Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing


The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University is a globally recognized leader in nursing education, research and practice.  Our commitment to excellence is visible in our distinguished faculty, small class sizes, world renowned clinical partners and academic innovations.  While its roots date back to 1898 with the founding of the Lakeside Hospital Training School for Nurses, the school was formally established in 1923 as one of the first two colleges of nursing within a university through a gift from its namesake, Frances Payne Bolton, the first congresswoman from Ohio.  

Today, the School of Nursing offers curricula for students at all levels of study including undergraduate, graduate entry and advanced nursing practice and leadership.  Master's level instruction prepares graduates to sit for certification and to practice in a range of specialties including:  nurse anesthesia, nurse midwifery, acute and primary care in adult-gerontology and pediatrics, care of families, care of neonates, women's health,  as well as education with a focus on populations.  The school of nursing also offers both the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) and the PhD in Nursing, as well as dual doctorate programs. Areas of research include symptom science, family and community care, aging across the lifespan, self-management of health and illness, and neuroscience.   

Strategic Vision


Create and empower nurse leaders who develop and implement innovative and interprofessional research, education and practice activities that make a positive difference in the health of individuals and communities.


To be recognized globally as an academic community of excellence that builds on our strengths and traditions to provide leadership in nursing research, education and practice in evolving, interprofessional  health and scientific communities.


The purpose of the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing is to provide an environment that encourage  individuals to develop their personal and professional capabilities, including the sense of responsibility for continued learning; to learn as efficiently and effectively as possible; to find enjoyment, excitement, and challenge in the pursuit of knowledge and its application; and to develop behaviors that enable them to function in a changing, complex society. As an integral component of Case Western Reserve University, the school assumes responsibility for the preparation of individuals committed to excellence and leadership in the profession of nursing. The faculty of the school accepts the responsibility for teaching and scholarly inquiry as integral parts of the educational process.


FPB has set forth the following philosophy to accomplish the stated mission.

Nursing is an academic discipline and profession. Nursing as an academic discipline is a distinct branch of human knowledge fundamental to nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing administration, and to the continuous development of the profession. The distinct perspective of nursing includes a focus on the meta-paradigm concepts of persons, health, environment and nursing. The conceptual focus within FPB is on health-seeking mechanisms and behaviors of human beings. Some of those mechanisms and behaviors are innate; others are learned or developed and may be subject to the influence of nurses’ knowledgeable ministrations. The body of nursing knowledge is continuously advanced, structured, and restructured as a consequence of a range of methods including scientific inquiry, philosophic inquiry, historical inquiry, and clinical evaluation.

Scientific inquiry within nursing is designed to discover, advance, and clarify knowledge about determinants and correlates of optimal biological, psychological, and social functioning; physical, emotional and spiritual comfort; and individual and group attainment of health goals in multiple environments and under a variety of circumstances (including illness and injury) attendant to birth, living, development, decline and death. Philosophic inquiry is undertaken to clarify the values that underlie consumers’ and nurses’ responsibilities for human health promotion, the ethics of nursing practice, and the nature of the body of knowledge known as nursing. Historical inquiry is undertaken to document significant influences (by events and individuals) on the development of nursing over time as a body of knowledge and as a profession. Clinical evaluation is designed to test and verify the relative efficacy of strategies used in nursing administration, consultation, education, and practice, and the means employed to advance nursing knowledge.

Professional nurses have mastery over a body of scientific and humanistic knowledge that is fundamental to their particular kinds of practice. They selectively use this knowledge in the execution of their professional responsibilities and in the attainment of professional goals. Those involved in differentiated nursing practices employ nursing technologies (skills and approaches that represent the application of scientific knowledge), using artistry in the execution of their professional responsibilities. Professional nurses’ several, particular practices are guided by a code of professional ethics and also by knowledge about the individuals and groups whom they serve. The nurse’s professional goal is to appraise accurately and to enhance effectively the health status, health assets, and health potentials of individuals, groups, families, and communities and to promote the initiative and independence of those they serve in the attainment of reasonable health goals, mutually agreed upon by consumers and by nurses as their health care providers. Nursing practice includes assisting persons in the maintenance of health, detecting deviations from health, assisting persons in the restoration of health, and supporting persons during life. These responsibilities are accomplished through a systematic and deliberative process. Nursing practice includes independent and interdependent functions and nurses are an integral part of the health care system.

