Department of Philosophy

203 Clark Hall
www.case.edu/artsci/phil
Phone: 216.368.2810; Fax: 216.368.0814
Colin McLarty, Department Chair
colin.mclarty@case.edu

The Department of Philosophy offers an undergraduate major leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. It also offers minor programs for undergraduates as well as graduate-level courses for candidates for the Master of Arts degree in such fields as biomedical ethics, history, English, mathematics, and the sciences.

The department’s course offerings are designed not only to provide knowledge and skills required for students whose main interest is in philosophy, but also to educate students in general about the intellectual issues that a reflective person is likely to encounter in various life contexts. The department emphasizes the relevance of philosophy to mathematics, computer science, the natural sciences, the social sciences, the humanities and arts, and law.

The major program in philosophy, besides offering a solid foundation for advanced study in philosophy and enriching programs in other disciplines, develops the skills for analytical and critical thinking, effective communication, and rational decision making needed in a wide range of endeavors. The program thus provides majors with unusual flexibility in the choice of subsequent careers, including law, medicine, and management, while complementing the pursuit of career objectives with a greater perspective and a richer quality of intellectual life.

In collaboration with the Department of History, the department participates in an interdisciplinary major in the History and Philosophy of Science Program, leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. The department also participates in, and contributes courses to, the interdisciplinary minor in artificial intelligence.

Department Faculty

Colin McLarty, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Truman P. Handy Professor of Philosophy and Chair
Logic; philosophy of logic; philosophy of mathematics; philosophy of science; contemporary French philosophy

Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Elmer G. Beamer-Hubert H. Schneider Professor in Ethics; Associate Professor
Ethics and moral philosophy; environmental philosophy; philosophy of education; meta-philosophy; history of ethics and moral philosophy

Shannon D. French, PhD
(Brown University)
Inamori Professor of Ethics
Military ethics; leadership ethics; professional ethics; moral psychology; biomedical and environmental ethics

Chris Haufe, PhD
(Columbia University)
Associate Professor
Philosophy of science, philosophy of biology

Laura E. Hengehold, PhD
(Loyola University of Chicago)
Professor
Political and social philosophy; philosophy of feminism; Foucault; contemporary continental philosophy

Anthony Jack, PhD
(University College London, UK)
Associate Professor
Experimental psychology, extensive training in philosophy and neuroscience

Chin-Tai Kim, PhD
(Harvard University)
Professor
History of philosophy (17th, 18th, and 19th centuries); theory of knowledge; metaphysics; foundations of ethics; phenomenology; comparative philosophy


Adjunct Faculty

Joel Levin, DPhil
(University of Oxford, U.K.)
Adjunct Associate Professor; Adjunct Professor, Case Western Reserve University School of Law
Philosophy of law; political philosophy; ethical theory


Secondary Faculty

Insoo Hyun, PhD
(Brown University)
Associate Professor, Department of Bioethics
Bioethics; moral and political philosophy

Deepak Sarma, PhD
(University of Chicago)
Professor, Department of Religious Studies
Hinduism; Indian philosophy; philosophy of religion; method and theory

Undergraduate Programs

Major

The major consists of 30 hours (ten 3-credit courses) in philosophy, including PHIL 101 Introduction to Philosophy, PHIL 201 Introduction to Logic, PHIL 301 Ancient Philosophy, PHIL 302 Modern Philosophy, and six other elective philosophy courses to be determined in consultation with the department’s undergraduate advisor. However, a student may request permission to take up to 6 hours (two 3-credit courses) of the required 18 hours of philosophy electives in another field or other fields. Such a request should be supported by considerations showing how the substitution(s) would strengthen the student’s major in philosophy. The advisor must approve the substitution(s) in advance.

Major Required Courses
PHIL 101Introduction to Philosophy3
PHIL 201Introduction to Logic3
PHIL 301Ancient Philosophy3
PHIL 302Modern Philosophy3
Six philosophy electives chosen in consultation with advisor. With permission of advisor, up to 6 hours may be taken outside the department. Only 3 units are permitted to be from a University Seminar. Please contact the department for a current list of University Seminars that may be taken for credit towards the major.18
Total Units30

Departmental Honors

The department offers an honors program for students pursuing a major in philosophy. Students in this program must complete a substantial thesis, pass an oral examination on the thesis, and maintain a B average in philosophy courses. To be eligible for admission, a student should have an overall grade point average of B or better, and a grade of B or better in each philosophy course already taken. A student normally should have taken at least four, and at most seven, philosophy courses at the time of application for admission. An honors student should register for PHIL 399 Philosophy Honors Thesis to do honors work. Interested students should apply for admission to the program during the first semester of junior year. The honors thesis counts for capstone credit as well.

Minor in Philosophy

The department offers a range of possible minor programs, each of which must include PHIL 101 Introduction to Philosophy and four other courses in philosophy at the 200 or 300 level (excluding PHIL 390 Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science and PHIL 399 Philosophy Honors Thesis), chosen to meet the specific needs of students majoring in other fields. The undergraduate advisor will assist students in devising minor programs.

Required Courses
PHIL 101Introduction to Philosophy3
Four philosophy electives chosen in consultation with advisor12
Total Units15

Minor in Ethics

The minor in ethics allows undergraduate students in any field to pursue a concentration of studies in ethics from multiple perspectives: theoretical and practical, philosophical and empirical/ interdisciplinary. The goal is to encourage analytical reflection on the principles and situations of ethical action, social, interpersonal, or individual, in historical and contemporary contexts.

