2014-15 General Bulletin

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106 Mather House
www.case.edu/artsci/hsty
Phone: 216.368.2380; Fax: 216.368.4681
Jonathan Sadowsky, Department Chair

The Department of History offers comprehensive undergraduate and graduate programs in all fields of history, with particular strengths in American history; the history of science, technology, environment, and medicine; and social history and policy. Historical studies are sometimes categorized among humanistic studies and sometimes among the social sciences. Allied with both traditions, historians seek an understanding of the past by analyzing societies and how they change over time.

The Department of History offers instruction within the customary frameworks that have formed the basis of historical studies, and it also has developed special emphases in social, cultural, political, and economic perspectives that allow instruction and research on such topics as the African-American experience, the environment, business and economy, technology and science, medicine, women’s history and gender studies, legal history, and comparative social history. Courses in history, or a formal major or minor in history, traditionally have been attractive to students as preparation for a wide variety of career and professional interests, including teaching, law, government, and journalism, and such public history activities as archival administration, historical museum administration, restoration and preservation of historic sites, and writing.

Facilities

Case Western Reserve University, the other institutions in University Circle, and the Cleveland area in general offer excellent facilities for historical research. These facilities are especially strong in the fields of social history and policy and in the history of medicine, health care, nonprofit organizations, technology, and science. The university library’s extensive collections in these fields are significantly augmented by the holdings of the nationally ranked Allen Memorial Library in the history of medicine and health care, and of the equally distinguished Western Reserve Historical Society in regional economic, social, nonprofit, ethnic, African-American, and Jewish history. Both the Allen Memorial Library and the Western Reserve Historical Society library are adjacent to the campus. The Cleveland Public Library, just five miles from campus in downtown Cleveland, is the third largest public library in the U.S.; it maintains excellent research collections in Ohio, U.S., and British history, technology, and business. The university has also pioneered the development of electronic connections to other libraries and to research resources in general; Ohio’s many colleges and universities have one of the nation’s leading interlibrary loan programs.

Department Faculty

Jonathan Sadowsky, PhD
(Johns Hopkins University)
Theodore J. Castele Professor; Associate Professor and Chair
Medical history; African history; comparative history

Molly W. Berger, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Instructor; Associate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
History of technology; U.S. cultural history; nineteenth and twentieth centuries

John Broich, PhD
(Stanford University)
Associate Professor
British history; British Empire; environmental history; history of public health

Daniel Cohen, PhD
(Brandeis University)
Associate Professor
Colonial America; U.S. cultural history

Ananya Dasgupta, PhD
(University of Pennsylvania)
Assistant Professor
History of Modern South Asia; secularism in South Asia; gender and community in South Asia

John H. Flores, PhD
(University of Illinois at Chicago)
Climo Junior Professor; Assistant Professor
Mexican American history; immigration; labor

Jia-Chen Fu, PhD
(Yale University)
Assistant Professor
Qing and 20th-century China; history of medicine; history of the body

Jay Howard Geller, PhD
(Yale University)
Samuel Rosenthal Professor of Judaic Studies; Associate Professor
Jewish history, modern European history, modern German history

David C. Hammack, PhD
(Columbia University)
Hiram C. Haydn Professor of History
American social and urban history; economic history; history of civil society and philanthropy

Marixa Lasso, PhD
(University of Florida)
Associate Professor
Latin American and Caribbean history; race and nationalism; urban history

Kenneth F. Ledford, PhD, JD
(Johns Hopkins University; University of North Carolina)
Associate Professor
Modern German history; Modern European history; European legal history; history of the professions

Miriam R. Levin, PhD
(University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
Professor
History of industrial societies and cultures; history of modern France; women in science

Alan Rocke, PhD
(University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Distinguished University Professor and Henry Eldridge Bourne Professor of History
History of science; science, technology, and society

Renée M. Sentilles, PhD
(College of William and Mary)
Associate Professor
American women’s history; U.S. cultural history; American studies; children's studies

Peter Shulman, PhD
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Assistant Professor
History of science, technology and American politics; environmental history and the history of energy; United States foreign relations

Theodore L. Steinberg, PhD
(Brandeis University)
Adeline Barry Davee Distinguished Professor of History
U.S. environmental and legal history

Gillian L. Weiss, PhD
(Stanford University)
Associate Professor, and Director of Undergraduate Studies
Early modern France; comparative slavery; the Mediterranean

Rhonda Y. Williams, PhD
(University of Pennsylvania)
Associate Professor; Director, CWRU Social Justice Institute; Director, Postdoctoral Fellowship in African American Studies
African American history; U.S. social history


Secondary Faculty

Rachel Sternberg, PhD
(Bryn Mawr College)
Associate Professor, Department of Classics
Greek language and literature; Greek social history; history of emotion; reception of the classical tradition in the age of Jefferson


Adjunct Faculty

Amy Absher, PhD
(University of Washington)
Part-time Lecturer and SAGES Fellow
US Urban history; race & ethnicity in America; American & European cultural & intellectual history

Virginia Dawson, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Associate Professor
History of science and technology

James M. Edmonson, PhD
(University of Delaware)
Adjunct Associate Professor; Director, Dittrick Medical History Center
Medical history

John Grabrowski, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Krieger-Mueller Joint Professor in History
United States history; immigration and ethnicity; local history

Gladys Haddad, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Professor; Director, Regionally Speaking
American studies; women’s education

Bernard Jim, PhD
(Case Western Reserve University)
Part-time Lecturer and SAGES Fellow
19th- and 20th-century US history; American history of science and technology; gender; methodology

Elizabeth Todd, PhD
(The Ohio State University)
Part-time Lecturer
Medieval history; Reformation Europe

John Vacha, MA
(Case Western Reserve University)
Adjunct Assistant Professor; Director, History Day
Theater history

Undergraduate Programs

Major

The history major may be elected in one of two formats: the regular major or the teacher licensure major.

Regular Major

The regular major requires a minimum of 30 hours in history courses, including:

HSTY 112Introduction to American History3
HSTY 113Introduction to Modern World History3
HSTY 250Issues and Methods in History3
HSTY 398Senior Research Seminar3

The major also requires six additional courses in history, four of which must be agreed upon in consultation with the departmental advisor to form a coherent field of historical inquiry. All majors are encouraged to take at least two courses focused in geographical areas outside of Europe and the United States. With permission, one course in a related discipline outside of the history department may be accepted towards the requirements of the major.

Teacher Licensure Major

The teacher licensure major requires 30 hours of history, including the same four courses required for the regular major and a minimum of six semester hours in each of three focus areas: United States history, world/European studies, and Asian, African, and Latin American studies. Candidates for teacher licensure (Integrated Social Studies, Adolescents and Young Adults) must also take courses in economics, political science, and sociology (9 hours) and 35 hours in education courses, culminating in student teaching. Students interested in pursuing this option should confer with the department’s undergraduate advisor. See the Teacher Licensure section in this bulletin.

Subject area requirements:

HSTY 112Introduction to American History3
HSTY 113Introduction to Modern World History3
HSTY 250Issues and Methods in History3
HSTY 398Senior Research Seminar3
Two of the following:6
Technology in America
Ancient and Medieval Spain: Prehistory to 1492
American Political History
Immigrants in America
U.S. Slavery and Emancipation
African-American History Since 1945
U.S. Politics, Culture, and Society: 1790-1860
Women in American History I
Women in American History II
Age of American Civil War 1815-80
North American Environmental History
Two of the following:6
Technology in European Civilization
The Medieval World, 300-1500
Modern European History
The Holocaust
Reformation Europe, 1500-1650
The French Revolutionary Era
History of 19th Century Germany
History of 20th Century Germany
Water
Two of the following:6
Introduction to Modern African History
History of Modern Mexico
Modern Japan
Readings in PRC History
One of the following:3
Principles of Microeconomics
Principles of Macroeconomics
Introduction to Comparative Politics
One of the following:3
Introduction to Sociology
Critical Problems in Modern Society
Race and Ethnic Minorities in American Society
The Individual in Society
Total Units36

(With advisor approval, the sociology requirement may be met with HSTY 262 African-American History Since 1945 or HSTY 325 U.S. Politics, Culture, and Society: 1790-1860, and the political science requirement may be met with HSTY 256 American Political History.)

Integrated Graduate Studies

The Department of History participates in the Integrated Graduate Studies (IGS) Program. Interested students should note the general requirements and procedures of the School of Graduate Studies, but they must also consult the departmental advisor about the specific requirements, guidelines, and opportunities for IGS in history.

Minor

A minor in history is available to all undergraduate students. It consists of 15 hours in history, including HSTY 112 Introduction to American History and HSTY 113 Introduction to Modern World History (history core courses) and three additional courses, chosen in consultation with the departmental advisor; these courses must form a coherent field of historical inquiry.

Advanced Placement Credit

Students with Advanced Placement (AP) scores of 5 or better will receive three semester hours of college credit, applicable to the total number of credits required for graduation as well as to any major, minor, or sequence in history. AP credit may not be applied to the HSTY 112 Introduction to American History and HSTY 113 Introduction to Modern World History core courses. Credit by way of AP examination in U.S. history is given for HSTY 256 American Political History or in European history for HSTY 212 Modern European History.

Graduate Programs

The Department of History offers both the MA and the PhD in history. Many, but not all, of our PhD students work within one of the department's two focused PhD programs: (1) Social History and Policy, and (2) History of Science, Technology, Environment and Medicine. In practice, these two programs are often closely related. The department also joins with the Law School to offer an MA/JD dual-degree program. Applicants for graduate degrees in history must submit transcripts from all previous undergraduate, graduate, and professional study; scores on the GRE or a comparable standardized test; three letters of recommendation; application essays; and a writing sample.

Master of Arts

The MA in history requires 27 hours of course work, including 6 hours of carefully supervised work on a master’s thesis (a work of original research based on primary sources). For the joint JD/MA program, students must be admitted to both the history graduate program and the law school. They can earn the degree in either three and one-half years or three years and two summers of study, completing a total of 106 hours (including double credits of up to nine hours).

Doctor of Philosophy

Students are admitted into the history department’s graduate programs with or without a master’s or professional degree. Students who do not have a master’s degree in history will generally be required to complete that degree in the department before moving on to the PhD; those who have earned graduate or professional degrees closely related to their PhD programs may petition for direct admission to the PhD program. Students who first complete their MA in history at Case Western Reserve must complete an additional 24 hours of course work, pass the qualifying exams required by their program of study, and prepare a PhD dissertation while enrolling in at least 18 hours of supervised dissertation-writing work. Students who have completed their master’s-level work before coming to Case Western Reserve must complete at least 24 hours of course work before taking their qualifying exams and proceeding to their dissertation. All PhD students are required to take:

HSTY 470Historiography, Method, and Theory3
HSTY 476Seminar in Comparative History3
HSTY 479Historical Research and Writing3

 

Social History and Policy Program (SHP)

The Social History and Policy Program is designed to prepare students for careers either as analysts and administrators of social policy or as teachers and researchers in colleges and universities. The program defines social policy broadly to include not only welfare, family and juvenile matters, aging, health care, and medicine, but also education, urban history, environmental history, cultural policies regarding museums, libraries and similar agencies, and labor. The program recognizes that social policies are made and put into practice by private, nonprofit organizations and through legal institutions as well as through federal, state, and local legislatures and executives.

Entry into the program does not require an MA in history; several students have been admitted with JD, MSW, library science, or other degrees. However, the program often requires students with limited backgrounds in U.S. history to take extra course work.

