2014-15 General Bulletin

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203 Clark Hall
www.case.edu/artsci/phil
Phone: 216.368.2810; Fax: 216.368.0814
Laura Hengehold, Department Chair

The Department of Philosophy offers an undergraduate major leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. It also offers minor programs for undergraduates as well as graduate-level courses for candidates for the Master of Arts degree in such fields as biomedical ethics, history, English, mathematics, and the sciences.

The department’s course offerings are designed not only to provide knowledge and skills required for students whose main interest is in philosophy, but also to educate students in general about the intellectual issues that a reflective person is likely to encounter in various contexts of civilized life. The department emphasizes the relevance of philosophy to mathematics, computer science, the natural sciences, the social sciences, the humanities and arts, and law.

The major program in philosophy, besides offering a solid foundation for advanced study in philosophy and enriching programs in other disciplines, develops the skills for analytical and critical thinking, effective communication, and rational decision making needed in a wide range of endeavors. The program thus provides majors with unusual flexibility in the choice of subsequent careers, including law, medicine, and management, while complementing the pursuit of career objectives with a greater perspective and a richer quality of intellectual life.

In collaboration with the Department of History, the department participates in an interdisciplinary major in the History and Philosophy of Science Program, leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. The department also participates in, and contributes courses to, the interdisciplinary minor in artificial intelligence.

Department Faculty

Laura E. Hengehold, PhD
(Loyola University of Chicago)
Associate Professor and Chair
Political and social philosophy; philosophy of feminism; Foucault; contemporary continental philosophy

Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Elmer G. Beamer-Hubert H. Schneider Professor in Ethics; Associate Professor
Ethics and moral philosophy; environmental philosophy; philosophy of education; meta-philosophy; history of ethics and moral philosophy

Shannon D. French, PhD
(Brown University)
Inamori Professor of Ethics; Associate Professor
Military ethics; leadership ethics; professional ethics; moral psychology; biomedical and environmental ethics

Chris Haufe, PhD
(Columbia University)
Assistant Professor
Philosophy of science, philosophy of biology

Chin-Tai Kim, PhD
(Harvard University)
Professor
History of philosophy (17th, 18th, and 19th centuries); theory of knowledge; metaphysics; foundations of ethics; phenomenology; comparative philosophy

Colin McLarty, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Truman P. Handy Professor of Philosophy
Logic; philosophy of logic; philosophy of mathematics; philosophy of science; contemporary French philosophy


Adjunct Faculty

Joel Levin, DPhil
(University of Oxford, U.K.)
Adjunct Associate Professor; Adjunct Professor, Case Western Reserve University School of Law
Philosophy of law; political philosophy; ethical theory

Shannon Lundeen, PhD
(Stony Brook University)
Adjunct Associate Professor; Director, Flora Stone Mather Center for Women
Feminist theory; bioethics; sexuality studies; social and political philosophy


Secondary Faculty

Insoo Hyun, PhD
(Brown University)
Associate Professor, Department of Bioethics
Bioethics; moral and political philosophy

Anthony Jack, PhD
(University College London)
Associate Professor, Department of Cognitive Science
Cross-cultural study of theory of mind and moral reasoning

Deepak Sarma, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Professor, Department of Religious Studies
Hinduism; Indian philosophy; philosophy of religion; method and theory

Undergraduate Programs

Major

The major consists of 30 hours (ten 3-credit courses) in philosophy, including PHIL 101 Introduction to Philosophy, PHIL 201 Introduction to Logic, PHIL 201 Introduction to Logic, PHIL 301 Ancient Philosophy, PHIL 302 Modern Philosophy, and six other elective philosophy courses to be determined in consultation with the department’s undergraduate advisor. However, a student may request permission to take up to 6 hours (two 3-credit courses) of the required 18 hours of philosophy electives in another field or other fields. Such a request should be supported by considerations showing how the substitution(s) would strengthen the student’s major in philosophy. The advisor must approve the substitution(s) in advance.