The ethics minor requires a total of 15 credit hours (i.e., five 3-credit hour courses), as follows: PHIL 101 Introduction to PhilosophyPHIL 305 Ethics, two other PHIL courses at the 200-300 level, and one of several identified courses in a field other than philosophy. 

Required Courses
PHIL 101Introduction to Philosophy3
PHIL 305Ethics3
Two philosophy courses chosen in consultation with advisor.
Contemporary Moral Problems
Good Relationships
Bioethics: Dilemmas
Science and Engineering Ethics
Neuroethics
Selected Topics in Philosophy
War and Morality
People and Planet
The Science of Happiness
Topics in Ethics
Political and Social Philosophy
Comparative Philosophy
Advanced Bioethics
Issues in Aesthetics
Ethics and Public Policy
Philosophy Honors Thesis
One course from the following interdisciplinary list:
International Bioethics: Policy and Practice
International Bioethics Policy and Practice: Public Health in the Netherlands
Morality and Mind
Advanced Topics in Cognitive Neuroscience
Law and Economics
Economic Perspectives
Health Care Economics
Introduction to Environmental Thinking
Political Movements and Political Participation
Religion and Ecology
Representations of Black Religion in Film
Jewish Ethics
Law & Society: Law, Rights and Policy
Social Inequality
Economic Sociology: Money, Markets, Morals, and Social Life
*Student may petition for courses to be applied to this minor if they involve significant ethics content. No more than two courses may count for both the ethics minor and the philosophy major or minor.

Philosophy Capstone

Students may fulfill their SAGES capstone requirement in philosophy by registering for PHIL 398 Philosophy Capstone after devising a suitable project in consultation with the undergraduate advisor and the supervising faculty member.  The honors thesis counts for capstone credit as well.

Master's Program in Military Ethics

Tinkham Veale University Center, Room 260
militaryethics.case.edu
Phone: 216.368.2579; Fax: 216.368.4455
Shannon French, Program Director
shannon.french@case.edu

Military ethics is a broadly interdisciplinary study, incorporating concerns about the conduct of war, decisions on how and when to engage in military operations, and issues relating to the moral psychology and care of those who serve and of veterans of military service. It focuses on the core values and moral principles that collectively govern the men and women serving in the military forces of nations around the world, as members of what is sometimes termed the “military profession” or “the profession of arms.” The ethical foundations that define the profession of arms have developed over millennia from the shared values and experiences, unique role responsibilities, and reflections of members of the profession on their own practices—eventually coming to serve as the basis for various warrior codes and the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). Traditional just war theory (political and moral philosophy governing when the use of military force is justified for the resolution of international conflicts) plays a key role in international relations as well as in international law, including the LOAC and international humanitarian law.

The Program

The program has been designed to educate students on and guide their research into vital global issues in military ethics. These issues include (but are not limited to) modern applications of classical just war theory and traditional warrior’s codes, the principle of noncombatant immunity, human rights, international humanitarian law, humanitarian intervention, the ethical use of emerging military technologies, civil-military relations and society’s obligations to troops and veterans, transitional justice, and the moral foundations of sustainable peace.

The study of military ethics supports long-term humanitarian goals, such as preventing unjust wars; decreasing incidents of war crimes, genocide, human rights abuses, and other atrocities produced by the dehumanizing effects of armed conflict; supporting the mental health and successful transitions of military service members and combat veterans; and fostering a lasting peace founded in justice.

Curriculum

The program curriculum is interdisciplinary, with a foundation in moral and political philosophy and international relations. Each student will complete a minimum of 30 credit hours, including a six-credit “capstone course” that will typically be completed during the summer term following a full academic year of course work.

Over a 12- to 15-month program of study (designed to facilitate the enrollment of military personnel on educational assignment and the academic student looking for an intensive program), students will study foundational topics in moral and political philosophy, together with advanced core and elective topics in military and professional ethics, military medical ethics, military law, ethical leadership, and other related subjects (including optional supplemental electives in areas such as religious studies, history, literature, journalism, political science, classics, and the arts). 

Required Courses

PHIL 405Ethics3
PHIL 417War and Morality3
PHIL 436Military Ethics, the Military Profession, and International Law3
PHIL 484Ethics and Public Policy3
PHIL 501Military Ethics MA Capstone3 - 6

Capstone

When students begin the program, the program director will work with them individually to develop initial concepts for their specific concentrations of study and their capstones. The capstone/culminating project involves both academic research and fieldwork, and is integrated with the degree candidate’s professional experience or interest. PHIL 501 Military Ethics MA Capstone will feature a summative project designed to integrate their common studies, but tailored to their individual future interests in teaching, further graduate study, or employment in public policy or foreign affairs, and may produce outcomes other than a traditional paper/thesis (such as the detailed and well-defended design of a military ethics training/education curriculum).

The outline of the project will typically be presented and defended by the spring recess of the candidate’s second semester in residence, and the project itself completed over the following summer term, for graduation in August the year following matriculation. If special circumstances prevent a student from completing the program in the intended time frame, the academic advisor will work with the student to create an alternative schedule.

Electives

Students will take a minimum of four elective courses. The selection of topic for the capstone project will dictate the selection of relevant elective courses by each student (in consultation with program faculty) to create an appropriate concentration of study. Electives may be in military and professional ethics, military medical ethics, military law, or ethical leadership, or in optional supplemental areas such as religious studies, history, literature, journalism, and the arts.