Other beliefs essential to nursing that are shared by the faculty are stated below:

Nursing Strategies

Nursing strategies can be categorized according to the function they serve in facilitating clients’ health-seeking behaviors. A tentative classification scheme according to the function strategies is set forth below. Within each category there are multiple behaviors from which the nurse can select depending on the nature of the clients’ assets and deficits. Also, each category is open to the discovery of more activities than are presently known. Each category focuses on facilitating health-seeking behaviors.

Compensating: Performing selected activities or measures (including monitoring) for clients when they are unable to do these activities.

Teaching: Performing actions intended to induce learning.

Counseling: Assisting clients to examine an alternative course of action.

Supporting: Promoting clients’ ability to cope, adapt and change.

Stimulating: Promoting clients’ desire to perform health-seeking behaviors.

Advocating: Intervening on behalf of the client to overcome obstacles that are interfering with health-seeking behaviors.

Comforting: Providing an environment that promotes ease and well-being.

The choice of nursing strategies for enhancing client’s health-seeking behaviors is based on assessment of these behaviors and the intervening variables to determine the assets and deficits and potential for engaging in behaviors that are directed toward attaining, maintaining or regaining an optimal level of health.

FPB Accreditation and Approvals


Case Western Reserve University is accredited at the institutional level by the Higher Learning Commission:

Higher Learning Commission
230 South LaSalle Street

Suite 7-500

Chicago, Illinois 60604-1411
Phone: 800.621.7440 / 312.263.0456

Fax: 312.263.7462 

The University is chartered as an educational institution under the laws of the State of Ohio and holds a Certificate of Authorization from the Ohio Department of Higher Education (formerly known as the Ohio Board of Regents).

In addition, many of the individual nursing programs are accredited by nationally recognized professional associations, including:

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN), Master of Nursing (MN), and Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) programs at Case Western Reserve University are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). The next accreditation is due in 2021.

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education
655 K Street NW
Suite 750
Washington DC 20001


The Post-Graduate APRN Certificate and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs at Case Western Reserve University are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). The next accreditation is due in 2026.

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education
655 K Street NW
Suite 750
Washington DC 20001

The Frances Payne Bolton  nurse anesthesia program is accredited by the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Education Programs (COA). The last accreditation was in 2012. The next accreditation is due in 2020.

Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs
222 South Prospect Avenue
Park Ridge, Illinois 60068-4001
847- 655-1160

The Cleveland Clinic Foundation nurse anesthesia program is accredited by the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Education Programs (COA). The last accreditation was in 2012. The next accreditation is due in 2022.

Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs
222 South Prospect Avenue
Park Ridge, Illinois 60068-4001
847- 655-1160

The nurse midwifery program is accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Midwifery Education (ACME) (formerly ACNM Division of Accreditation) in 2015. The next accreditation is due in 2025.

Accreditation Commission for Midwifery Education (ACME)
8403 Colesville Road, Ste 1550
Silver Spring, MD 20910-6374

Approved Programs

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) and Master of Nursing (MN) programs are approved by the Ohio Board of Nursing. The last visit for the BSN program was in fall 2017, the next visit is due in October 2023. The last visit for the MN program was in 2017, and the next visit is due in October 2023.

Ohio Board of Nursing
17 South High Street
Suite 400
Columbus, OH 43215-7410



Carol M. Musil, PhD, RN, FAAN, FGSA
(Case Western Reserve University)
Dean, The Marvin E. and Ruth Durr Denekas Professor of Nursing

Mary Terhaar, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN
(The Catholic University of America)
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs; Arline H. and Curtis F. Garvin Professor of Nursing

Ronald Hickman, PhD, RN, ACNP-BC, FAAN, FNAP
(Case Western Reserve University)
Associate Dean for Research; Associate Professor

Tiffany Cooper, MBA
(Ursuline College)
Associate Dean for Finance and Administration

Sara Douglas, PhD, MSN, RN
(Illinois State University)
Assistant Dean for Research; Arline H. and Curtis F. Garvin Professor in Nursing Excellence

Margaret Roudebush, MNO
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Dean for Research Administration