Major Required Courses
PHIL 101Introduction to Philosophy3
PHIL 201Introduction to Logic3
PHIL 301Ancient Philosophy3
PHIL 302Modern Philosophy3
Six philosophy electives chosen in consultation with advisor. With permission of advisor, up to 6 hours may be taken outside the department. Only 3 units are permitted to be from a University Seminar. Please contact the department for a current list of University Seminars that may be taken for credit towards the Philosophy major.18
Total Units30

Departmental Honors

The department offers an honors program for students pursuing a major in philosophy. Students in this program must complete a substantial thesis, pass an oral examination on the thesis, and maintain a B average in philosophy courses. To be eligible for admission, a student should have an overall grade point average of B or better, and a grade of B or better in each philosophy course already taken. A student normally should have taken at least four, and at most seven, philosophy courses at the time of application for admission. An honors student should register for PHIL 399 Directed Study to do honors work. Interested students should apply for admission to the program during the first semester of junior year.

Minor in Philosophy

The department offers a range of possible minor programs, each of which must include PHIL 101 Introduction to Philosophy and four other courses in philosophy at the 200 or 300 level (excluding PHIL 390 Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science and PHIL 399 Directed Study), chosen to meet the specific needs of students majoring in other fields. The undergraduate advisor will assist students in devising minor programs.

Required Courses
PHIL 101Introduction to Philosophy3
Four Philosophy electives chosen in consultation with advisor12
Total Units15

Minor in Ethics

The minor in ethics allows undergraduate students in any field to pursue a concentration of studies in ethics from multiple perspectives: theoretical and practical, philosophical and empirical/ interdisciplinary. The goal is to encourage analytical reflection on the principles and situations of ethical action, social, interpersonal, or individual, in historical and contemporary contexts. The ethics minor requires PHIL 101 Introduction to Philosophy, PHIL 205 Contemporary Moral Problems or PHIL 206 Contemporary Moral Issues: Experiential, PHIL 305 Ethics, one other PHIL course at the 200-300 level, and one of several identified courses in a field other than philosophy.

Required Courses
PHIL 101Introduction to Philosophy3
PHIL 205Contemporary Moral Problems3
or PHIL 206 Contemporary Moral Issues: Experiential
PHIL 305Ethics3
One Philosophy course chosen in consultation with advisor.
Bioethics: Dilemmas
Science and Engineering Ethics
Topics in Ethics
Selected Topics in Philosophy
War and Morality
Political and Social Philosophy
Comparative Philosophy
Directed Study
One course from the following interdisciplinary list:
International Bioethics: Policy and Practice
Justice, Religion, and Society
Classical Jewish Religious Thought
Jewish Ethics
Morality and Mind
Departmental Seminar: Moral Boundaries and Limits of Science
Advanced Topics in Cognitive Neuroscience
Social Inequality

Philosophy Capstone

Students may fulfill their SAGES capstone requirement in philosophy by registering for PHIL 399 Directed Study after devising a suitable project in consultation with the undergraduate advisor and the supervising faculty member.  

Courses

PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Units.

Basic problems of philosophy and methods of philosophical thinking. Problems raised by science, morality, religion, politics, and art. Readings from classical and contemporary philosophers. Normally given in multiple sections with different instructors and possibly with different texts. All sections share core materials in theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and ethics despite differences that may exist in emphasis.

PHIL 201. Introduction to Logic. 3 Units.

Presentation, application, and evaluation of formal methods for determining the validity of arguments. Discussion of the relationship between logic and other disciplines. Counts for CAS Quantitative Reasoning Requirement.

PHIL 203. Natural Philosophy I. 3 Units.

Historical and philosophical interpretation of some epochal events in development of science. Copernican revolution, Newtonian mechanics, Einstein's relativity physics, quantum mechanics, and evolutionary theory; patterns of scientific growth; structure of scientific "revolutions;" science and "pseudo-science." First half of a year-long sequence. Offered as HSTY 203 and PHIL 203.

PHIL 205. Contemporary Moral Problems. 3 Units.

Examination of selected contemporary moral problems and contemporary faces of perennial moral problems such as: when, if ever, lying is justified; the value of honesty and of confidentiality; under what circumstances, if any, various types of killing (suicide, execution, in war, euthanasia, killing of lower animals or ecosystems) are justified. Additional moral problems raised by new knowledge (such as genetic information) or new technology (such as rights to digital information), and responsible uses of these and other sources of power. Clarification of the concepts of value, ethical evaluation and justification, ethical argument, moral relevance, and the notion of a moral problem itself. Readings will draw on classical and contemporary sources in philosophy.

PHIL 206. Contemporary Moral Issues: Experiential. 3 Units.