Elective courses from the College of Arts and Sciences and the School of Law include:

ARTH 436Representations of War in Ancient Rome3
CLSC 420Alexander the Great: Materials and Methods3
LAWS 4101International Law3
LAWS 5110Contemporary Issues in International and Comparative Law1
LAWS 5111Admiralty Law2
LAWS 5113Counterterrorism Law3
LAWS 5116International Human Rights3
LAWS 5118International Law Research Lab3
PHIL 411Neuroethics3
PHIL 416African Political Thought3
PHIL 422The Science of Happiness3
PHIL 430Topics in Ethics3
PHIL 434Political and Social Philosophy3
POSC 460Revolts and Revolutions in Global Perspective3
POSC 464Dictatorship and Democracy in Modern Latin America3
POSC 470HChina's Foreign Policy3
POSC 473Politics of the European Union3
POSC 476United States Foreign Policy3
POSC 479Introduction to Middle East Politics3
RLGN 453Hindu and Jain Bioethics3
RLGN 450Jewish Ethics3

Additional elective courses will continue to be added.

Courses

PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Units.

Basic problems of philosophy and methods of philosophical thinking. Problems raised by science, morality, religion, politics, and art. Readings from classical and contemporary philosophers. Normally given in multiple sections with different instructors and possibly with different texts. All sections share core materials in theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and ethics despite differences that may exist in emphasis.

PHIL 201. Introduction to Logic. 3 Units.

Presentation, application, and evaluation of formal methods for determining the validity of arguments. Discussion of the relationship between logic and other disciplines. Counts for CAS Quantitative Reasoning Requirement.

PHIL 203. Revolutions in Science. 3 Units.

Historical and philosophical interpretation of some epochal events in development of science. Copernican revolution, Newtonian mechanics, Einstein's relativity physics, quantum mechanics, and evolutionary theory; patterns of scientific growth; structure of scientific "revolutions;" science and "pseudo-science." First half of a year-long sequence. Offered as HSTY 203 and PHIL 203.

PHIL 204. Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

Conceptual, methodological, and epistemological issues about science: concept formation, explanation, prediction, confirmation, theory construction and status of unobservables; metaphysical presuppositions and implications of science; semantics of scientific language; illustrations from special sciences. Second half of a year-long sequence. Offered as HSTY 207 and PHIL 204.

PHIL 205. Contemporary Moral Problems. 3 Units.

Examination of selected contemporary moral problems and contemporary faces of perennial moral problems such as: when, if ever, lying is justified; the value of honesty and of confidentiality; under what circumstances, if any, various types of killing (suicide, execution, in war, euthanasia, killing of lower animals or ecosystems) are justified. Additional moral problems raised by new knowledge (such as genetic information) or new technology (such as rights to digital information), and responsible uses of these and other sources of power. Clarification of the concepts of value, ethical evaluation and justification, ethical argument, moral relevance, and the notion of a moral problem itself. Readings will draw on classical and contemporary sources in philosophy.

PHIL 207. Good Relationships. 3 Units.

What is a good relationship? What is the difference between everyday work relationships, friendships, and romance? What is love? What is the role of desire in relationships? What is the role of respect and of moral judgment? What can a bad relationship teach us? In this class, we explore the logic of personal relationships by focusing on the central experience of being in love. However, our approach is indirect. We begin with what we can learn from a bad relationship. In addition to philosophical and psychological reading, students design exercises that might improve a personal relationship as found in fiction or history. By thus imaginatively studying relationships in narration, they are asked to develop their own concept of a good relationship.

PHIL 221. Indian Philosophy. 3 Units.

We will survey the origins of Indian philosophical thought, with an emphasis on early Buddhist, Hindu and Jain literature. Our concern will be the methods, presuppositions, arguments, and goals of these schools and trajectories of thought. What were their theories on the nature of the person, the nature of reality, and the nature and process of knowing? What were the debates between the schools and the major points of controversy? And, most importantly, are the positions/arguments internally incoherent? Offered as PHIL 221 and RLGN 221. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 225. Evolution. 3 Units.

Multidisciplinary study of the course and processes of organic evolution provides a broad understanding of the evolution of structural and functional diversity, the relationships among organisms and their environments, and the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of organisms. Topics include the genetic basis of micro- and macro-evolutionary change, the concept of adaptation, natural selection, population dynamics, theories of species formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory. Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, EEPS 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.

PHIL 270. Introduction to Gender Studies. 3 Units.

This course introduces women and men students to the methods and concepts of gender studies, women's studies, and feminist theory. An interdisciplinary course, it covers approaches used in literary criticism, history, philosophy, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, film studies, cultural studies, art history, and religion. It is the required introductory course for students taking the women's and gender studies major. Offered as ENGL 270, HSTY 270, PHIL 270, RLGN 270, SOCI 201, and WGST 201. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: ENGL 150 or passing letter grade in a 100 level first year seminar in FSCC, FSNA, FSSO, FSSY, FSTS, or FSCS.

PHIL 271. Bioethics: Dilemmas. 3 Units.

We have the genetic technology to change nature and human nature, but should we? We have the medical technology to extend almost any human life, but is this always good? Should we clone humans? Should we allow doctor-assisted suicide for the terminally ill? This course invites students from all academic disciplines and fields to examine current and future issues in bioethics--e.g., theory and methods in bioethics; death and dying; organ transplantation; genetics; aging and dementia; fertility and reproduction; distributive justice in health care access. The course will include guest lecturers from nationally-known Bioethics faculty. Offered as BETH 271 and PHIL 271.