More tightly structured than the traditional PhD, the Social History and Policy Program requires 18 hours of course work (and possibly additional hours to prepare for examinations); qualifying examinations in U.S. history and in the history of social policy; a cognate field; and a dissertation. The program also includes an option for the student to complete a policy-related internship. In the past, internships have been conducted with the Cleveland Federation for Community Planning, the Interchurch Council of Greater Cleveland, the Bureau of Jewish Education, the Sisters of Charity of St. Augustine, and the Hathaway Brown School.

History of Science, Technology, Environment and Medicine Program (STEM)

The History of Science, Technology, Environment and Medicine Program was established in 1961 as the first in the nation to emphasize the history of technology as well as the history of science. The program’s areas of particular strength include the social and cultural history of technology, both American and European; technology and science policy; the history of the physical sciences since the Renaissance; gender issues in technology and science; the history of medicine; and the history of the environment. The course of study for the PhD includes the MA requirements, written and oral qualifying examinations, and a dissertation. While most graduates of the program teach at colleges or universities, others work in museums or archives or deal with science policy questions.

General PhD Program

In addition to the specialized SHP and STEM programs, the Department of History also offers a general PhD in history, allowing students to specialize in any geographical, temporal, or topical area of history adequately covered by department faculty. In the past, this general program has been largely restricted to students pursuing topics in U.S. history (including American women's history, African-American history, U.S. cultural history, and the history of social movements), but the gradual expansion of the department now allows us to support PhD work in certain comparative or non-U.S. fields. All prospective graduate applicants are strongly encouraged to examine the research specialties of department faculty before applying to the program.

Courses

HSTY 110. Introduction to US History for International Students. 3 Units.

This course offers an introduction to U.S. history for international and other students who have not studied U.S. history in secondary school. The course will emphasize topics relevant to understanding how change over the past 250 years has shaped the diversity of the people, the development of the economy, and the government and politics, and the international position of the U.S. as they exist today. Students will read a mix of classic short historical documents, quantitative analyses, and interpretations by historians and social scientists. With respect to the peopling of the U.S. the course will consider the native populations of North America and the movements of people from Europe, Africa, Central America, and Asia, as well as the history of movement and interactions of people within the U.S.: the course will pay particular attention to slavery, segregation, and to changes in American households and families. With respect to economic affairs, the course will consider the history of economic growth, the development of business firms and other key economic institutions, and the question of distribution -- of changes in wealth and poverty. With respect to government and politics, the course will consider the implications of the U.S. Constitution (including its emphasis on the separation of powers, federalism, "republican" values, private property, and the Bill of Rights) for the powers of the federal and state governments; the course will also consider the development and current roles of political parties in the U.S. With respect to international relations, the course will focus on the long-term expansion in U.S. engagement with the rest of the world, and on current challenges to the U.S. position. These topics attract deep and continuous debate; the aim of the course is to introduce students to the best current knowledge, and the most influential debates, about them.

HSTY 112. Introduction to American History. 3 Units.

History of the United States from the first settlements to the present. Emphasis on themes such as political and social revolution, slavery and race relations, industrialism, and national cultures.

HSTY 113. Introduction to Modern World History. 3 Units.

The history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in global context. Emphasis on the forces that have created or shaped the modern world: industrialization and technological change; political ideas and movements such as nationalism; European imperialism and decolonization; and the interplay of cultural values. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 117. Exploring American History Through Biography. 3 Units.

This discussion and lecture class uses various forms of biography to explore issues of American Identity throughout the course of American history. The class will discuss how certain biographies have created archetypal American identities, and how issues such as race, class, gender, sexuality, religion, and historical context have shaped the writing, reading and purpose of biography. The last third of the class will consider the process of "national memory," the way the United States has decide to remember its past. Here the "biography" is collective, and created by myriad strands of mass culture woven together to create a national mythology. We will explore the works of those striving to pull apart these different strands, and explore what these memories tell us about established national identity. Students will explore biographical process through their assignments, and consider such questions as: How do American biographies influence our understanding of what it means to be American? How does biographical medium affect the message? Can we accept biography as history? This course investigates biography as a constructed genre that comes in a variety of forms, including autobiography, biographical novels, oral histories, and film. Offered as AMST 117 and HSTY 117. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 133. Introduction to Chinese History and Civilization. 3 Units.

This course explains the continuities and discontinuities in the history of China by stressing the development and distinctive adaptations of cultural, religious, and political patterns from the origins of the Chinese civilization to the present. By focusing on major cultural, socioeconomic, and political issues such as Confucianism, Buddhism, trade relations, imperialism, and intellectual discourse in the overall Asian context (with particular reference to Korea and Japan), we discuss the historical development of China and its situation on entering the 21st century. Taking into account the key historical events in the last century, we examine the emergence of China as a modern nation-state and the fundamental transformation of Chinese society in the postwar period. Offered as ASIA 133 and HSTY 133. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 134. Introduction to Japanese History and Civilization. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to various aspects of Japanese civilization, from its origins to the present. By focusing on major cultural, socio-economic, and political issues such as the adaptation and transformation of Confucianism, Buddhism, Shintoism, social structures, material culture, foreign relations, militarism, nationalism, and intellectual discourse in the overall Asian context (with particular reference to Korea and China), we discuss the historical development of Japan and the country's position on entering the 21st century. We examine the emergence of Japan as a modern nation-state and the fundamental transformation of its society in the post-war period. Offered as ASIA 134 and HSTY 134. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 135. Introduction to Modern African History. 3 Units.

A general introduction to major themes in modern African history, with an emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Topics include oral tradition and narrative, economic structure and dynamics, religious movements, colonialism, nationalism, and the dilemmas of independent African states. Offered as ETHS 253A and HSTY 135. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 136. Introduction to Latin American History. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the historical and cultural development of Latin America, in an attempt to identify the forces, both internal and external, which shape the social, economic and political realities in present day Latin America. Beginning with its pre-Columbian civilizations, the course moves through the conquest and colonial period of the Americas, the wars of independence and the emergence of nation-states in the nineteenth century, and the issues confronting the region throughout the turbulent twentieth century, such as migration and urbanization, popular protest and revolution, environmental degradation, great power intervention, the drug trade and corruption, and the integration of the region into the global economy. Offered as ETHS 253B and HSTY 136. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 137. Introduction to Modern South Asia. 3 Units.

This course will introduce students to the history of the region that today includes India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The course will deal with the following themes: global trade between the Indian subcontinent and the West in the 17th century; the rise of the East India Company's dominance over the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century; the transformation of India into a colonial economy; social and religious reform movements of the 19th century; changing modalities of colonial rule after the transfer of governing power from the East India Company to the British Crown-in-Parliament; the emergence and trajectories of elite and popular anti-colonial nationalisms; the struggles of women, low status groups, and other minorities in the region; decolonization; and the partition of the subcontinent. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 151. Technology in European Civilization. 3 Units.

The history of technology in ancient Mediterranean, medieval, and modern European society until the First World War. The course introduces students to the relationship between technology and its social, political, and cultural settings, and to the values invested in technology at significant historical moments. There will be visits to local industrial sites, architectural and engineering monuments, and the Cleveland Museum of Art.

HSTY 152. Technology in America. 3 Units.

Origins and significance of technological developments in American history, from the first settlements to the present. Emphasis on the social, cultural, political, and economic significance of technology in American history.

HSTY 157. Women's Histories in South Asia. 3 Units.

This course traces the history of women in South Asia from pre-colonial times to the present. Themes explored in the course will include (but not be limited to): the historical transformations of institutions shaping women's lives such as state, family, religious and legal traditions; the impact of colonialism, nationalism, and decolonization on women, as well as the history of women's movements in various parts of South Asia. As we acquaint ourselves with the vibrant historiography on women in South Asia, we will also examine the theoretical and methodological challenges involved in writing histories using the analytical lens of gender. While a significant portion of the readings will focus on South Asia, we will occasionally bring in insights from histories of women in other parts of the world to help develop comparative perspectives and evaluate the South Asian cases and examples within the broader field of women's history. Offered as HSTY 157 and WGST 257. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 163. Modern Britain and Its Empire. 3 Units.

This lecture and discussion course covers the history of Britain at the height of its political and industrial power and the history of the expanding and contracting British Empire. Britain was a nation of great technological, economic, and military power, but it also experienced extraordinary stresses. Industrialization meant material prosperity for some, but hardship and dehumanization for others. Many questioned how overwhelming poverty and ignorance could be allowed to stand beside such vast affluence. And subjects of the British in India, Ireland, and elsewhere struggled for independence from an empire that claimed to bring freedom, reason, and equality. The British learned to their cost, too, that decolonization often meant being caught in the crossfire of ethnic rivals. This course will explore the many paradoxes of the history of the British at their most dominant. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 193. The Ancient World. 3 Units.

Ancient Western history from the origins of civilization in Mesopotamia to the dissolution of the Roman Empire in the West. Offered as CLSC 193 and HSTY 193.

HSTY 201. Science in Western Thought I. 3 Units.

The development of Western thinking about the natural world and our relation to it, as part of culture, from pre-classical civilizations to the age of Newton.

HSTY 202. Science in Western Thought II. 3 Units.

The development of Western thinking about the natural world and our relation to it, as part of culture, from Newton to the modern age. HSTY 201 is not a prerequisite.

HSTY 203. Natural Philosophy I. 3 Units.

Historical and philosophical interpretation of some epochal events in development of science. Copernican revolution, Newtonian mechanics, Einstein's relativity physics, quantum mechanics, and evolutionary theory; patterns of scientific growth; structure of scientific "revolutions;" science and "pseudo-science." First half of a year-long sequence. Offered as HSTY 203 and PHIL 203.

HSTY 204. Introduction to the Nonprofit Sector. 3 Units.

The United States has by far the largest and most important "nonprofit sector" in the world, a sector consisting of voluntary non-governmental organizations that provide health care, education and social services as well as arts, religious, and advocacy activities. Using mostly primary sources, this course considers the significance of the nonprofit sector in the U.S., its advantages and disadvantages, its uses for different groups of Americans, and current trends. Students have the option of writing either a standard term paper, or a study of strategic challenges facing a contemporary nonprofit organization. Offered as HSTY 204 and HSTY 404. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 206. Ancient and Medieval Spain: Prehistory to 1492. 3 Units.

This course focuses on the history of the Iberian peninsula from before the Roman conquest from the Iberians, Greek, and Carthaginian settlements, through Roman, Visigothic, and Muslim rule to the conquest of Ferdinand and Isabella of the last non-Christian territory on the peninsula in 1492. The issues of conquest, frontier, cultural diversity, and change, tolerance, and intolerance will be examined. Offered as CLSC 206 and HSTY 206. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 208. Social History of Crime. 3 Units.

This course explores the relationship between law and history in American society. It uses social history methodology to suggest new ways of understanding how the law works as a system of power to advance certain interests at the expense of less powerful groups. Emphasis is on issues of pressing concern to America's poor and working class, including the death penalty, abortion, rape, the war on drugs, and the prison industry.

HSTY 210. Byzantine World 300-1453. 3 Units.

Development of the Byzantine empire from the emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity and founding of the eastern capital at Constantinople to the fall of Constantinople to Turkish forces in 1453. Offered as CLSC 210 and HSTY 210. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 211. The Medieval World, 300-1500. 3 Units.

Medieval history and civilization from the fall of the Roman Empire to the age of the Renaissance. Interactions between medieval Europe and other Mediterranean and Eurasian cultures. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 212. Modern European History. 3 Units.