What is good and how is it different from evil? How do you know when you have done the right thing? Is there an absolute grounding to morality? What is the role of reason in our lives? What is human nature? Are human beings essentially creatures of emotion? What bearing do these questions have on our basic moral determinations of good and evil? How are all these questions related to concerns about personal identity? Using sources from different eras and schools of philosophic thought, students will become more informed about the intricacies involved in thinking clearly about these issues.

PHIL 221. Indian Philosophy. 3 Units.

A survey of Indian philosophical thought with emphasis on the Vedas, early Hindu, and Jain literature. Offered as PHIL 221 and RLGN 221. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 225. Evolution. 3 Units.

Multidisciplinary study of the course and processes of organic evolution provides a broad understanding of the evolution of structural and functional diversity, the relationships among organisms and their environments, and the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of organisms. Topics include the genetic basis of micro- and macro-evolutionary change, the concept of adaptation, natural selection, population dynamics, theories of species formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory. Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, EEPS 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.

PHIL 270. Introduction to Gender Studies. 3 Units.

This course introduces women and men students to the methods and concepts of gender studies, women's studies, and feminist theory. An interdisciplinary course, it covers approaches used in literary criticism, history, philosophy, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, film studies, cultural studies, art history, and religion. It is the required introductory course for students taking the women's and gender studies major. Offered as ENGL 270, HSTY 270, PHIL 270, RLGN 270, SOCI 201, and WGST 201. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: ENGL 150 or passing letter grade in a 100 level first year seminar in USFS, FSCC, FSNA, FSSO, FSSY, FSTS, FSCS.

PHIL 271. Bioethics: Dilemmas. 3 Units.

We have the genetic technology to change nature and human nature, but should we? We have the medical technology to extend almost any human life, but is this always good? Should we clone humans? Should we allow doctor-assisted suicide for the terminally ill? This course invites students from all academic disciplines and fields to examine current and future issues in bioethics--e.g., theory and methods in bioethics; death and dying; organ transplantation; genetics; aging and dementia; fertility and reproduction; distributive justice in health care access. The course will include guest lecturers from nationally-known Bioethics faculty. Offered as BETH 271, PHIL 271.

PHIL 301. Ancient Philosophy. 3 Units.

Western philosophy from the early Greeks to the Skeptics. Emphasis on the pre-Socratics, Plato and Aristotle. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 and consent of department. Offered as CLSC 301 and PHIL 301.

PHIL 302. Modern Philosophy. 3 Units.

British empiricism: Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Continental rationalism: Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. The critical philosophy of Kant. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or consent of instructor.

PHIL 303. Topics in Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences (e.g., evolution, teleology, and functional explanation); explanation and understanding in social sciences; value in social science. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201 or PHIL 203. Offered as PHIL 303 and PHIL 403.

PHIL 304. Science and Engineering Ethics. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the scientific and engineering workplace, to understand ethical concepts, to evaluate ethical arguments, and to critically examine responses to problems and their ethical ramifications. It addresses questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is research misconduct? When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports do good organizations give for raising them? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice? What are good means for controlling it? What are scientists' and engineers' responsibilities for environmental protection? What is a "conflict of interest" and how is it controlled? What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What, if any, use of animals in research is justified? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 304 and PHIL 404.

PHIL 305. Ethics. 3 Units.

Analysis of ethical theories and concepts of goodness, right, and obligation. Discussion of nature of justice, problem of justification of moral principles, and relation between facts and values. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 305 and PHIL 405.

PHIL 306. Mathematical Logic and Model Theory. 3 Units.

Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; Gödel incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Offered as PHIL 306, MATH 406 and PHIL 406.

PHIL 313. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Units.

Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths. Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201. Offered as PHIL 313 and PHIL 413.

PHIL 315. Selected Topics in Philosophy. 3 Units.

Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

PHIL 316. African Political Thought. 3 Units.

Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the "nation-state" as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa. Offered as PHIL 316/416 and ETHS 316/416. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 317. War and Morality. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals. War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility. This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. Offered as PHIL 317, PHIL 417, and LAWS 5135.

PHIL 320. The Phenomenological Tradition. 3 Units.

The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl's phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger's transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 321. Advanced Indian Philosophy. 3 Units.