PHIL 301. Ancient Philosophy. 3 Units.

Western philosophy from the early Greeks to the Skeptics. Emphasis on the pre-Socratics, Plato and Aristotle. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 and consent of department. Offered as CLSC 301 and PHIL 301.

PHIL 302. Modern Philosophy. 3 Units.

British empiricism: Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Continental rationalism: Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. The critical philosophy of Kant. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or consent of instructor.

PHIL 303. Topics in Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences (e.g., evolution, teleology, and functional explanation); explanation and understanding in social sciences; value in social science. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201 or PHIL 203. Offered as PHIL 303 and PHIL 403.

PHIL 304. Science and Engineering Ethics. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the scientific and engineering workplace, to understand ethical concepts, to evaluate ethical arguments, and to critically examine responses to problems and their ethical ramifications. It addresses questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is research misconduct? When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports do good organizations give for raising them? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice? What are good means for controlling it? What are scientists' and engineers' responsibilities for environmental protection? What is a "conflict of interest" and how is it controlled? What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What, if any, use of animals in research is justified? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 304 and PHIL 404.

PHIL 305. Ethics. 3 Units.

Analysis of ethical theories and concepts of goodness, right, and obligation. Discussion of nature of justice, problem of justification of moral principles, and relation between facts and values. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 305 and PHIL 405.

PHIL 306. Mathematical Logic and Model Theory. 3 Units.

Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; Gödel incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Offered as PHIL 306, MATH 406 and PHIL 406.

PHIL 307. Philosophy of Biology. 3 Units.

This class looks at the philosophical dimensions of various problems in historical and contemporary evolutionary biology. Topics covered include (1) the theory of natural selection; (2) extinction; (3) human evolution; and (4) higher order evolutionary units and processes. Offered as PHIL 307 and PHIL 407.

PHIL 311. Neuroethics. 3 Units.

Ethics is traditionally a branch of Philosophy. However, research in neuroscience, psychology and behavioral economics is shedding new light on the underlying bases of ethical behavior and ethical thinking. The class will examine how this work informs and enriches traditional philosophical ethics. Topical focus of the class will depend on student interest, but potentially include: What determines how ethically we behave: our character or our situation? What role do and should emotions play in ethical thinking? Can science tell us whether utilitarian or deontological ethics is better? The dark tetrad: narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and; sadism. What is empathy and what roles does it play in generating both ethical and unethical behavior. Varieties of moral disengagement, including dehumanizing. Cognitive dissonance and the slide into unethical behavior. Radicalization into violent extremism. Promoting ethical behavior. Offered as PHIL 311 and PHIL 411.

PHIL 313. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Units.

Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths. Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201. Offered as PHIL 313 and PHIL 413.

PHIL 315. Selected Topics in Philosophy. 3 Units.

Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

PHIL 316. African Political Thought. 3 Units.

Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the "nation-state" as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa. Offered as PHIL 316, ETHS 316, PHIL 316, and ETHS 416. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 317. War and Morality. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals. War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility. This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. Offered as PHIL 317, PHIL 417, and LAWS 5135.

PHIL 318. People and Planet. 3 Units.

In this course, we study the way in which the environment is a matter of politics. Our approach is philosophical, examining the concept of politics in light of how societies shape their environment on Earth. This elucidation's aim is practical. We want to know not only what environmental politics is, but what we should do about it. Students from any major are welcome, without prerequisite. Offered as PHIL 318, POSC 318 and ESTD 318.

PHIL 320. The Phenomenological Tradition. 3 Units.

The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl's phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger's transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 322. The Science of Happiness. 3 Units.

Open to all students (no prerequisites) interested in happiness, this course provides an intellectually rigorous introduction to the philosophy and science of happiness. Philosophy is often considered a dry academic subject; however the best philosophy is personal and transforms our view of the world. In recent years, science has made huge strides in understanding the psychology and neuroscience of human happiness. This course blends these two sources of insight to address such critical questions as: What is happiness? To what extent is it determined by our genes? To what extent can we control our own happiness? What factors contribute to an individual's happiness? Should we be concerned just with our own happiness, or also with the happiness of others? If happiness is a state of mind, can we change our thinking to make ourselves happier? Every self-proclaimed sage, and countless authors of self-help books, claims to know the secret to happiness. This course provides a more intellectually rigorous approach, based on the writings of great philosophers and cutting edge science. Offered as PHIL 322 and PHIL 422.

PHIL 325. Philosophy of Feminism. 3 Units.

Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325, PHIL 425 and WGST 325. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 330. Topics in Ethics. 3 Units.

Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 333. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Units.

Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God's existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102. Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 334. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 335. Philosophy of Law. 3 Units.

This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as LAWS 5747, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 336. Military Ethics, the Military Profession, and International Law. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to provide a foundational understanding of international law as it relates to war and to explore the relationship between international law, military ethics, and the military profession. In addition to traditional lectures and seminar-style discussions, this hybrid course will feature video lectures by international experts in the field of military ethics and online assignments, discussion sections led by the Visiting Distinguished Inamori Scholar in Military Ethics. Topics covered will concern the international legal framework pertaining to the use of force, viewed through the prism of a professional code of conduct that has been forged over centuries, across different warrior cultures. Offered as PHIL 336 and PHIL 436. Prereq: PHIL 317 or PHIL 417.

PHIL 345. Epistemology and Metaphysics. 3 Units.

Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 355. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy. 3 Units.