The history of Europe from the late eighteenth century to the present. Themes include political upheavals and movements, as well as industrial, social, intellectual, and cultural changes. This course provides a solid foundation for those wishing to take more specialized courses in European history.

HSTY 215. Europe in the 20th Century. 3 Units.

The twentieth century has seen stupendous transformations in the internal structures of European politics, economics, society, and culture and in Europe's place in the world. This course traces Europe's transition from a continent of sovereign nation-states or empires ruled by monarchs with starkly hierarchical social structures, through wars, revolution, dictatorships, destruction, division, and destitution, to a conflicted present. The contradictory combination of peace, freedom, and pluralism combined with cultural critique of the very consumer society that has reduced conflict challenges students' linear notions of historical development. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 216. Vikings and Medieval Scandinavia. 3 Units.

A survey of the history of the Vikings and medieval Scandinavia, covering approximately the eighth to the fifteenth centuries AD. Topics explored include: causes of the "outbreak" and cessation of Viking expeditions, the role of the Vikings as raiders and/or traders in Western Europe, the role of the Vikings in the emerging states of Russia, Iceland and medieval Scandinavian law, the historicity of the saga literature, and Viking descendents--Normans and "Rus." Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 218. Jews in Early Modern Europe. 3 Units.

This course surveys the history of Jews in Europe and the wider world from the Spanish expulsion through the French Revolution. Tracking peregrinations out of the Iberian Peninsula to the British Isles, France, Holland, Italy, Germany, Poland-Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, and the American colonies, it examines the diverse ways Jews organized their communities, interacted with their non-Jewish neighbors, and negotiated their social, economic, and legal status within different states and empires. What role did Jews play and what symbolic place did they occupy during a period of European expansion, technological innovation, artistic experimentation, and religious and political turmoil? What internal and external dynamics affected Jewish experiences in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries? Through a selection of inquisitorial transcripts, government records, memoirs, and historical literature, we will explore topics such as persecution, conversion, messianism, toleration, emancipation, and assimilation. Offered as HSTY 218, JDST 218, and ETHS 218. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 219. Berlin in the Tumultuous 20th Century. 3 Units.

The tumultuous but short twentieth century began and ended with a united Germany, with Berlin as its capital. But in between, Berlin, and Berliners, experienced the extremes of the economic, technological, and cultural progress that the century brought, and the devastation, violence, division, and uncertainty that it also brought. This course, taught with Berlin as its laboratory, introduces students to the German tumult of the twentieth century. We will read about historical events and developments, and then visit the places where those events and developments occurred. We will address persistent questions, such as why and how did Hitler come to power; what was life like behind the Berlin wall; why is there a Forever 21 across from the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Memorial Church; how does one come to grips with a history like Germany's in the twentieth century; and what has life been like for ordinary Berliner/innen. Students are welcome to take this course before they have any background or acquaintance with the German language, although the instructor expects students to be able to navigate independently in Berlin after he provides them with an introduction. German proficiency will enrich the student's experience in Berlin, and the instructor hopes that some of the students who enroll will already be pursuing the study of the German language. The instructor further hopes that students who have never before studies German language will be inspired to begin to learn German after they return to Case Western Reserve. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 220. The Early Modern Mediterranean. 3 Units.

For centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean, travelers and traders, pirates and pilgrims, mercenaries and missionaries explored the contours of the Mediterranean Sea--and engaged in commerce, as well as religious, economic and military competition. If religion and ethnicity divided Muslims, Christians and Jews from Algiers to Athens, did shared geography, foodstuffs, and cultural values bind them together? This course examines the unity and diversity of this maritime region by considering the peoples, beliefs, commodities and diseases that circulated through it during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Does the early modern Mediterranean showcase a clash of civilizations or provide an enduring model for coexistence? Topics include merchant culture, diplomacy, honor and shame, slavery and colonization. Offered as ETHS 220, HSTY 220. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 222. Becoming Ken Burns: An introduction to Public History. 3 Units.

This course focuses on the practice of public (applied) history in the United States. Its purpose is to familiarize students with the background (historical and contemporary) of the manners in which history is taught and used outside of the school or college classroom as well to familiarize them with potential careers in public history, including museum work; editing; documentary film production; and the growing business of "history for hire." This overview will be complemented by an examination of a number of major issues in public history including the debate as to whether it can be as authoritative and insightful as academic scholarship, and the potential influences of the marketplace and politics on the topical focus and accuracy of public history "products." The course combines lecture and seminar-style classroom sessions with a variety of assigned readings, site visits, and an examination of public history products ranging from documentaries to monuments and recreated historical "landscapes" in order to provide students with a theoretical and "actual" introduction to the field. All assignments and examinations will be structured as essays based upon readings, lectures, discussion, site visits, and independent research conducted by the student.

HSTY 224. Early Modern Europe. 3 Units.

Europe has not always existed. To find out who created it and when, this course will ask two fundamental questions: First, how did the geographic, linguistic, religious and ethnic characteristics of European identity develop over the course of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Second, how did Europeans in this period influence other parts of the world? Through close readings of memoirs, treatises and chronicles, and discussions of secondary literature, we will explore the political, social, and religious history of Europe from roughly 1500 to 1800. Topics include: exploration and conquest; Protestant and Catholic reformations; witchcraft and popular culture; science and medicine; Enlightenment and Revolution. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 225. Evolution. 3 Units.

Multidisciplinary study of the course and processes of organic evolution provides a broad understanding of the evolution of structural and functional diversity, the relationships among organisms and their environments, and the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of organisms. Topics include the genetic basis of micro- and macro-evolutionary change, the concept of adaptation, natural selection, population dynamics, theories of species formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory. Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, EEPS 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.

HSTY 228. African Americans and Internationalism, 1885-1960s. 3 Units.

This course explores the development and articulation of African American Internationalism from the formal advent of the colonial project with the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885 up through the early stages of African decolonization in the 1960s. Internationalism is defined here, especially as it relates to African Americans, as the sustained interest among governmental and non-governmental actors in promoting a foreign policy agenda that sought to impact events in the Diaspora and on the African continent itself. Using Africa, Asia and the Caribbean as case studies, this course will excavate the role of governmental and non-governmental actors such as the African American press, church, civil rights organizations, advocacy groups and diplomats in developing a viable African American foreign policy constituency. This course will stress the centrality of race, gender and transnationalism as central proponents in the development of black internationalism. This course will examine a number of global events and the roles played by African Americans in shaping the outcomes including the Berlin Conference (1885), the Spanish American War (1898), the Russo-Japanese War (1905), The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), World War I (1914-1919), the Italo-Ethiopian War (1935), World War II (1939-1945), and the beginning of the formal decolonization of Africa with Ghanaian independence in 1957 and the subsequent challenges faced by various African countries in the early 1960s. The course will utilize biographies, case studies, and primary documents to examine these issues.

HSTY 231. Greek Civilization. 3 Units.

This course constitutes the first half of a year-long sequence on classical civilization. It examines the enduring significance of the Greeks studied through their history, literature, art, and philosophy. Lectures and discussion. (For the second course in the sequence, see CLSC 232 and HSTY 232.) Offered as CLSC 231 and HSTY 231.

HSTY 232. Roman Civilization. 3 Units.

The enduring significance of the Romans studied through their history, literature, art, and philosophy. Lectures and discussion. Offered as CLSC 232 and HSTY 232. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 234. France and Islam. 3 Units.

This seminar examines French encounters with the Muslim world from the Middle Ages to the present. Over the last millennium, France has viewed Saracens, Moriscos, Turks, Berbers, and Arabs with admiration and fear, disdain and incomprehension. Between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, French soldiers battled in the Holy Land; for several hundred years after that, France and the Ottoman Empire exchanged diplomats, traders and slaves. The colonial occupation of Algeria that began in 1830 ended violently in 1962. By then, the empire that struck back had also come home through large waves of immigration. Today, the social and economic status, religious affiliation, political significance and cultural impact of French citizens of North African descent are the subject of burning national debate. Taking a long view on Franco-Muslim relations, the course will explore such topics as the Crusades, Mediterranean piracy and captivity, Napoleon's Egyptian campaign, the Algerian War of Independence, the "veil affair," riots in the suburbs of Paris and World Cup soccer. Offered as ETHS 234, HSTY 234. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 235. Pirates in the Early Modern World. 3 Units.

From the Caribbean to Somalia, pirates have captivated the American imagination. Beyond examining images of heroic outlaws and bloodthirsty criminals in popular culture and current affairs, this course investigates maritime predators of the early modern period (16th-18th centuries). With a focus on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic--and forays into the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea and elsewhere--it considers the motivations and strategies of sea robbers and the responses of states. What, it asks, can Barbary corsairs, Dutch freebooters, Spanish "sea dogs," and Catholic privateers, teach us about social rebellion, religious conflict, economic development, political authority, legal norms, naval power and imperial expansion? Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 241. Inventing Public Health. 3 Units.

The core principle of this course is that public health is a concept that was formed in different ways at different times in different places. It had no existence as we know it before the nineteenth century, but course participants will learn how it grew out of an ancient tradition of the political elite's concern that its subjects were a threat to them and the stability of the realm. Course participants will discover how, in the nineteenth century, it became a professional practice as we know it and realized advances in human health, longevity, and security perhaps greater than any made since. At the same time, the course will also cover how many of the assumptions of those that inaugurated public health were completely alien to present-day practitioners--even though in many ways it is a practice that helped inaugurate the modern world so familiar to us. Course participants will learn about the close relationship between public health agencies and agendas and various kinds of social authority: political power, moral influence, colonial power, and others. Ultimately, the aim of the course is to show participants that even though public health seems a supremely common sense practice, it had a highly contested birth and early life that was anything but natural or pre-ordained. That complicated birth continues to shape public health to this day. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 243. The Age of Prozac: Social and Cultural Aspects of Depression. 3 Units.

Although often experienced as an intensely individual, private, and painfully isolated affliction, depression has profound social and cultural dimensions. This course will neglect neither biological (neurochemical or genetic) perspectives, nor personal or psychological aspects, but will emphasize perspectives derived from history, anthropology, and sociology. While there may be tangential attention to bi-polar disorder ("manic depression"), the emphasis will be on unipolar depression. The course will conclude with an in-depth exploration of the rise of pharmaceutical treatments.

HSTY 246. People and the Land in Pre-Modern Europe. 3 Units.

This course explores the relationship between the peoples of Europe and their environments as Europe changed from a backwater of the Roman Empire into the seat of a number of globe-spanning empires. It examines how Europeans changed the land over time in order to derive a subsistence, produce profit, and, later, to fuel the growth and power of early modern state. The course will delve into the ways that Europeans thought about nature and conceived of their place in it. It will also explore how the environment itself influenced the courses of European societies; how climate and disease, animals and energy sources affected population growth, industrial activity, and even legal systems. As European powers sent their conquerors and colonists across the globe, they carried with them a tradition of thinking about, and interacting with, the environment in ways that had dramatic consequences for the world beyond Europe, and this course investigates whence this tradition came. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 249. The Global Middle Ages: From Paris to Baghdad. 3 Units.

This reading-intensive course will explore the ways in which medieval thought was manifested in Christian and Islamic art, and discuss parallels, divergences, and convergences between the two visual cultures. Topics will include, but will not be limited to, medieval attitudes towards the body as manifested in illuminated manuscripts; art as a tool for religion and a vehicle for devotion; illustrations in herbals and medical books; advances in architecture; literary themes translated into visual art; art created by and for women, and the image as an instrument for political thought and propaganda. While Christian and Islamic visual cultures are traditionally studied separately, this course will examine medieval culture as a whole, thereby providing the students with a distinctive educational experience. Offered as ARTH 249 and HSTY 249. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 250. Issues and Methods in History. 3 Units.