Helen Jones-Toms, MNO
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Dean of Marketing & Communication

Celeste M. Alfes, DNP, MSN, RN, CNE, CHSE-A, FAAN
(Case Western Reserve University)
Associate Professor; Director, Center for Nursing Education, Simulation, and Innovation

Amelia Bieda, PhD, APRN, PNP-BC, NNP-BC
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Professor; Director, BSN Program

Latina Brooks, PhD, CNP
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Professor; Director, MSN and DNP Program

Beverly Capper, MSN, RN-NIC
(Case Western Reserve University)
Instructor; Assistant Director, BSN Program

Evelyn G. Duffy, DNP, AGPCNP-BC, FAANP
(Case Western Reserve University)
Associate Professor; Associate Director of the University Center on Aging and Health

Molly J. Jackson, DNP, AGNP-C, ACHPN
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Professor; Director, Graduate Entry (MN) Program

Cynthia L. Danko, DNP, MSN, RN
(Case Western Reserve University)
Assistant Professor; Director, Institutional Research

Diana L. Morris, PhD, RN, FAAN, FGSA
(Case Western Reserve University)
Florence Cellar Associate Professor in Gerontological Nursing; Executive Director of the University Center on Aging & Health

Joachim Voss, PhD, ACRN, FAAN
(University of California San Francisco)
Sarah Cole Hirsh Professor of Nursing; Director, Sarah Cole Hirsh Institute for Best Nursing Practices Based on Evidence

Brady Boccucci, MB
(Cleveland State University)
Director HR and Administrative Operations

Rachel Grdina, MSSA
(Case Western Reserve University)
Director International Health Programs

Teona C. Griggs, M.Ed., MA
(Cleveland State University)
Director Student Services, Diversity, and Inclusion

Dedra Hanna Adams, MA, MPA
(Cleveland State University)
Director Financial Aid

Megan Juby, BA
(John Carroll University)
Interim Director Development

Ivy Ko, BA
(Cleveland State University)
Director Finance

Sally Garrett Karyo, MHA
(Pennsylvania State University)
Assistant Director Center for Research and Scholarship

Kristi Lehmer, MBA
(Thomas More College)
Director Recruitment and Enrollment

Lauren Maziarz, BA
(Ohio State University)
Assistant Director Special Events & Stewardship

Brigid L. Mercer, BS
(Ohio State University)
Senior Director Alumni Relations and Development

Caron Peoples, MCSE
(Ohio Wesleyan University)
Director Information Technology


Instructional Facilities

With a highly qualified faculty engaged in teaching, research, and community service, FPB offers high quality academic programs. Instruction includes lectures, seminars, individual conferences and small group discussions, and clinical experiences. The FPB School of Nursing, located at the Health Education Campus provides a state of the art inter-professional education environment where nursing, medical, dental medicine and physician assistant students learn with and from each other.  The eleven acre campus is the site of the Sheila and Eric Samson Pavilion. This 477,000 square-foot facility features a central atrium where students can gather, study and eat together, an innovation laboratory, 26 academic classrooms (including “team-based learning” classrooms) and simulation labs were collaborative learning takes place.

Clinical Facilities

Instructional facilities are abundant and varied. University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center established in 1866 is a 1,032-bed tertiary, academic medical center specializing in adult/pediatric medical and surgical specialties and is an aggregate of specialized hospitals that includes Alfred and Norma Lerner Tower, Samuel Mather Pavilion and Lakeside Hospital for adult medical/surgical care; Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital ranked #4 nationally for Neonatal Care by the U.S. News and Wold Report; University MacDonald Women’s Hospital, Ohio's only hospital for Women; Seidman Cancer Center (formerly know as the Ireland Cancer Center); University Psychiatric Center-Hanna Pavilion, University Hospitals Institute for Health Care Quality & Innovation, skilled nursing and rehabilitation services and home health care. University Hospitals is part of the University Hospitals Health System with services provided at 150 locations in 40 northern communities.  University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center is an affiliate of Case Western Reserve University.  Together, they form the largest center for bio-medical research in the state of Ohio.  University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center is home to world class clinical and research centers, including cancer, pediatrics, women's health, orthopedics, spine, radiology, radiation oncology, neurosurgery neuroscience, cardiology, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation and human genetics.  