History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 356. Comparative Philosophy. 3 Units.

Philosophy in the etymological sense of the term, love of wisdom, subsumes ontological, ethical and epistemological inquires addressing fundamental questions about reality, the place of humans in that reality, the values of things and human obligations, and the sources of knowledge. The major purpose of this course is to discover, understand, explicate and articulate the affinities and differences in the way the fundamental questions are addressed in different cultural contexts, thereby to appreciate the cross-cultural kinship among human minds as well as to be challenged by the differences that may engender conflicts. We will explore the possibility of building a trans-cultural meta-cultural meta-discourse in which thinkers from many traditions can participate on equal footing. We will come to face up to the question whether truly universal philosophy is possible, upon what conditions. Representative texts from the Western, Chinese and Buddhist traditions including selected works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lao Tzu, Confucius, Chuang Tzu, Dhammapada of the Buddha and D. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism will be read. Offered as PHIL 356 and PHIL 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: PHIL 101 or requisites not met permission.

PHIL 360. Science and Society. 3 Units.

This course examines the complex ethical and other value relationships that exist between science and society. Students will be encouraged to question the simplistic view that science proceeds independently of societal values and contentious ethical commitments. A range of other social factors, such as ethical belief systems, political forces, and large-scale financial interests all influence new scientific and technological developments. In order to illuminate each of these larger themes, this course focuses on three exciting areas of scientific inquiry: stem cell research; synthetic biology; and nanotechnology. Each of these contentious scientific fields provides an excellent view into the challenging ethical, cultural, social, political, and economic issues that will face students, both as scholars and as citizens. No prior technical knowledge is necessary for any of these scientific areas. All relevant scientific information will be provided during the course by the professor. Offered as BETH 360, BETH 460 and PHIL 360.

PHIL 366. Brain, Mind and Consciousness: The Science and Philosophy of Mind. 3 Units.

The course introduces students to key topics in philosophy of mind from the perspective of our increasingly advanced scientific understanding of mind and brain (e.g. derived from neuroscience, psychology and cognitive science). Key philosophical topics covered include dualism, physicalism, idealism, consciousness and free will. Key scientific issues covered include methods and assumptions underlying research in psychology and neuroscience, introspection, essentialism, dehumanizing, and work on free will and consciousness. No pre-requisites other than curiosity are required, however students will benefit from having previously taken courses in philosophy, neuroscience, psychology and/or computer science. Students are expected to complete the assigned readings with care and attention, and to participate in discussion. The goal is for students to leave with an understanding of the rich ways in which different approaches can shed light on the human mind, including an appreciation of the limits of scientific inquiry into the mind. Offered as PHIL 366 and PHIL 466.

PHIL 367. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467. Prereq: PHIL 225 or equivalent.

PHIL 368. Evolutionary Biology Capstone. 3 Units.

This course focuses on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology that will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. Students will participate in discussions and lead class seminars on evolutionary topics and in collaboration with an advisor or advisors, select a topic for a research paper or project. Each student will write a major research report or complete a major project and will make a public presentation of her/his findings. Offered as ANTH 368, BIOL 369, and PHIL 368. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 371. Advanced Bioethics. 3 Units.

This course offers upper-level instruction on many key bioethical issues introduced in BETH/PHIL 271. The class follows a discussion-intensive seminar format. Students begin with an in-depth analysis of ethical issues surrounding the conduct of clinical trials, both within the U.S. and through U.S.-sponsored research abroad. Next students examine the philosophical and practical challenges involved in medical decision making for adults and pediatric patients. This course concludes by addressing the broader ethical problem of what duties we owe to future generations in terms of our reproductive choices and the allocation of health-related public expenditures. Each of these general topic areas - clinical trials, medical decision making, and future generations - is of crucial importance for all students whether one plans to enter a career in biomedical research, the healthcare professions, or some other career path. Everyone is a potential patient or the family member of a potential patient. The topics covered in Advanced Bioethics will help prepare students to become responsible participants in an increasingly complex biomedical world. Offered as BETH 371 and PHIL 371. Prereq: BETH 271 or PHIL 271.

PHIL 375. Issues in Aesthetics. 3 Units.

This course will seek to offer insight into the nature of artistic expression, the role of criticism in the arts, and the place of the arts in society. The term "arts" will be construed broadly to include painting, photography, theater, film, music, dance, poetry, etc. The following are examples of questions we will discuss. What does the term "beautiful" mean? Are there other measures of aesthetic value besides beauty? Do the arts, like the sciences, offer us knowledge of the world? What value do the arts have for society? Can aesthetic value conflict with moral value? Do artists have a responsibility to society? Should art ever be censored? What is the relationship between art and entertainment? Is the meaning and value of an artistic work a matter of individual opinion? What is the purpose of art critics? How are interpretations and evaluations of art influenced by race, gender, class, etc.? What is creativity in the arts? Does it differ from creativity in the sciences? How important is originality in art? Offered as PHIL 375 and PHIL 475. Prereq: PHIL 101 or requisite not met permission.

PHIL 381. Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the various methodologies used in the cognitive neurosciences, and explore their strengths and weaknesses from scientific and philosophical standpoints. We will begin by examining baseline measures (including IQ tests, tasks of cognitive flexibility, verbal and visual memory, causal/sequential thinking and narrative tasks) and their experimental design. Lesion methods will follow, with an eye toward understanding the strength of inferences that can be drawn from such data. The course will also focus on imaging techniques (CAT, PET, SPECT, fMRI, TMS, etc.) as well as measures of electrical activity such as EEG and single-cell recordings. Students will become familiar with many fundamental assumptions necessary for the implementation of each method, and philosophical questions associated with these endeavors and their potential impact on our knowledge and society. Recommend preparation: PHIL 101 or COGS 201. Offered as COGS 381 and PHIL 381.