A methodological introduction to historical research. Students use a variety of approaches to interpret and study historical problems. Specific topics and instructors normally vary from year to year.

HSTY 252A. Introduction to African-American Studies. 3 Units.

This course is designed to introduce students to the study of Black History, cultures, economics, and politics. Students will learn about the development of the field by exploring theoretical questions, methodological approaches, and major themes that have shaped the study of black people, primarily in the U.S. context. This is a seminar-style, discussion-based course that emphasizes critical analysis and expository writing. Offered as ETHS 252A and HSTY 252A. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 254. The Holocaust. 3 Units.

This class seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Holocaust: the German-led organized mass murder of nearly six million Jews and millions of other ethnic and religious minorities. It will investigate the origins and development of racism in modern European society, the manifestations of that racism, and responses to persecution. An additional focus of the course will be comparisons between different groups, different countries, and different phases during the Nazi era. Offered as HSTY 254, RLGN 254, ETHS 254, and JDST 254. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 256. American Political History. 3 Units.

From the origins of American politics in the colonial period to the present. The Revolution and Constitutional debate; presidential politics and leadership; voters and voting patterns; Congress and the courts. Emphasis both on the ideas that animated American politics and on the relation of politics to society.

HSTY 257. Immigrants in America. 3 Units.

Immigration to America has constantly reshaped the way the nation views itself. This course examines the overall history of immigration to the United States, but places that movement within a global context. It also pays particular attention to the roles that policy and technology have played in controlling or defining immigration to America. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 259. Introduction to Latina/o Studies. 3 Units.

Interdisciplinary introduction to the basis for a Latina/o ethnicity through an exploration of commonalities and differences in the peoples of Latin American and Caribbean origin within the continental United States. Topics include methodological and theoretical formulations central to the field (e.g., racial, gender, and sexual formations, modes and relations of production and class, nation and transnation), history and contemporary issues of identity, family, community, immigration, and the potential for a pan-ethnic identity. Discussions will focus on major demographic, social, economic and political trends: historical roots of Latinas/os in the U.S.; the evolution of Latina/o ethnicity and identity; immigration and the formation of Latina/o communities; schooling and language usage; tendencies and determinants of socioeconomic and labor force status; discrimination, segregation and bias in contemporary America; racial and gender relations; and political behavior among Latinas/os. Offered as: ETHS 252B and HSTY 259. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 260. U.S. Slavery and Emancipation. 3 Units.

Begins with the African encounter with Europeans during the emergence of the modern slave trade. Students are introduced to the documents and secondary literature on the creation and maintenance of slavery, first in colonial America, and then in the United States. The course concludes with the destruction of slavery. Offered as ETHS 260 and HSTY 260. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 261. African-American History 1865-1945. 3 Units.

Explores the fashioning of a modern African-American culture between emancipation and the end of World War II. Emergence of a northern-based leadership, the challenge of segregation, emergence of bourgeois culture, the fashioning of racial consciousness and black nationalism, the shift from a primarily southern and rural population to one increasingly northern and urban, the creation and contours of a modern African-American culture, the construction of racial/gender and racial/class consciousness. Offered as ETHS 261 and HSTY 261. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 262. African-American History Since 1945. 3 Units.

Completes the three-term sequence of the African-American history survey (although the first two courses are not prerequisites for this course). Explores some of the key events and developments shaping African-American social, political, and cultural history since 1945. Offered as HSTY 262 and ETHS 262. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 266. Introduction to Asian American History. 3 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the history of Asians in the United States from the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 21st century. Through lectures, readings, films, and discussions, we will examine the continuities and changes in the experience of Asian Americans through three chronological periods: the first wave of immigration (mid-19th century to 1934), the period of exclusion and international conflict (mid-20th century), and the second wave of Immigration (post-1965). Key events covered include the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Phillipene War, Japanese interment and World War II, the Asian American Movement, the murder of Vincent Chin, and labor organizing. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 270. Introduction to Gender Studies. 3 Units.

This course introduces women and men students to the methods and concepts of gender studies, women's studies, and feminist theory. An interdisciplinary course, it covers approaches used in literary criticism, history, philosophy, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, film studies, cultural studies, art history, and religion. It is the required introductory course for students taking the women's and gender studies major. Offered as ENGL 270, HSTY 270, PHIL 270, RLGN 270, SOCI 201, and WGST 201. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: ENGL 150 or passing letter grade in a 100 level first year seminar in USFS, FSCC, FSNA, FSSO, FSSY, FSTS, FSCS.

HSTY 272. Sports in America: From Play to Profit. 3 Units.

This course reviews the history of sports in America from the colonial period to the present. It gives particular attention to the evolution of sports as a major business and to the roles of gender, ethnicity, and race in the history of America sport, as well as to the emergence of sport as a major defining characteristic of America life and society. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 278. Nineteenth-Century Europe. 3 Units.

This course examines the history of Europe during the so-called long nineteenth century, lasting from the French Revolution, which signaled the end of the Old Order, through World War I, which led to the end of the European primacy in the world. Major themes include decline of aristocratic hegemony, the emergence of new ideologies (especially nationalism, liberalism, and socialism), the rise of the bourgeoisie, culture in Europe's golden age, and increasing national rivalry and competition. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 280. History of Modern Mexico. 3 Units.

This course explores the major issues that have influenced the formation of modern Mexico. This class is organized around three major themes. First, we will examine Mexican identity formation and its political implications. Second, we will assess Mexican life in relation to the development of the Mexican economy. Finally, we will survey how elite and popular forms of violence have affected Mexican society. Throughout the course, we will discuss the significance of the colonial heritage, regional distinctions, racial and gender stratification, and the creation and reconfiguration of various types of borders. Offered as HSTY 280 and ETHS 280. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 285. Modern Japan. 3 Units.

This course introduces students to the many changes that characterize the social, political, economic, and intellectual history of modern Japan from the mid-19th century to the present. We discuss to what extent the Meiji state was built upon Japan's "traditional" heritage, how modernization and Western influence were implemented in and perceived by society, and which factors led the government to adopt extreme imperialist and militarist policies in the early 20th century. Looking at the emergence of a new Japan after World War II, we focus on employment structures, mass culture, urbanization, gender roles, and social patterns in order to understand the transformation of modern Japanese society. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 287. State, War, Drugs, and Coffee in Colombia: History of Modern Colombia. 3 Units.

This course will analyze the major forces that have shaped Colombian history from the 19th century to the present. Colombia is one of the largest and most fascinating countries in Latin America. It has been intricately linked to the U.S. market as a major coffee producer and, more recently, as a major supplier of illicit drugs. Colombia has always been one of the wealthier Latin American countries, and it has a high degree of electoral democracy. Paradoxically, however, Colombia has also experienced rather high levels of regionalism and political violence. This course seeks to explore the history of these paradoxes. It will situate Colombia's contemporary conflicts within a larger historical perspective. Offered as ETHS 287 and HSTY 287. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 288. Imperial China: The Great Qing. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to the history of Imperial China, from the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644 to the creation of the Chinese republic in 1912. We will explore the major historical transformations (political, economic, social, and cultural) of the last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644-1911), and develop an understanding of the major social, political, economic, and intellectual cultural forces shaping the formation of modern China. Contrary to commonly-held ideas in both West and in China that traditional Chinese society was timeless or stagnant, historians now see dramatic and significant changes during this period--to the economy, to gender relations, to religion, and to many other aspects of life. This course surveys the social, political, economic, and cultural history of this era, with emphasis on recent research. The main goals of the course will be to acquaint students with the key changes and to show the interplay between economic, social, and cultural changes on the one hand and political developments on the other. By the end of the semester you should have a good sense of how Chinese society was transformed over the course of the 17th through early 20th centuries. The topics we will discuss include urbanization and commerce; gender, family and kinship; education and the examination system; opium and free trade; and ethnicity and nationalism. Offered as ASIA 288 and HSTY 288. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 289. Reform, Revolution, Republics: China 1895 to Present. 3 Units.

Completes a two-term sequence of the Chinese history survey, although HSTY 288 is not a prerequisite for this course. Beginning with the First Sino-Japanese War (1895), we review the historical development of intellectual discourse, public reaction, and political protest in later Imperial China through the creation of the People's Republic in 1949 forward to contemporary times. In contrast to the conventional description of China from a Western point of view, this course tries to explain the emergence of modern China in the context of its intellectual, political, and socio-economic transformation as experienced by Chinese in the late 19th and into the 20th century. By discussing the influence of the West, domestic rebellions, and political radicalism, we examine how the Chinese state and society interacted in search for modernization and reforms, how these reforms were continued during the Republican period, and to what extent historical patterns can be identified in China's present-day development. Offered as ASIA 289 and HSTY 289. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 292. Energy and Environment in American History 1750-2010. 3 Units.

This course uses the prism of energy to examine the history of the United States from the colonial period to the present. We will consider how energy has affected, and is affected by, American society, culture, science and technology, politics, diplomacy, and the environment. Four broad, thematic questions will recur throughout the semester. First, how has increasing energy use transformed American social life, the economy, and politics? Second, what are the relationships between energy consumption and environmental change? Third, what are the relationships between scientific discoveries, technological innovation and social change? And finally, how did the United States grow to be the largest consumer of energy in the history of the world? Addressing these questions will reveal the fundamental ways in which energy has shaped American history.

HSTY 293. History of Drugs. 3 Units.

This course will survey the rise and political, social, and cultural effects of drugs in modern societies with an emphasis on the late 19th and 20th century United States. First we will examine the global emergence and popularization of drugs as part of what David Courtwright has coined the "psychoactive revolution." Then, we will narrow this broad lens by shifting our gaze to narcotics in the expanding U.S. nation. Specifically, we will examine the shifting demographics, nature of, and debates regarding narcotic consumption, regulation, and policy--and how these disparately affect and shape the lives of diverse populations. Finally, we will explore the human toll of narcotics in post-World War II culture and cities. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 298. Departmental Seminar. 3 Units.

The Department of History Departmental Seminar. A topical course, emphasizing disciplinary forms of writing, it is recommended for students before the end of their junior years. The class will advance the goals of SAGES within the disciplinary context of history by focusing on close readings of texts, analytical writing, and intensive seminar-style classroom discussions. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 299. Topics in History. 3 Units.

Subject matter will vary with instructor but will focus on some particular topic or historical approach. Course description available from departmental office.

HSTY 302. Ancient Greece: Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Periods. 3 Units.

The rise of Hellenic thought and institutions from the eighth to the third centuries B.C., the rise of the polis, the evolution of democracy at Athens, the crises of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, fifth-century historiography, the growth of individualism, and the revival of monarchy in the Hellenistic period. Offered as CLSC 302 and HSTY 302.

HSTY 303. History of the Early Church: First Through Fourth Centuries. 3 Units.

Explores the development of the diverse traditions of Christianity in the Roman Empire from the first through the fourth centuries C.E. A variety of New Testament and extra-Biblical sources are examined in translation. Emphasis is placed on the place of Christianity in the larger Roman society, and the variety of early Christian ideals of salvation, the Church, and Church leadership. Offered as HSTY 303 and RLGN 373. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 304. Ancient Rome: Republic and Empire. 3 Units.