We will closely examine a limited number of texts in Jain, Hindu, and/or Buddhist philosophy. Our concern will be the methods, presuppositions, arguments, and goals of these schools and trajectories of thought. What were their theories on the nature of the person, the nature of reality, and the nature and process of knowing? What were the debates between the schools and the major points of controversy? We will spend the majority of time analyzing the arguments or positions as they are found in primary texts (in translation). We will rely on the primary sources found in Sarma Introduction to Classical Indian Philosophy as well as PDFs provided by the instructor. Students will read texts out loud in class and will be expected to comment on the passage or passages. Students are expected to use outside sources in their preparations. The goal of the class is to continue to learn how to make and write arguments against (or in support of) the various positions using the prasangika (reductlo ad absurdum) method. The papers are rigorous ones and require the student to present the position and then to posit arguments against it, finding internal incoherences. This is a writing-intensive class. Students will continue to learn how to write as per the genre of Indian philosophy. Offered as RLGN 321 and PHIL 321. Prereq: RLGN 221 or PHIL 221.

PHIL 325. Philosophy of Feminism. 3 Units.

Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325, PHIL 425 and WGST 325. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 330. Topics in Ethics. 3 Units.

Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102, or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 332. Classical Jewish Religious Thought. 3 Units.

The thought of some major biblical and Rabbinic writings and of the classic age of medieval Jewish philosophy. Offered as JDST 330, PHIL 332, and RLGN 330.

PHIL 333. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Units.

Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God's existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102. Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 334. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 335. Philosophy of Law. 3 Units.

This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as LAWS 353, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 345. Epistemology and Metaphysics. 3 Units.

Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 355. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy. 3 Units.

History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 356. Comparative Philosophy. 3 Units.

Philosophy in the etymological sense of the term, love of wisdom, subsumes ontological, ethical and epistemological inquires addressing fundamental questions about reality, the place of humans in that reality, the values of things and human obligations, and the sources of knowledge. The major purpose of this course is to discover, understand, explicate and articulate the affinities and differences in the way the fundamental questions are addressed in different cultural contexts, thereby to appreciate the cross-cultural kinship among human minds as well as to be challenged by the differences that may engender conflicts. We will explore the possibility of building a trans-cultural meta-cultural meta-discourse in which thinkers from many traditions can participate on equal footing. We will come to face up to the question whether truly universal philosophy is possible, upon what conditions. Representative texts from the Western, Chinese and Buddhist traditions including selected works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lao Tzu, Confucius, Chuang Tzu, Dhammapada of the Buddha and D. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism will be read. Offered as PHIL 356 and PHIL 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101 or requisites not met permission.

PHIL 360. Science and Society. 3 Units.

This course examines the complex ethical and other value relationships that exist between science and society. Students will be encouraged to question the simplistic view that science proceeds independently of societal values and contentious ethical commitments. A range of other social factors, such as ethical belief systems, political forces, and large-scale financial interests all influence new scientific and technological developments. In order to illuminate each of these larger themes, this course focuses on three exciting areas of scientific inquiry: stem cell research; synthetic biology; and nanotechnology. Each of these contentious scientific fields provides an excellent view into the challenging ethical, cultural, social, political, and economic issues that will face students, both as scholars and as citizens. No prior technical knowledge is necessary for any of these scientific areas. All relevant scientific information will be provided during the course by the professor. Offered as BETH 360 and PHIL 360.

PHIL 367. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467. Prereq: PHIL 225 or equivalent.

PHIL 368. Evolutionary Biology Capstone. 3 Units.

This course focuses on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology that will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. Students will participate in discussions and lead class seminars on evolutionary topics and in collaboration with an advisor or advisors, select a topic for a research paper or project. Each student will write a major research report or complete a major project and will make a public presentation of her/his findings. Offered as ANTH 368, BIOL 369, and PHIL 368. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 371. Advanced Bioethics. 3 Units.