PHIL 384. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as PHIL 384, PHIL 484, POSC 384 and POSC 484.

PHIL 385. Philosophy of Language. 3 Units.

Nature of language; problems of meaning, reference, and truth. Offered as PHIL 385 and PHIL 485. Prereq: PHIL 101.

PHIL 390. Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

Directed independent research seminar for seniors who are majors in the History and Philosophy of Science program. The goal of the course is to develop and demonstrate command of B.A.-level factual content, methodologies, research strategies, historiography, and theory relevant to the field of history of science and/or philosophy of science. The course includes both written and oral components. Offered as HSTY 380 and PHIL 390. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 396. Undergraduate Research in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

Students propose and conduct guided research on an aspect of evolutionary biology. The research will be sponsored and supervised by a member of the CASE faculty or other qualified professional. A written report must be submitted to the Evolutionary Biology Steering Committee before credit is granted. Offered as ANTH 396, BIOL 396, EEPS 396, and PHIL 396.

PHIL 397. Directed Study. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will undertake a project that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will result in a final report.

PHIL 398. Philosophy Capstone. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will undertake a project that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will result in a final report and public presentation. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 399. Philosophy Honors Thesis. 3 Units.

Under faculty supervision, students will complete a substantial thesis that demonstrates critical thinking, has clear goals, features periodic reporting of progress, and will be the subject of an oral examination as well as a public presentation. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 403. Topics in Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences (e.g., evolution, teleology, and functional explanation); explanation and understanding in social sciences; value in social science. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201 or PHIL 203. Offered as PHIL 303 and PHIL 403.

PHIL 404. Science and Engineering Ethics. 3 Units.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the scientific and engineering workplace, to understand ethical concepts, to evaluate ethical arguments, and to critically examine responses to problems and their ethical ramifications. It addresses questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is research misconduct? When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports do good organizations give for raising them? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice? What are good means for controlling it? What are scientists' and engineers' responsibilities for environmental protection? What is a "conflict of interest" and how is it controlled? What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What, if any, use of animals in research is justified? Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 304 and PHIL 404.

PHIL 405. Ethics. 3 Units.

Analysis of ethical theories and concepts of goodness, right, and obligation. Discussion of nature of justice, problem of justification of moral principles, and relation between facts and values. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101, PHIL 102 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 305 and PHIL 405.

PHIL 406. Mathematical Logic and Model Theory. 3 Units.

Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; Gödel incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Offered as PHIL 306, MATH 406 and PHIL 406.

PHIL 407. Philosophy of Biology. 3 Units.

This class looks at the philosophical dimensions of various problems in historical and contemporary evolutionary biology. Topics covered include (1) the theory of natural selection; (2) extinction; (3) human evolution; and (4) higher order evolutionary units and processes. Offered as PHIL 307 and PHIL 407.

PHIL 411. Neuroethics. 3 Units.

Ethics is traditionally a branch of Philosophy. However, research in neuroscience, psychology and behavioral economics is shedding new light on the underlying bases of ethical behavior and ethical thinking. The class will examine how this work informs and enriches traditional philosophical ethics. Topical focus of the class will depend on student interest, but potentially include: What determines how ethically we behave: our character or our situation? What role do and should emotions play in ethical thinking? Can science tell us whether utilitarian or deontological ethics is better? The dark tetrad: narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and; sadism. What is empathy and what roles does it play in generating both ethical and unethical behavior. Varieties of moral disengagement, including dehumanizing. Cognitive dissonance and the slide into unethical behavior. Radicalization into violent extremism. Promoting ethical behavior. Offered as PHIL 311 and PHIL 411.

PHIL 413. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Units.

Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths. Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 201. Offered as PHIL 313 and PHIL 413.

PHIL 415. Selected Topics in Philosophy. 3 Units.

Examination of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and other discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 315 and PHIL 415. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

PHIL 416. African Political Thought. 3 Units.

Introduction to select themes in the work of contemporary African philosophers, with special emphasis on political thought. In this course, students will learn something about factors affecting the creation and flow of knowledge and ideas about Africa and discuss the relative importance of the "nation-state" as an idea in Europe, pre-colonial Africa, and postcolonial Africa. Offered as PHIL 316, ETHS 316, PHIL 316, and ETHS 416. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 417. War and Morality. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals. War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility. This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. Offered as PHIL 317, PHIL 417, and LAWS 5135.

PHIL 420. The Phenomenological Tradition. 3 Units.

The background of phenomenology: Descartes, Kant, and Brentano. The epistemological rationale of Husserl's phenomenology and its ontological implications; the powers and limits of the phenomenological method. Heidegger's transformation of phenomenology to interpretive ontology of human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human existence. The development of interpretation theory as the foundation of all human sciences in Gadamer and Ricoeur. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 320 and PHIL 420.

PHIL 422. The Science of Happiness. 3 Units.