Growth and development of the Roman state from the unification of Italy in the early third century B.C. to the establishment of the oriental despotism under Diocletian and Constantine. The growth of empire in the Punic Wars, the uncertain steps toward an eastern hegemony, the crisis in the Republic from the Gracchi to Caesar, the new regime of Augustus, the transformation of the leadership class in the early Empire, and the increasing dominance of the military over the civil structure. Offered as CLSC 304 and HSTY 304.

HSTY 306. History of Museums: Theory and Reality. 3 Units.

This course is an intensive summer internship (10 hours per week) at the Western Reserve Historical Society, complemented by extensive readings in museum/archival theory and public historical perception. It is designed both to introduce students to museum/archival work and to compare theoretical concepts with actual museum situations. Interns will be assigned a specific project within one of the Society's curatorial or administrative divisions, but will have the opportunity to work on ancillary tasks throughout the Historical Society's headquarters in University Circle. Offered as HSTY 306 and HSTY 406.

HSTY 307. Development of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 3 Units.

The development of chemical ideas; theories of matter, composition, structure, and reaction; the application of chemistry and chemical theory from antiquity to the 20th century; all considered in social context. Recommended preparation: One year of college chemistry. Offered as: HSTY 307 and HSTY 407.

HSTY 309. Reformation Europe, 1500-1650. 3 Units.

Origins and development of Protestantism, the Catholic Counter-Reformation, and the interaction between secular power and religious identity in Christian Europe. Offered as HSTY 309 and RLGN 374. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 310. The French Revolutionary Era. 3 Units.

Causes, progress, and results of the internal transformation of France from 1789 to 1815; impact of revolutionary ideas on other European and non-European societies.

HSTY 311. Seminar: Modern American Historiography. 3 Units.

This seminar examines the approaches that professional historians of the United States have taken to the writing of American history in the past fifty years, with emphasis on changes in historical concerns, master debates among historians, and contemporary interests. Topics covered include national politics and government, economic development, social history, the history of ethnicity, race, and gender, and foreign policy and international relations. Each student will read widely and will prepare a series of reports on selected books and authors. Offered as HSTY 311 and HSTY 411.

HSTY 315. Heresy and Dissidence in the Middle Ages. 3 Units.

Survey of heretical individuals and groups in Western Europe from 500 - 1500 A.D., focusing on popular rather than academic heresies. The development of intolerance in medieval society and the problems of doing history from hostile sources will also be explored. Offered as HSTY 315 and RLGN 315. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 318. History of Black Women in the U.S.. 3 Units.

Chronologically arranged around specific issues in black women's history organizations, participation in community and political movements, labor experiences, and expressive culture. The course will use a variety of materials, including autobiography, literature, music, and film. Offered as ETHS 318, HSTY 318, and WGST 318.

HSTY 319. The Crusades. 3 Units.

This course is a survey of the history of the idea of "crusade," the expeditions of Western Europeans to the East known as crusades, the Muslim and Eastern Christian cultures against which these movements were directed, as well as the culture of the Latin East and other consequences of these crusades. Offered as HSTY 319 and RLGN 319. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 320. Departmental Seminar: Alexander the Great. 3 Units.

This course is the Classics Departmental Seminar in the SAGES sequence, though it can also be taken for regular credit in Classics or History. The seminar on Alexander the Great is normally taken in the Spring semester of junior year, and offers students a firm grounding in the diverse materials, methods, and approaches that can be brought to bear on the study of Greco-Roman antiquity and of its legacy up to today. Alexander's career is urgently relevant today for two primary reasons: the establishment of new forms of interaction between European/"western" and Asian/"eastern" civilizations; and the idea of global domination, wedding Greek and Asian as well as African (Egyptian) conceptions of rule and governance. Beyond the exploration of the ancient world of, or shaped by, Alexander, we will focus also on the reception of the historical figure, i.e., on the sometimes fantastic image of Alexander diffused in later epochs (Islamic, medieval) as well as on the more critical but often ideologically slanted early modern approach. Because of the expansion of the scope of the seminar (as of Alexander himself) beyond Europe and the critical examination of the traditional separation of East and West--or the three continents (Europe, Africa, and Asia) distinguished in antiquity--this course qualifies as a Global and Cultural Diversity course. Offered as CLSC 320 and HSTY 320. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 321. The Archaeology of Iron Age Italy and Sicily, ca. 1000-300 BCE. 3 Units.

This course traces the early history and archaeology of the Italian peninsula and Sicily from ca. 1000 BCE to 300 BCE. During this period, the movement of people brought with a transfer of people, ideas, and culture (both social and material) that would transform the population and landscape of ancient Italy and Sicily. We will look first at Southern Italy and Sicily, where, from about 750 BCE, Greek and Phoenician colonists settled. We will examine the characteristics of Greek and Phoenician colonies and monuments, as well as the characteristics of the interactions between the new arrivals and the indigenous population, especially the Sikels. We will then examine how the Villanovan culture was supplanted by the Etruscans in west-central Italy. Through the close examination of the material culture we will address topics such as status, urbanization, religion and ritual, and the cultures of Italy and Sicily within the wider Mediterranean world. Finally, we will look at another movement of people and politics: the expansion of Roman hegemony throughout the peninsula. Numerous theories attempt to explain the effect Roman occupation had on the other populations. We will analyze critically these theories and look for ourselves on the numerous ways indigenous populations could respond to "foreign" occupiers and how the occupiers responded to the indigenes. We will "read" material culture almost like text, guided by concepts such as "style," "agency" and "habitus" among others. Through these lenses we will examine the archaeological material from multiple points of view (social, economic, religious, political). In turn, recent theoretical advances that seek to explain the processes of accommodation and emulation of, and resistance to, outside cultural influences will be looked at with a critical eye so that we can come away with fresh ideas about understanding what, and who, culture really is. Offered as CLSC 321 and HSTY 321.

HSTY 324. Issues in Indian and Southeast Asian Art. 3 Units.

This course covers topics in the history of India and neighboring regions with emphasis on connections with works in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Offerings include The Buddha Image, Murals and Manuscripts, The Hindu Temple, Krishna in Art and Literature, and the History of Mughal Painting. Lectures, discussions, and reports. Offered as ARTH 342, ARTH 442, and HSTY 324. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 325. U.S. Politics, Culture, and Society: 1790-1860. 3 Units.

This is a survey of the history of the United States during the years between the Revolutionary era and the Civil War, exploring the transformation of American politics, religion, and culture, as well as the emergence of distinctive regional economies and social systems in the South, the Midwest, and the Northeast. It focuses especially on the emergence of the social institutions, patterns, and conflicts that still characterize the United States during the early twenty-first century. Particular attention is also paid to the experience of women and African Americans.

HSTY 327. Comparative Environmental History. 3 Units.

Environmental history is the study of how humans have influenced the environments around them and how the environment itself has influenced the course of human societies. This course provides students with the skill to identify and analyze these interactions. It introduces course participants to the main themes of environmental history literature and the driving questions guiding environmental history research by examining case studies drawn around the globe, including Pre-Columbian America, Medieval Japan, Colonial Africa, and Modern Germany. This course will help course participants recognize the important patterns and developments that have led to present day human-environmental relationships. Offered as HSTY 327 and HSTY 427. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 328. Comparative Perspectives on Museum and Archive History and Practice. 3 Units.

Comparative Perspectives on Archives and Museum History and Practice is a distance learning based course shared with students at Bilkent University in Ankara, Turkey. The course focuses on a comparison of the history and development of archives and museums in the United States and in late Ottoman and Republican Turkey. Topics considered include the "ownership" of culture; state vs. private control of heritage; marketing of museums; and the impact of evolving technologies on the presentation and preservation of culture. Students work together via a shared, live lecture format. In addition to the instructor, museum and archive professionals from both the US and Turkey provide lectures and lead discussions during the semester. The primary intellectual product of the course is a final paper/project which compares the history, operational structure, and mission of a museum/archive in the US with a similar institution in Turkey. The paper/project is created by collaborative effort between a student at CWRU and one at Bilkent. Provided grant funding is available, the course may involve exchange visits to Turkey and the US. Offered as HSTY 328 and HSTY 428. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 329. Museums and Globalization. 3 Units.

Museums are everywhere contested spaces today. Historically designed as symbols of power, centers for research, agents of public education and community formation in Western industrial societies, they have become sites of development and cultural controversy on a global scale. From Cleveland and Paris to Nairobi and Dubai museums figure in urban redevelopment, national identity formation, conflicts between religion and science, and global tourism. Questions we will consider in this course: what are the fundamental features of museums as institutions? what ties have linked them to wider national and international communities of academics, NGO's and business? to political, economic and social concerns? how do museums in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America figure in the current international contention over heritage rights? This is an innovative course allowing students to collaborate on projects, engage with guest lecturers and access museums across the globe. The course is organized in three parts: Part I: National Identity Building and Museums; Part II: Museums and Identity Politics; Part III: Museums and Global Development. Offered as HSTY 329, ARTH 301, HSTY 429, and ARTH 401. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 332. European International Relations 1789-1945. 3 Units.

Presents a broad interpretation of the development of the international system in Europe between the French Revolution of 1789 and the end of the European era in 1945. It explains why and how the closed European state system at the beginning of the nineteenth century evolved into an international transcontinental system by the early twentieth century. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 333. Reading Capital: Political Economy in the Age of Modern Industry. 3 Units.

Since its first publication in German in 1867, and its appearance in English in 1886, Karl Marx's Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume I, has occupied a seminal position in European thought. Beginning with the presumptions of classical liberal political economy, Marx employed his technique of the materialist dialectic to unmask, in his view, the contradictions and structural limitations that the capitalist mode of production imposed upon capitalists and proletarians alike. Much mentioned, but seldom read, Volume I of Capital remains a crucial window into understanding the intellectual, economic, social, and cultural currents of the 19th century, and its impact extends into the 21st . This course consists of a close, directed reading of the entire text of this volume, combined with discussion, research, and coordinated exploration, so that students can bring this powerful critique to bear on their reading of history and economics in the modern era. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 334. History of 19th Century Germany. 3 Units.

Examines the political, social, economic, and cultural history of Germany from the late eighteenth century to 1914. Explores the intellectual and social background to the rise of German liberalism and nationalism, the struggle with bureaucratic absolutism, the revolutions of 1848, industrial capitalism and the emergence of a class society, unification under Bismarck, the role of the state, culture, religion, and changes of mentality, the development of mass politics, and the coming of World War I. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 335. History of 20th Century Germany. 3 Units.

Examines the tumultuous history of Germany from 1914 to the unification of the two Germanys in 1989-1990. From the totalizing and traumatic experience of World War I, through a failed revolution, the republican experiment of Weimar, the National Socialist dictatorship under Hitler and the divided Germany suspended between the superpowers, to the newly unified democratic Federal Republic. Examines the ways in which Germans have tried to reconcile the state to their society, economy, and individual lives. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 336. The Struggle for Justice in Latin America. 3 Units.

This course looks at how indigenous peoples, women, students, workers, peasants, and Afro-Latin Americans struggled for justice in Latin America. It will study how notions of justice have changed from colonial times to the present. It will also examine how different sectors of Latin American society understood the meaning of justice and how that understanding evolved through time. This class seeks to familiarize students with the history of the idea of justice in Latin America. At the end of this course students will understand the complex intellectual and political differences behind Latin America's apparent chaotic and tumultuous political history. Second, it seeks to develop students' critical thinking by examining how an abstract term, such as justice, changes across time and space. Offered as ETHS 336 and HSTY 336. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 338. History of the American West. 3 Units.

