptual systems and the construction of meaning. We consider such ideas as conceptual metaphor theory, conceptual blending, Image schemas, cross-domain mappings, metonymy, mental spaces, and idealized cognitive models. We apply these ideas to selected Christian, Buddhist, and Chinese religious texts in order to understand ways in which religious language categorizes and conceptualizes the world. We examine both the universality of cognitive linguistic processes and the culturally specific metaphors, conceptual blends, image schemas, and other cognitive operations that particular texts and traditions utilize. Offered as RLGN 352, RLGN 452, COGS 352 and COGS 452.

COGS 499. Independent Studies. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course is a face-to-face seminar between students and instructor, aiming at letting and helping the students independently develop original research on well-defined topics in the field of cognitive linguistics. Themes can vary within the wide area of cognition and culture.

COGS 651. Thesis. 1 - 6 Unit.

Conduct independent research and writing in Cognitive Linguistics under the guidance of a faculty adviser from Cognitive Science. The precise requirements of the course are to be determined by the faculty advisor. Prereq: COGS 406 and COGS 407 and COGS 408. Coreq: COGS 409.