Open to all students (no prerequisites) interested in happiness, this course provides an intellectually rigorous introduction to the philosophy and science of happiness. Philosophy is often considered a dry academic subject; however the best philosophy is personal and transforms our view of the world. In recent years, science has made huge strides in understanding the psychology and neuroscience of human happiness. This course blends these two sources of insight to address such critical questions as: What is happiness? To what extent is it determined by our genes? To what extent can we control our own happiness? What factors contribute to an individual's happiness? Should we be concerned just with our own happiness, or also with the happiness of others? If happiness is a state of mind, can we change our thinking to make ourselves happier? Every self-proclaimed sage, and countless authors of self-help books, claims to know the secret to happiness. This course provides a more intellectually rigorous approach, based on the writings of great philosophers and cutting edge science. Offered as PHIL 322 and PHIL 422.

PHIL 425. Philosophy of Feminism. 3 Units.

Dimensions of gender difference. Definition of feminism. Critical examination of feminist critiques of culture, including especially politics, ideology, epistemology, ethics, and psychology. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Offered as PHIL 325, PHIL 425 and WGST 325. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 430. Topics in Ethics. 3 Units.

Examination of views in ethics of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic in ethics, or a topic that relates ethics to philosophy and another discipline. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101 or PHIL 205. Offered as PHIL 330 and PHIL 430.

PHIL 433. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Units.

Topics include: classical and contemporary arguments for God's existence; divine foreknowledge and human freedom; the problem of evil and theodicy; nature and significance of religious experience; mysticism; varieties of religious metaphysics; knowledge, belief and faith; nature of religious discourse. Readings from traditional and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation for PHIL 433 and RLGN 433: PHIL 101 or RLGN 102. Offered as PHIL 333, RLGN 333, PHIL 433, and RLGN 433.

PHIL 434. Political and Social Philosophy. 3 Units.

Justification of social institutions, primarily political ones. Such distinctions as that between de facto and legitimate authority; analysis of criteria for evaluation, such as social justice and equality; inquiry into theories of justification of the state; theory of democratic government and its alternatives. Readings from classical and contemporary sources. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 334, POSC 354, PHIL 434, and POSC 454.

PHIL 435. Philosophy of Law. 3 Units.

This is an examination of the general nature of law, the broad concerns of jurisprudence, the study of comparative law, and many of the issues raised in the literature of legal philosophy. Students will examine the principles of legal positivism, mitigated natural law, and rights theory. Selected readings and cases will illustrate these theories, which will also be examined in the context of rule selection by new governments in developing or revolutionary societies. The course also looks at the general nature of legal systems: how politics, morality, and individual views of justice and rights affect particular court cases and the course and development of law generally. Topics will include abortion, obscenity and sin, civil disobedience, affirmative action, surrogatehood, and the death penalty. This is unlike any other of the legal theory or jurisprudence courses, and those who have sampled legal theory elsewhere in a different form are welcome and encouraged to enroll. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as LAWS 5747, PHIL 335, and PHIL 435.

PHIL 436. Military Ethics, the Military Profession, and International Law. 3 Units.

The aim of this course is to provide a foundational understanding of international law as it relates to war and to explore the relationship between international law, military ethics, and the military profession. In addition to traditional lectures and seminar-style discussions, this hybrid course will feature video lectures by international experts in the field of military ethics and online assignments, discussion sections led by the Visiting Distinguished Inamori Scholar in Military Ethics. Topics covered will concern the international legal framework pertaining to the use of force, viewed through the prism of a professional code of conduct that has been forged over centuries, across different warrior cultures. Offered as PHIL 336 and PHIL 436. Prereq: PHIL 317 or PHIL 417.

PHIL 445. Epistemology and Metaphysics. 3 Units.

Traditional problems of epistemology, such as definition of knowledge, justification of belief, nature of evidence and foundationalism, skepticism, the a priori, and the role of sense perception in knowledge. Metaphysical presuppositions and implications of epistemological views. Forms of realism and anti-realism. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 345 and PHIL 445.

PHIL 455. 19th and Early 20th Century Philosophy. 3 Units.

History of philosophy after Kant up to and including logical empiricism. Interpretation and comparison of important philosophers and philosophical schools of the period in terms of common methods, problems, themes, doctrines, and ideologies. Emphasis on Schopenhauer, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche. Recommended preparation: PHIL 101. Offered as PHIL 355 and PHIL 455.

PHIL 456. Comparative Philosophy. 3 Units.

Philosophy in the etymological sense of the term, love of wisdom, subsumes ontological, ethical and epistemological inquires addressing fundamental questions about reality, the place of humans in that reality, the values of things and human obligations, and the sources of knowledge. The major purpose of this course is to discover, understand, explicate and articulate the affinities and differences in the way the fundamental questions are addressed in different cultural contexts, thereby to appreciate the cross-cultural kinship among human minds as well as to be challenged by the differences that may engender conflicts. We will explore the possibility of building a trans-cultural meta-cultural meta-discourse in which thinkers from many traditions can participate on equal footing. We will come to face up to the question whether truly universal philosophy is possible, upon what conditions. Representative texts from the Western, Chinese and Buddhist traditions including selected works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lao Tzu, Confucius, Chuang Tzu, Dhammapada of the Buddha and D. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism will be read. Offered as PHIL 356 and PHIL 456. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

PHIL 466. Brain, Mind and Consciousness: The Science and Philosophy of Mind. 3 Units.