The U.S. West has meant many things throughout American history--early explorers called it the Great American Desert, railroad boosters lured settlers to it by promising to make the arid land bloom into an agricultural Eden, urban immigrants looked to its limitless stretches of land as an escape from industrial labor, children read dime novels that glorified its heroes, and millions of tourists celebrate its raw beauty by visiting Yellowstone, Yosemite, and the Grand Canyon. The West has also been home diverse native societies for thousands of years, Asian immigrants who viewed it as an eastern frontier, women who struggled to feed their children in an arid land, and Latin Americans, whose ancestors often preceded the entry of White Americans. This course introduces students to the themes, questions, and debates central to the study of the American west by drawing in primary source material and scholarly interpretations. The goal of this course is to provide students with an understanding of the human history of the American west and the ability to express that history in clear, passionate writing and in-class discussion.` Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 339. The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1900-1948. 3 Units.

The British Empire took control of Palestine after driving the Germans and Turks from the region near the end of World War I. From that moment on, the British had an increasingly difficult time administering the region. Jewish colonists had already been settling in the land for decades, and with their takeover, the British gave them and other Zionists reason to believe that the Empire would facilitate Jewish efforts. At the same time, the indigenous Arabs of Palestine appealed to the British to protect their very birthright, to keep their country from passing into someone else's hands. The British gave Arabs, too, reason to believe that they would recognize and defend their claims. In the few decades that the British Mandate governed Palestine it oversaw riots, revolution, and terrorist bombings. When it withdrew from Palestine, its legacy was a brutal war between Arabs and Jews; and the legacy of that war holds an iron grip on the course of world history to this day. Had the British Empire not been in Palestine, and not made the fateful decisions that it did, there would be no Israel and no Arab-Israeli conflict as we know them. Course materials include histories of Zionism, pre-Zionist Palestine, the British Mandate years, the British Empire in other Arab lands, and the 1948 war and aftermath. Primary sources from the perspective British officials on the ground in Palestine receive much attention. The histories of engineering and agriculture are highlighted alongside traditional social and political perspectives. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 340. A History of Workers in the United States. 3 Units.

This course examines the experience of working people in the United States with an emphasis on twentieth-century social movements. It explores the lives of the women and men, skilled and unskilled, and rural and urban laborers that produce the goods and provide the services that society consumes. At crucial moments, working people have created or helped sustain national social movements in an effort to improve some aspect of their lives. We therefore will assess laborers in relation to several known and less known American social movements, such as the eight-hour day movement during the late nineteenth century, the peace movement during WWI, and the Civil Rights movement in the wake of WWII. Throughout the course we will also discuss the politics of time-managed work; the influence of public policy and government institutions; the role of unions within a competitive market economy; the relationship between industrial economies and functional blue-collar communities; and the correlation between immigration and globalization. Offered as HSTY 340, HSTY 430,and ETHS 340. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 341. Jewish Urban History. 3 Units.

This course examines the relationship between Jews and the modern urban environment. It seeks to answer questions such as: How did the modernization of cities affect Jews and Jewish communities? In what ways did Jews contribute to modern urban cultural and social forms? What is Jewish urban space, is it unique, and how is it remembered later on? Are there differences between the patterns in Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas? Offered as HSTY 341 and JDST 341. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 342. Water. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water. Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342, POSC 442. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 344. Origins of the British Empire 1450-1750. 3 Units.

How did early modern England come to rule an empire upon which the sun never set? What compelled individuals to seek their fortunes abroad, planting the flag of St. George in the outlying areas of the archipelago and halfway across the globe? This course examines the troubled birth of an empire and of a place called "Britain" at the same time. This seminar provides history majors with an experience of working with early modern primary documents of a wide variety; essays and book chapters will be paired with documents from early modern England itself. How do documents, images, and quantitative analyses help historians explain how the British Empire came into being? Offered as HSTY 344 and HSTY 444.

HSTY 345. The European City. 3 Units.

An examination of architectural, social, cultural, philosophical, political, and economic aspects of life in European cities. The principle focus will be the transition of medieval and early modern cities to modern metropolises, both spatially and socially. An additional theme will be urban development and concomitant social questions in non-European cities that were built either to serve expatriate Europeans or to emulate European modernity. Case studies may include London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Moscow, the provincial and national capitals of East-Central Europe, and cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Offered as HSTY 345 and HSTY 445. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 346. Guns, Germs, and Steel. 3 Units.

Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel won the Pulitzer for non-fiction in 1998. Diamond, a physiologist, explains that Western Europe came to occupy and dominate large areas of the globe because of natural resources present in certain regions of the Old World since the end of the last Ice Age. Where a historian might look for answers in the written evidence left by historical individuals, Diamond examines ancient patterns of plant diffusion or the place of mountain ranges and deserts in the development of technologies. This seminar is about applying the history of a specific time and place namely North America from European contact to 1850 - to Diamond's general environmental explanations and models. Placing Diamond's broad explanations within specific historical contexts is revealing. A range of alternative methods, perspectives, primary sources from North America, and case studies (especially within environmental history) help develop a critical understanding of the complexities of European expansion into the New World. The course engages in an extended comparative exploration of the worldviews of different world cultures, most extensively comparing European worldviews with Native American, but also paying significant attention to Asian worldviews. The Native American cultures under consideration include those of both North and South America. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 348. History of Modern Political and Social Thought. 3 Units.

This course explores the responses of philosophers, economic theorists, culture critics, and public policy makers to changes in western society wrought by industrialization by focusing on their concerns with technological change. Offered as HSTY 348, HSTY 448 and POSC 348.

HSTY 351. Colonial America 1607-1763. 3 Units.

The formative years of American society and culture. Slavery and racism, expansionism, regionalism, the family, pluralism, sense of mission, and republican ideology.

HSTY 352. The Era of the American Revolution, 1763 - 1789. 3 Units.

This is an intensive survey of the Revolutionary period of American history, from the end of the French and Indian War in 1763 to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1789, focusing especially on the underlying causes of the American Revolution, the chain of events leading to the Declaration of Independence, the war with England, the Constitutional Convention, and the ratification struggle that followed, with some background on the earlier period (1607-1763).

HSTY 353. Women in American History I. 3 Units.

The images and realities of women's social, political, and economic lives in early America. Uses primary documents and biographers to observe individuals and groups of women in relation to legal, religious, and social restrictions. Offered as HSTY 353, WGST 353, and HSTY 453. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 354. Women in American History II. 3 Units.

With HSTY 353, forms a two-semester introduction to women's studies. The politics of suffrage and the modern woman's efforts to balance marriage, motherhood, and career. (HSTY 353 not a prerequisite.) Offered as HSTY 354, WGST 354, and HSTY 454. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 355. Age of American Civil War 1815-80. 3 Units.

This course examines the causes and consequences of the Civil War, focusing on the rise of sectionalism, the dynamics of conflict, and reconstruction. Heavy emphasis is placed on archival research in relevant first person accounts from the period.

HSTY 356. Industrial America: 1880-1940. 3 Units.

This course will explore the history of the United States from 1880 to 1940 as the nation organized itself into a modern industrial society. We will examine the rise of a corporate and technological society, the development of cities and urban problems, the growth of government, and the way in which immigrants, women, and African-Americans negotiated a shifting social organization. This class will also focus on the growing dominance of consumerism and the cultural and intellectual critique of the changes that occurred during these events

HSTY 358. America Since 1940. 3 Units.

This course will focus on the political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in the United States in the period spanning from the Great Depression to the present. Throughout the course, we will examine the challenges of pluralism, the position of the U.S. in the world, and the particular ways in which domestic conflict over such matters has shaped the contemporary United States.

HSTY 359. Books as Bombs: Books that Reshaped American Culture. 3 Units.

Every now and again a piece of prose profoundly reshapes American society and culture. In this advanced undergraduate seminar, students will read and discuss a selection of such works under the tutelage of Professors Shulman, a specialist in the History of Science and Technology, and Sentilles, who specializes in social and cultural history. The professors will set up the context of the work's publication or creation and then lead the class in a lively dissection of both the work and its impact. The main question asked of each book is "how and why did this work have such an effect?" In attempting to answer that question, students will come to a greater understanding of society that created and then responded to each work. Offered as HSTY 359 and HSTY 459. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 361. Crime and Culture in Early America. 3 Units.

This course explores the intersection of crime, punishment, and popular culture in colonial British America and the early United States through 1860 by closely examining a series of popular crime genres, including execution sermons, criminal conversion narratives, criminal autobiographies, and trial reports. Readings in modern scholarship--drawing on several disciplines--will shed light on the popular literature and on underlying patterns of crime and punishment, while students will critically evaluate modern scholarly interpretations in light of the early crime publications. Types of crimes explored in the readings include witchcraft, piracy, burglary, robbery, and various types of murder, such as infanticide, familicide (cases of men murdering their wives and children), and sexual homicide. Each student will write several short analytical papers drawn from the shared readings and, at the end of the semester, produce an independent research paper. Offered as HSTY 361 and HSTY 461.

HSTY 363. Gender and Sexuality in America. 3 Units.

This multicultural seminar uses a mixture of historical text, gender theory, personal biography, and artistic expression to explore changing notions of gender and sexuality over the past two centuries in the United States. Offered as HSTY 363, HSTY 463 and WGST 363. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 366. Science, Technology, and Government. 3 Units.

Traces the development and influence of federal technology and science policies from colonial times to the present, with emphasis on the 20th century. Offered as HSTY 366 and POSC 365.

HSTY 371. Jews under Islam and Christianity. 3 Units.

This course examines the social and political status of Jews under Muslim and Christian rule since the Middle Ages. Themes include interfaith relations, Islamic and Christian beliefs regarding the Jews, Muslim and Christian regulation of Jewry, and the Jewish response. Offered as HSTY 371, JDST 371 and RLGN 371. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 373. Advanced Topics in American Women's History. 3 Units.

This advanced seminar is designed to allow students to investigate aspects of American women's history that are not deeply explored in other courses. The two central purposes of the course are to move students forward in their study of American women's history and to provide advanced study for graduate students and other students interested in women-focused topics. The topic is subject to change, but may be any of the following or something similar: women and medicine, images of women in popular culture, growing up female, women and political movements, women and war, etc. Recommended preparation: HSTY 353/453 or HSTY 354/454. Offered as HSTY 373, WGST 373, and HSTY 473.

HSTY 375. Advance Readings in Latin American History. 3 Units.

This course will introduce graduate students and upper level undergraduates to the most important debates in the field of Latin American History. It will provide an overview of the evolution of the (English language) historical literature on Latin America during the past three decades. It will also help students with a field in Latin American history prepare for their comprehensive examinations. The course readings have been chosen thematically and chronologically. Student will critically engage a group of monographs that stand out for their historiographical and methodological value and that will help illuminate the discussions and approaches that guide research in this field. Offered as HSTY 375 and HSTY 475. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 378. North American Environmental History. 3 Units.

This course introduces major questions and approaches in the study of environmental history. Taking North American as our subject, we explore how humans have shaped the environment of the continent and how human history has, in turn been shaped by the natural world form antiquity to the present. Major topics include Pleistocene extinctions, the Columbian exchange, the market revolution in agriculture, American epidemics, industrialization, the origins of conservation, the environmental movement, and the globalization of America's environmental footprint. Offered as: HSTY 378 and HSTY 468.

HSTY 380. The Sixties in America. 3 Units.