This course offers upper-level instruction on many key bioethical issues introduced in BETH/PHIL 271. The class follows a discussion-intensive seminar format. Students begin with an in-depth analysis of ethical issues surrounding the conduct of clinical trials, both within the U.S. and through U.S.-sponsored research abroad. Next students examine the philosophical and practical challenges involved in medical decision making for adults and pediatric patients. This course concludes by addressing the broader ethical problem of what duties we owe to future generations in terms of our reproductive choices and the allocation of health-related public expenditures. Each of these general topic areas - clinical trials, medical decision making, and future generations - is of crucial importance for all students whether one plans to enter a career in biomedical research, the healthcare professions, or some other career path. Everyone is a potential patient or the family member of a potential patient. The topics covered in Advanced Bioethics will help prepare students to become responsible participants in an increasingly complex biomedical world. Offered as BETH 371 and PHIL 371. Prereq: BETH 271 or PHIL 271.

PHIL 373. Intelligence and Cognition. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the notion and meaning of intelligence. What is intelligence? How is it measured, and are these measures adequate to the task? Is there more than one kind of intelligence? What is the relationship between individuals, genetic factors, biological factors, and socio-cultural-economic factors in the development of intelligence? How are language and thought related to intelligence? What is the difference between intelligence and talent? Intelligence seems to be necessary for culture, art, religious belief, the creation of theories and the quest for knowledge, truth and morality; thus intelligence is a necessary condition for the study of itself. To attempt to understand intelligence is an undertaking in which we will ask questions about the self and the common nature of humanity, while simultaneously examining the abilities of animals and machines. What is the mark of intelligence? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or COGS 201. Offered as COGS 373 and PHIL 373.

PHIL 375. Issues in Aesthetics. 3 Units.

This course will seek to offer insight into the nature of artistic expression, the role of criticism in the arts, and the place of the arts in society. The term "arts" will be construed broadly to include painting, photography, theater, film, music, dance, poetry, etc. The following are examples of questions we will discuss. What does the term "beautiful" mean? Are there other measures of aesthetic value besides beauty? Do the arts, like the sciences, offer us knowledge of the world? What value do the arts have for society? Can aesthetic value conflict with moral value? Do artists have a responsibility to society? Should art ever be censored? What is the relationship between art and entertainment? Is the meaning and value of an artistic work a matter of individual opinion? What is the purpose of art critics? How are interpretations and evaluations of art influenced by race, gender, class, etc.? What is creativity in the arts? Does it differ from creativity in the sciences? How important is originality in art? Offered as PHIL 375 and PHIL 475. Prereq: PHIL 101 or requisite not met permission.

PHIL 381. Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the various methodologies used in the cognitive neurosciences, and explore their strengths and weaknesses from scientific and philosophical standpoints. We will begin by examining baseline measures (including IQ tests, tasks of cognitive flexibility, verbal and visual memory, causal/sequential thinking and narrative tasks) and their experimental design. Lesion methods will follow, with an eye toward understanding the strength of inferences that can be drawn from such data. The course will also focus on imaging techniques (CAT, PET, SPECT, fMRI, TMS, etc.) as well as measures of electrical activity such as EEG and single-cell recordings. Students will become familiar with many fundamental assumptions necessary for the implementation of each method, and philosophical questions associated with these endeavors and their potential impact on our knowledge and society. Recommend preparation: PHIL 101 or COGS 201. Offered as COGS 381 and PHIL 381.

PHIL 385. Philosophy of Language. 3 Units.

Nature of language; problems of meaning, reference, and truth. Offered as PHIL 385 and PHIL 485. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 390. Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

Directed independent research seminar for seniors who are majors in the History and Philosophy of Science program. The goal of the course is to develop and demonstrate command of B.A.-level factual content, methodologies, research strategies, historiography, and theory relevant to the field of history of science and/or philosophy of science. The course includes both written and oral components. Offered as HSTY 380 and PHIL 390. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 394. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners' conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, EEPS 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, EEPS 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

PHIL 396. Undergraduate Research in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

Students propose and conduct guided research on an aspect of evolutionary biology. The research will be sponsored and supervised by a member of the CASE faculty or other qualified professional. A written report must be submitted to the Evolutionary Biology Steering Committee before credit is granted. Offered as ANTH 396, BIOL 396, EEPS 396, and PHIL 396.

PHIL 399. Directed Study. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will undertake a project that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will result in a final report and public presentation. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 403. Topics in Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences (e.g., evolution, teleology, and functional explanation); explanation and understanding in social sciences; value in social science. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201 or PHIL 203. Offered as PHIL 303 and PHIL 403.