The course introduces students to key topics in philosophy of mind from the perspective of our increasingly advanced scientific understanding of mind and brain (e.g. derived from neuroscience, psychology and cognitive science). Key philosophical topics covered include dualism, physicalism, idealism, consciousness and free will. Key scientific issues covered include methods and assumptions underlying research in psychology and neuroscience, introspection, essentialism, dehumanizing, and work on free will and consciousness. No pre-requisites other than curiosity are required, however students will benefit from having previously taken courses in philosophy, neuroscience, psychology and/or computer science. Students are expected to complete the assigned readings with care and attention, and to participate in discussion. The goal is for students to leave with an understanding of the rich ways in which different approaches can shed light on the human mind, including an appreciation of the limits of scientific inquiry into the mind. Offered as PHIL 366 and PHIL 466.

PHIL 467. Topics in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/EEPS/PHIL/PHOL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation. Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, EEPS 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, EEPS 467, PHIL 467 and PHOL 467.

PHIL 475. Issues in Aesthetics. 3 Units.

This course will seek to offer insight into the nature of artistic expression, the role of criticism in the arts, and the place of the arts in society. The term "arts" will be construed broadly to include painting, photography, theater, film, music, dance, poetry, etc. The following are examples of questions we will discuss. What does the term "beautiful" mean? Are there other measures of aesthetic value besides beauty? Do the arts, like the sciences, offer us knowledge of the world? What value do the arts have for society? Can aesthetic value conflict with moral value? Do artists have a responsibility to society? Should art ever be censored? What is the relationship between art and entertainment? Is the meaning and value of an artistic work a matter of individual opinion? What is the purpose of art critics? How are interpretations and evaluations of art influenced by race, gender, class, etc.? What is creativity in the arts? Does it differ from creativity in the sciences? How important is originality in art? Offered as PHIL 375 and PHIL 475.

PHIL 484. Ethics and Public Policy. 3 Units.

Evaluation of ethical arguments in contemporary public policymaking discourse. That is, approaches to evaluating not only the efficiency of policy (Will this policy achieve its end for the least cost?) but also the ethics of policy (Are a policy's intended ends ethically justified or "good," and are our means to achieve those ends moral or "just"?). Overview of political ideologies that supply U.S. political actors with their ethical or moral arguments when proposing and implementing public policy, followed by an application of these differing perspectives to selected policy areas such as welfare, euthanasia, school choice, drug laws, censorship, or others. Offered as PHIL 384, PHIL 484, POSC 384 and POSC 484.

PHIL 485. Philosophy of Language. 3 Units.

Nature of language; problems of meaning, reference, and truth. Offered as PHIL 385 and PHIL 485.

PHIL 499. Independent Study MA Level. 1 - 3 Units.

This course enables graduate students in departments or interdisciplinary programs with an MA to pursue intensive directed study with a faculty member in Philosophy. Students should consult with the Instructor and with their MA director or graduate program director before enrolling. Prereq: Graduate Standing.

PHIL 501. Military Ethics MA Capstone. 3 - 6 Units.

This Military Ethics MA capstone course will feature a summative project designed to integrate the students' common studies for the MA program, while being tailored to their individual future interests in teaching, further graduate study, or employment in public policy or foreign affairs. The capstone project, culminating in a paper, may involve both academic research and fieldwork, integrated with the degree-candidate's professional experience or interest. If the student opts to write a more traditional thesis, then the paper should be approximately 10,000-20,000 words. The write up for a more project-based capstone should be approximately 5,000 words. An example of such a non-thesis project would be to design and defend a military ethics curriculum to use for PME (professional military education), domestically or internationally, including justifications of which readings, case studies, examples, theories, and principles to include, and which to exclude, and why, based on work in the field of Military Ethics. In either case, the outline of the capstone project must be presented to and accepted by a professor or instructor in the MA program who is willing to serve as the student's capstone advisor. The Master's capstone should build on the relevant elective courses by each candidate (in consultation with program faculty) around an appropriate area of concentration (e.g., military medicine and ethics; military law and ethics; psychology, history, or literature). Distribution of the 6 credits over one or two semesters will be decided through consultation with the student's MA advisor. This course will also fulfill the SAGES capstone requirement for undergraduate students enrolled in the Military Ethics MA through the IGS program. For these students, the capstone must be presented publicly either at Intersections or at an annual Philosophy Department event for other capstones and honors theses. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

PHIL 599. Neuroscience of Positive Change: Using Brain Imaging to Promote the Good Life. 1.5 Unit.

The brain is the primary organ responsible for learning, decision making, social interaction, happiness, and self-regulation. Hence, neuroscience has the potential to inform numerous applied disciplines. Over the last few decades, fields from Organizational Behavior to Social Work, and Ethics to Nursing, have increasingly been drawing upon findings from neuroscience to inform their discipline. Researchers working in these disciplines are also now starting to conduct their own neuroscientific studies. However, applied researchers face an education gap that hinders progress in the productive use of neuroscience to inform their discipline. This course will provide an introduction to neuroscience methods for applied researchers, with a focus on how neuroscience can inform interventions designed to produce positive change in individuals. Students will gain an overview of the basic methods of cognitive neuroscience, effective experimental design, and the challenges of interpretation. In addition, students will be introduced to current research on the neuroscience of motivation, social-emotional competencies and behavior change. This is a graduate seminar class. Students must do the reading ahead of class. The majority of class time will be devoted to discussion.

PHIL 699. Advanced Tutorial and Dissertation for Candidates in fields related to Philosophy. 1 - 3 Units.

This course enables students in departments offering the Ph.D. to pursue intensive directed study with a faculty member in Philosophy, on philosophical aspects of their dissertation topic. Students should consult with the instructor and with their dissertation director before enrolling.