This course examines social, cultural, and political changes in the United States during the 1960s. We begin by examining the economic prosperity and "fragile" political consensus of the post-WWII period, as well as the undercurrent of poverty, dissent, and Cold War fears. We then cover the civil rights movement, student activism, the women's movement, the growth of Liberal America and the welfare state, the Vietnam War, the counterculture and conservative youth movements, the growth of a national consumer-driven, mass-mediated market, and the music, art, and pop culture--as well as their growing reliance on technological intervention--during this period of creative efflorescence. We will do this through reading books, but also through "reading" contemporary evidence of life in America, including listening to music, viewing films, analyzing pictures and artifacts.

HSTY 381. City as Classroom. 3 Units.

In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles. Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 383. Readings in PRC History. 3 Units.

This course examines the historiography of several key issues in the history of the People's Republic of China. Although the emphasis will be to explore at greater length and greater detail specific topics in post-1949 Chinese social, cultural, and political history, some topics will incorporate key historiographic works addressing the pre-1949 period as a point of comparison. We will explore the major historical transformations that led to a political break from China's imperial past, and we will examine both the continuities and discontinuities shaping China's experience as a modern nation during the latter half of the 20th century. Major themes covered include: the origins of the Chinese revolution, the Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, rural-urban divide, the one-child policy, socialism with Chinese characteristics, et al. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 385. Readings in Society and Culture in Modern Chinese History. 3 Units.

The primary goal of this course is to provide students an opportunity to explore at greater length specific topics in Chinese social and cultural history. The period covered by the assigned readings roughly spans the late eighteenth century through the first half of the twentieth century. Readings will cover a wide range of topical themes, including childhood, gender and sexuality, urban life, print media, religion, and the environment. Offered as HSTY 385 and HSTY 485. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 387. Growing Up in America: 1607 - 2000. 3 Units.

Children have been growing up in the United States since it was declared independent, in 1776, but how adults conceive of (and therefore legislate and interpret) children and childhood constantly changes to fit current circumstances. The experiences of children themselves have varied not only in terms of race, class, gender, and religion but also depending on specific events (i.e., coming of age during the Civil War versus the Civil Rights movement) or geography (i.e., growing up in rural Hawaii vs. urban New Jersey). We cannot cover all of those histories in one course, so this seminar course instead focuses on exploring the interplay of ideas about children and the expressed or historical experiences of children. When the puritans and plantations members (slave, bonded and free) came to the Atlantic shore, they brought with them particular ideas about what is meant to be a child, and to experience childhood. They encountered already established residents who also had ideas about childhood. How did those concepts adjust/meld/contrast over time, and how do we see those ideas reflected or reshaped by actual experiences? This course engages particular lines of inquiry: How and why do understanding about what is "natural" for children change over time? How do variables like race, class, gender, etc., uphold effects the manifesting of such concepts? What is the role of the state in children's lives and how has that changed over time? What is the impact of mass culture on modern childhood? Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 388. The United States in the World. 3 Units.

Traditional accounts of American history usually stay within the geographical boundaries of the modern United States. Recent historical research, however, has found that many well known events of the past, from the Revolution to Progressive Era social reforms to the environmental movement, make more sense when examined from a global perspective. Through approaches variously known as "transnational history," "International history," "global history," and "borderlands history," historians have come to redefine the United States' role in the world. This course offers an introduction to this literature. Motivating questions range over time and topic: How were the Americans a product of Early Modern globalization? Was (or is) the United States an empire? How has the meaning of this term changed over time? What role have racial issues played in American involvement overseas as well as at home? How have the global flows of commodities shaped economic development? How was the American Civil War actually a global event? How was domestic social policy shaped by the exchange of ideas across the globe? How did American ideas about political rights and the consumer economy become globalized? How did Americans use new forms of media technologies to interpret and affect people from other parts of the world? This is not a course in the history of American diplomacy (though diplomacy will often come up), nor is it a history of American warfare abroad (though war, too, will often come up as well). Instead, it is a broad, thematic survey of the ways that American ideas, institutions, and people have shaped--and been shaped by--the rest of the world. Primary emphasis is placed on reading and discussing recent historical work: books and articles, but also essays, fiction, and visual art as well. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 389. History of Zionism. 3 Units.

This course seeks to elucidate the major strands of Zionism, their origins, how they have interacted, and their impact on contemporary Israeli society. These may include political Zionism, cultural Zionism, socialist (labor) Zionism, Revisionist Zionism, and religious Zionism. This course will also examine the differences in the appeal of Zionism to Jews in different places, such as Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the United States. Offered as HSTY 389 and JDST 389. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 390. Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science. 3 Units.

Directed independent research seminar for seniors who are majors in the History and Philosophy of Science program. The goal of the course is to develop and demonstrate command of B.A.-level factual content, methodologies, research strategies, historiography, and theory relevant to the field of history of science and/or philosophy of science. The course includes both written and oral components. Offered as HSTY 380 and PHIL 390. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.

HSTY 391. Food in History. 3 Units.

Food is inextricably interconnected with the development of agriculture and other technologies, with the rise and fall of empires, with increasing understanding of diet and nutrition, with laws and regulations, with the arts, with economic development and consumer culture, and with religious and ethnic identities. By examining selective and representative episodes pertaining to each of these topics, this course explores the global history of food, from the agricultural revolution of the neolithic era to the consumer revolution of the last generation. Offered as HSTY 391 and HSTY 491.

HSTY 393. Advanced Readings in the History of Race. 3 Units.

This course examines the concept of race as a social construction that carries political and economic implications. We begin by examining the histories of the early racial taxonomists (e.g., Bernier, Linnaeus, and Blumenbach among others) and the contexts that informed their writings. We then assess how the concept of race changed from the nineteenth to the twentieth century in the United States. We conclude by evaluating how the ideology of race has influenced U.S. domestic life and foreign policy at specific historical moments. Offered as HSTY 393, HSTY 493, and ETHS 393. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 394. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners' conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, EEPS 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, EEPS 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

HSTY 395. History of Medicine. 3 Units.

This course treats selected topics in the history of medicine, with an emphasis on social and cultural history. Focusing on the modern period, we examine illnesses, patients, and healers, with attention to the ways sickness and medicine touch larger questions of politics, social relations and identity. Offered as HSTY 395 and HSTY 495.

HSTY 396. Advanced Topics in History. 3 Units.

Advanced topics in history, changing from semester to semester. The course provides students an opportunity to explore special themes or theoretical issues in history that are too briefly covered in broader surveys. Students may take this course more than once for credit, when different topics are covered. Offered as HSTY 396 and HSTY 496.

HSTY 397. Undergraduate Tutorial. 1 - 3 Unit.

Individual instruction with members of the history faculty. Recommended preparation: 12 hours of History.

HSTY 398. Senior Research Seminar. 3 Units.

Training in the nature and methods of historical writing and research. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone. Prereq: Majors only, Senior standing.

HSTY 399. Advanced Readings in Black History. 3 Units.

This is an advanced readings course that may change from semester to semester. This course will provide students with an opportunity to more deeply explore special themes and theoretical issues in the field of black history that are often quickly and briefly covered in broad survey courses. Readings may be organized around specific topics such as resistance and social protest, black intellectual history, black nationalism and identity, black film and historical literacy black cultural forms and politics, black urban history, or some such other combination. Students may take this course more than once and receive credit as long as the course topic differs. Students should contact the History Department for more details on course content during any given semester. Offered as ETHS 391, HSTY 399 and HSTY 499.

HSTY 400. Graduate Topical Seminar. 3 Units.

A rotating graduate seminar, offered every semester by a different faculty member. Each semester focuses on a topic of central historiographical or methodological importance. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 402. Introduction to Historiography of Science. 3 Units.

A graduate-level historiographic review of the history of the sciences from the seventeenth century to the present. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 404. Introduction to the Nonprofit Sector. 3 Units.

The United States has by far the largest and most important "nonprofit sector" in the world, a sector consisting of voluntary non-governmental organizations that provide health care, education and social services as well as arts, religious, and advocacy activities. Using mostly primary sources, this course considers the significance of the nonprofit sector in the U.S., its advantages and disadvantages, its uses for different groups of Americans, and current trends. Students have the option of writing either a standard term paper, or a study of strategic challenges facing a contemporary nonprofit organization. Offered as HSTY 204 and HSTY 404. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 406. History of Museums: Theory and Reality. 3 Units.

This course is an intensive summer internship (10 hours per week) at the Western Reserve Historical Society, complemented by extensive readings in museum/archival theory and public historical perception. It is designed both to introduce students to museum/archival work and to compare theoretical concepts with actual museum situations. Interns will be assigned a specific project within one of the Society's curatorial or administrative divisions, but will have the opportunity to work on ancillary tasks throughout the Historical Society's headquarters in University Circle. Offered as HSTY 306 and HSTY 406. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 407. Development of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 3 Units.

The development of chemical ideas; theories of matter, composition, structure, and reaction; the application of chemistry and chemical theory from antiquity to the 20th century; all considered in social context. Recommended preparation: One year of college chemistry. Offered as: HSTY 307 and HSTY 407.

HSTY 410. Seminar: Early American Historiography. 3 Units.

This seminar examines the historiography of early America. It is designed to acquaint history doctoral students with the major themes, methods, and scholars of American history from the seventeenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. Students will be expected to read and report on major works in the field. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 411. Seminar: Modern American Historiography. 3 Units.

This seminar examines the approaches that professional historians of the United States have taken to the writing of American history in the past fifty years, with emphasis on changes in historical concerns, master debates among historians, and contemporary interests. Topics covered include national politics and government, economic development, social history, the history of ethnicity, race, and gender, and foreign policy and international relations. Each student will read widely and will prepare a series of reports on selected books and authors. Offered as HSTY 311 and HSTY 411. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 427. Comparative Environmental History. 3 Units.

Environmental history is the study of how humans have influenced the environments around them and how the environment itself has influenced the course of human societies. This course provides students with the skill to identify and analyze these interactions. It introduces course participants to the main themes of environmental history literature and the driving questions guiding environmental history research by examining case studies drawn around the globe, including Pre-Columbian America, Medieval Japan, Colonial Africa, and Modern Germany. This course will help course participants recognize the important patterns and developments that have led to present day human-environmental relationships. Offered as HSTY 327 and HSTY 427. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 428. Comparative Perspectives on Museum and Archive History and Practice. 3 Units.

Comparative Perspectives on Archives and Museum History and Practice is a distance learning based course shared with students at Bilkent University in Ankara, Turkey. The course focuses on a comparison of the history and development of archives and museums in the United States and in late Ottoman and Republican Turkey. Topics considered include the "ownership" of culture; state vs. private control of heritage; marketing of museums; and the impact of evolving technologies on the presentation and preservation of culture. Students work together via a shared, live lecture format. In addition to the instructor, museum and archive professionals from both the US and Turkey provide lectures and lead discussions during the semester. The primary intellectual product of the course is a final paper/project which compares the history, operational structure, and mission of a museum/archive in the US with a similar institution in Turkey. The paper/project is created by collaborative effort between a student at CWRU and one at Bilkent. Provided grant funding is available, the course may involve exchange visits to Turkey and the US. Offered as HSTY 328 and HSTY 428. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 429. Museums and Globalization. 3 Units.

Museums are everywhere contested spaces today. Historically designed as symbols of power, centers for research, agents of public education and community formation in Western industrial societies, they have become sites of development and cultural controversy on a global scale. From Cleveland and Paris to Nairobi and Dubai museums figure in urban redevelopment, national identity formation, conflicts between religion and science, and global tourism. Questions we will consider in this course: what are the fundamental features of museums as institutions? what ties have linked them to wider national and international communities of academics, NGO's and business? to political, economic and social concerns? how do museums in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America figure in the current international contention over heritage rights? This is an innovative course allowing students to collaborate on projects, engage with guest lecturers and access museums across the globe. The course is organized in three parts: Part I: National Identity Building and Museums; Part II: Museums and Identity Politics; Part III: Museums and Global Development. Offered as HSTY 329, ARTH 301, HSTY 429, and ARTH 401. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 430. A History of Workers in the United States. 3 Units.