PHIL 404. Science and Engineering Ethics. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the scientific and engineering workplace, to understand ethical concepts, to evaluate ethical arguments, and to critically examine responses to problems and their ethical ramifications. It addresses questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is research misconduct? When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports do good organizations give for raising them? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice? What are good means for controlling it? What are scientists' and engineers' responsibilities for environmental protection? What is a "conflict of interest" and how is it controlled? What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What, if any, use of animals in research is justified? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 304 and PHIL 404.

PHIL 405. Ethics. 3 Units.

Analysis of ethical theories and concepts of goodness, right, and obligation. Discussion of nature of justice, problem of justification of moral principles, and relation between facts and values. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 305 and PHIL 405.

PHIL 406. Mathematical Logic and Model Theory. 3 Units.

Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; Gödel incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Offered as PHIL 306, MATH 406 and PHIL 406.

PHIL 413. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Units.

Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths. Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201. Offered as PHIL 313 and PHIL 413.

PHIL 415. Selected Topics in Philosophy. 3 Units.

Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

PHIL 416. African Political Thought. 3 Units.

Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the "nation-state" as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa. Offered as PHIL 316/416 and ETHS 316/416. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 417. War and Morality. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals. War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility. This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. Offered as PHIL 317, PHIL 417, and LAWS 5135.

PHIL 420. The Phenomenological Tradition. 3 Units.

The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl's phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger's transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 425. Philosophy of Feminism. 3 Units.

Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325, PHIL 425 and WGST 325. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 430. Topics in Ethics. 3 Units.

Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102, or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 433. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Units.

Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God's existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102. Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 434. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 435. Philosophy of Law. 3 Units.

This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as LAWS 353, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 445. Epistemology and Metaphysics. 3 Units.

Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 455. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy. 3 Units.

History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 456. Comparative Philosophy. 3 Units.

Philosophy in the etymological sense of the term, love of wisdom, subsumes ontological, ethical and epistemological inquires addressing fundamental questions about reality, the place of humans in that reality, the values of things and human obligations, and the sources of knowledge. The major purpose of this course is to discover, understand, explicate and articulate the affinities and differences in the way the fundamental questions are addressed in different cultural contexts, thereby to appreciate the cross-cultural kinship among human minds as well as to be challenged by the differences that may engender conflicts. We will explore the possibility of building a trans-cultural meta-cultural meta-discourse in which thinkers from many traditions can participate on equal footing. We will come to face up to the question whether truly universal philosophy is possible, upon what conditions. Representative texts from the Western, Chinese and Buddhist traditions including selected works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lao Tzu, Confucius, Chuang Tzu, Dhammapada of the Buddha and D. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism will be read. Offered as PHIL 356 and PHIL 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 467. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467.

PHIL 475. Issues in Aesthetics. 3 Units.

This course will seek to offer insight into the nature of artistic expression, the role of criticism in the arts, and the place of the arts in society. The term "arts" will be construed broadly to include painting, photography, theater, film, music, dance, poetry, etc. The following are examples of questions we will discuss. What does the term "beautiful" mean? Are there other measures of aesthetic value besides beauty? Do the arts, like the sciences, offer us knowledge of the world? What value do the arts have for society? Can aesthetic value conflict with moral value? Do artists have a responsibility to society? Should art ever be censored? What is the relationship between art and entertainment? Is the meaning and value of an artistic work a matter of individual opinion? What is the purpose of art critics? How are interpretations and evaluations of art influenced by race, gender, class, etc.? What is creativity in the arts? Does it differ from creativity in the sciences? How important is originality in art? Offered as PHIL 375 and PHIL 475.

PHIL 485. Philosophy of Language. 3 Units.

Nature of language; problems of meaning, reference, and truth. Offered as PHIL 385 and PHIL 485.

PHIL 494. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners' conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, EEPS 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, EEPS 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

PHIL 499. Independent Study MA Level. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course enables graduate students in departments or interdisciplinary programs with an MA to pursue intensive directed study with a faculty member in Philosophy. Students should consult with the Instructor and with their MA director or graduate program director before enrolling. Prereq: Graduate Standing.

PHIL 699. Advanced Tutorial and Dissertation for Candidates in fields related to Philosophy. 1 - 3 Unit.

This course enables students in departments offering the Ph.D. to pursue intensive directed study with a faculty member in Philosophy, on philosophical aspects of their dissertation topic. Students should consult with the instructor and with their dissertation director before enrolling.