This course examines the experience of working people in the United States with an emphasis on twentieth-century social movements. It explores the lives of the women and men, skilled and unskilled, and rural and urban laborers that produce the goods and provide the services that society consumes. At crucial moments, working people have created or helped sustain national social movements in an effort to improve some aspect of their lives. We therefore will assess laborers in relation to several known and less known American social movements, such as the eight-hour day movement during the late nineteenth century, the peace movement during WWI, and the Civil Rights movement in the wake of WWII. Throughout the course we will also discuss the politics of time-managed work; the influence of public policy and government institutions; the role of unions within a competitive market economy; the relationship between industrial economies and functional blue-collar communities; and the correlation between immigration and globalization. Offered as HSTY 340, HSTY 430,and ETHS 340. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 440. Science and Society Through Literature. 3 Units.

This course will examine the interaction of scientific investigation and discovery with the society it occurred in. What is the effect of science on society and, as importantly, what is the effect of society on science? An introduction will consider the heliocentric controversy with focus on Galileo. Two broad areas, tuberculosis and the Frankenstein myth, will then be discussed covering the period 1800-present. With tuberculosis, fiction, art and music will be examined to understand the changing views of society towards the disease, how society's perception of tuberculosis victims changed, and how this influenced their treatments and research. With Frankenstein, the original novel in its historical context will be examined. Using fiction and film, the transformation of the original story into myth with different connotations and implications will be discussed. Most classes will be extensive discussions coupled with student presentations of assigned materials. Offered as PHRM 340, BETH 440, PHRM 440, and HSTY 440.

HSTY 442. Water. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water. Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342, POSC 442. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 445. The European City. 3 Units.

An examination of architectural, social, cultural, philosophical, political, and economic aspects of life in European cities. The principle focus will be the transition of medieval and early modern cities to modern metropolises, both spatially and socially. An additional theme will be urban development and concomitant social questions in non-European cities that were built either to serve expatriate Europeans or to emulate European modernity. Case studies may include London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Moscow, the provincial and national capitals of East-Central Europe, and cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Offered as HSTY 345 and HSTY 445. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 448. History of Modern Political and Social Thought. 3 Units.

This course explores the responses of philosophers, economic theorists, culture critics, and public policy makers to changes in western society wrought by industrialization by focusing on their concerns with technological change. Offered as HSTY 348, HSTY 448 and POSC 348.

HSTY 451. History of European Technology. 3 Units.

A graduate-level, research seminar on the history of European technology from the Industrial Revolution to the present. Special emphasis is on cultural history of technology with a transatlantic view. The themes of the seminar vary from year to year, but include: communications, industrialization, control, cultural and intellectual approaches to the history of technology. Required work includes a research paper based on original sources. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 452. Readings in the History of American Technology. 3 Units.

A graduate-level review of the history of American technology. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 453. Women in American History I. 3 Units.

The images and realities of women's social, political, and economic lives in early America. Uses primary documents and biographers to observe individuals and groups of women in relation to legal, religious, and social restrictions. Offered as HSTY 353, WGST 353, and HSTY 453. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 454. Women in American History II. 3 Units.

With HSTY 353, forms a two-semester introduction to women's studies. The politics of suffrage and the modern woman's efforts to balance marriage, motherhood, and career. (HSTY 353 not a prerequisite.) Offered as HSTY 354, WGST 354, and HSTY 454. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 459. Books as Bombs: Books that Reshaped American Culture. 3 Units.

Every now and again a piece of prose profoundly reshapes American society and culture. In this advanced undergraduate seminar, students will read and discuss a selection of such works under the tutelage of Professors Shulman, a specialist in the History of Science and Technology, and Sentilles, who specializes in social and cultural history. The professors will set up the context of the work's publication or creation and then lead the class in a lively dissection of both the work and its impact. The main question asked of each book is "how and why did this work have such an effect?" In attempting to answer that question, students will come to a greater understanding of society that created and then responded to each work. Offered as HSTY 359 and HSTY 459. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar.

HSTY 461. Crime and Culture in Early America. 3 Units.

This course explores the intersection of crime, punishment, and popular culture in colonial British America and the early United States through 1860 by closely examining a series of popular crime genres, including execution sermons, criminal conversion narratives, criminal autobiographies, and trial reports. Readings in modern scholarship--drawing on several disciplines--will shed light on the popular literature and on underlying patterns of crime and punishment, while students will critically evaluate modern scholarly interpretations in light of the early crime publications. Types of crimes explored in the readings include witchcraft, piracy, burglary, robbery, and various types of murder, such as infanticide, familicide (cases of men murdering their wives and children), and sexual homicide. Each student will write several short analytical papers drawn from the shared readings and, at the end of the semester, produce an independent research paper. Offered as HSTY 361 and HSTY 461. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 463. Gender and Sexuality in America. 3 Units.

This multicultural seminar uses a mixture of historical text, gender theory, personal biography, and artistic expression to explore changing notions of gender and sexuality over the past two centuries in the United States. Offered as HSTY 363, HSTY 463 and WGST 363. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 468. North American Environmental History. 3 Units.

This course introduces major questions and approaches in the study of environmental history. Taking North American as our subject, we explore how humans have shaped the environment of the continent and how human history has, in turn been shaped by the natural world form antiquity to the present. Major topics include Pleistocene extinctions, the Columbian exchange, the market revolution in agriculture, American epidemics, industrialization, the origins of conservation, the environmental movement, and the globalization of America's environmental footprint. Offered as: HSTY 378 and HSTY 468. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 470. Historiography, Method, and Theory. 3 Units.

a graduate level survey of fundamental themes in historiography, method, and theory, as well as interdisciplinary methods and theories. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 473. Advanced Topics in American Women's History. 3 Units.

This advanced seminar is designed to allow students to investigate aspects of American women's history that are not deeply explored in other courses. The two central purposes of the course are to move students forward in their study of American women's history and to provide advanced study for graduate students and other students interested in women-focused topics. The topic is subject to change, but may be any of the following or something similar: women and medicine, images of women in popular culture, growing up female, women and political movements, women and war, etc. Recommended preparation: HSTY 353/453 or HSTY 354/454. Offered as HSTY 373, WGST 373, and HSTY 473. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 475. Advance Readings in Latin American History. 3 Units.

This course will introduce graduate students and upper level undergraduates to the most important debates in the field of Latin American History. It will provide an overview of the evolution of the (English language) historical literature on Latin America during the past three decades. It will also help students with a field in Latin American history prepare for their comprehensive examinations. The course readings have been chosen thematically and chronologically. Student will critically engage a group of monographs that stand out for their historiographical and methodological value and that will help illuminate the discussions and approaches that guide research in this field. Offered as HSTY 375 and HSTY 475. Counts as SAGES Departmental Seminar. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 476. Seminar in Comparative History. 3 Units.

An introduction to comparative method for historians. The topics will vary year to year, but the course will require exposure to historical contexts outside of the United States. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 477. Modern Policy History of the United States. 3 Units.

This course offers a historical perspective on policy and policy making in the United States since the late nineteenth century. It emphasizes the increasing role of the federal government, the persisting importance of the states, the significance of the courts, the revolutionary impact of the women's and civil rights movements, and the consequences of the growth and transformation of the American economy. Each student selects a policy area for detailed exploration; students often choose topics related to civil rights, women's rights, health care, environmental reform, non-profit and non-governmental organizations, the arts, and education, but other topics are also appropriate. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 479. Historical Research and Writing. 3 Units.

Research seminar for graduate students. Intensive focus on processes of historical research and writing. Students produce conference paper and research paper based on primary sources. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 481. City as Classroom. 3 Units.

In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles. Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 485. Readings in Society and Culture in Modern Chinese History. 3 Units.

The primary goal of this course is to provide students an opportunity to explore at greater length specific topics in Chinese social and cultural history. The period covered by the assigned readings roughly spans the late eighteenth century through the first half of the twentieth century. Readings will cover a wide range of topical themes, including childhood, gender and sexuality, urban life, print media, religion, and the environment. Offered as HSTY 385 and HSTY 485. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 491. Food in History. 3 Units.

Food is inextricably interconnected with the development of agriculture and other technologies, with the rise and fall of empires, with increasing understanding of diet and nutrition, with laws and regulations, with the arts, with economic development and consumer culture, and with religious and ethnic identities. By examining selective and representative episodes pertaining to each of these topics, this course explores the global history of food, from the agricultural revolution of the neolithic era to the consumer revolution of the last generation. Offered as HSTY 391 and HSTY 491. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 493. Advanced Readings in the History of Race. 3 Units.

This course examines the concept of race as a social construction that carries political and economic implications. We begin by examining the histories of the early racial taxonomists (e.g., Bernier, Linnaeus, and Blumenbach among others) and the contexts that informed their writings. We then assess how the concept of race changed from the nineteenth to the twentieth century in the United States. We conclude by evaluating how the ideology of race has influenced U.S. domestic life and foreign policy at specific historical moments. Offered as HSTY 393, HSTY 493, and ETHS 393. Counts for CAS Global & Cultural Diversity Requirement.

HSTY 494. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 3 Units.

This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners' conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, EEPS 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, EEPS 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.

HSTY 495. History of Medicine. 3 Units.

This course treats selected topics in the history of medicine, with an emphasis on social and cultural history. Focusing on the modern period, we examine illnesses, patients, and healers, with attention to the ways sickness and medicine touch larger questions of politics, social relations and identity. Offered as HSTY 395 and HSTY 495. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 496. Advanced Topics in History. 3 Units.

Advanced topics in history, changing from semester to semester. The course provides students an opportunity to explore special themes or theoretical issues in history that are too briefly covered in broader surveys. Students may take this course more than once for credit, when different topics are covered. Offered as HSTY 396 and HSTY 496.

HSTY 497. Graduate Independent Study. 1 - 3 Unit.

Independent reading and research programs with individual members of the faculty.

HSTY 499. Advanced Readings in Black History. 3 Units.

This is an advanced readings course that may change from semester to semester. This course will provide students with an opportunity to more deeply explore special themes and theoretical issues in the field of black history that are often quickly and briefly covered in broad survey courses. Readings may be organized around specific topics such as resistance and social protest, black intellectual history, black nationalism and identity, black film and historical literacy black cultural forms and politics, black urban history, or some such other combination. Students may take this course more than once and receive credit as long as the course topic differs. Students should contact the History Department for more details on course content during any given semester. Offered as ETHS 391, HSTY 399 and HSTY 499. Prereq: Graduate standing or instructor permission.

HSTY 525. Intellectual Property and the Construction of Authorship. 3 Units.

Study of the concepts, laws, norms, and practices through which writers and other creative producers establish "property" in their work. Offered as ENGL 525 and HSTY 525. Prereq: Graduate standing or permission.

HSTY 601. Independent Studies. 1 - 18 Unit.

(Credit as arranged.)

HSTY 651. Thesis M.A.. 1 - 18 Unit.

(Credit as arranged.)

HSTY 701. Dissertation Ph.D.. 1 - 18 Unit.

(Credit as arranged.) Limited to Ph.D. candidates actively engaged in the research and writing of their dissertations. Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.