The Cleveland Clinic Health System is a multi-specialty academic medical center founded in 1921.  Main Campus has 1,400 beds and 4,435 beds system-wide.  The Cleveland Clinic is one of the largest and most respected hospitals.  Cleveland Clinic main campus, Fairview Hospital, Hillcrest Hospital, South Pointe Hospital and Akron General Hospital are all designated as Magnet status hospitals, the most sought after indicator of nursing excellence. Cleveland Clinic Health System is comprised of the Cleveland Clinic main campus, Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital located within the main campus, Euclid Hospital, Fairview Hospital, Lutheran Hospital, Marymount Hospital, Medina Hospital, South Pointe Hospital, Hillcrest Hospital, Ashtabula County Medical Center, Avon Hospital,  Cleveland Clinic Florida (Weston, West Palm Beach), Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, Nevada and The Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute in Las Vegas, and Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Cleveland Clinic London, Cleveland Clinic Canada.  The system also includes Akron General Health System, Visiting Nurse Service and Affiliates, Hospice of VNS, Lodi Community Hospital, Edwin Shaw Rehabilitation Institute, an outpatient clinic in Toronto, Ontario and three health and well centers.  It is nationally recognized as one of the top medical centers in the US and the world, particularly in technological and management systems and in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.  

MetroHealth Medical Center established in 1837, is a 642-bed hospital that includes a Level  I Adult Trauma, Level II Pediatric Trauma Center, and a verified regional Burn Center, a skilled nursing facility and more than 25 locations throughout Cuyahoga County with more on the way.  MetroHealth is one of three teaching hospitals that make up the Case Western Reserve University Integrated Surgical Program.  Annually, MetroHealth medical center handles more than one million patient visits including more than 100,000 in the Emergency Department, one the the busiest in the country.  That's an average of 274 Emergency Department visits per day.  The John A. Gannon Comprehensive Burn Care Center is one of only two burn centers in Ohio treats more than 1,700 outpatient and inpatient burn injuries every year.  The 27-bed Surgical Intensive Care Unit admits more than 2,000 critically ill surgical patients per year.  The Elisabeth Severance Prentiss Center at MetroHealth is a long term skilled nursing facility.  In 2014 the Centers for Disease Control designated MetroHealth as an official Ebola Treatment Center, the only one in Ohio.  

The Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) is one of five facilities constituting the VA Healthcare System of Ohio.  A full range of primary, secondary and tertiary care services are offered to an eligible Veteran population covering 24 counties in Northeast Ohio. Comprehensive, seamless health care and social services are provided to more than 111,901 veterans each year through an inpatient tertiary care facility (Wade Park).  With 18 locations of care, including 13 outpatient clinics, two community resource and referral centers, a psychosocial resource rehabilitation center, a chronic dialysis center and an ambulatory surgery center, the Northeast Ohio VA Healthcare System's quality services are easily accessible to Veterans in 24 counties.  

Additional opportunities are available in a variety of health, social, and educational agencies. These include, for example, Benjamin Rose Institute, Hospice of the Western Reserve, Judson Park Retirement Community, The Cleveland Visiting Nurses Association, Cleveland Public Health Department, and many others.


The Kelvin Smith Library, a 144,000 square foot building completed in 1996, houses most of the collections of Case Western Reserve University. This includes over 1,290,000 monographs, 7,363 serial titles, U.S. Government publications, company annual reports, newspapers, CDs, technical reports, over 12,000 DVDs and videos, and more. The library enables users to integrate both traditional resources and state-of-the-art technology into teaching, research, and learning. A variety of seating styles accommodates 900 people and provide electrical ports for connecting personal laptop computers. Case Western Reserve’s wireless network enables personal laptops to have internet access throughout the library. Two multimedia rooms include scanners and sound and video digitizers. Available are individual study spaces, meeting rooms, conference areas, and social gathering places. Thirty miles of compact movable shelving allows the library to keep much of its collection onsite for immediate access to print materials. The user-friendly interface to the online catalog, databases, and other resources allows library staff to focus their attention on working in-depth with faculty and students.

In addition to the Kelvin Smith Library, students and faculty have access to the following libraries; the Cleveland Health Sciences Libraries, supporting programs in dentistry, medicine and nursing; the School of Law Library; the Lillian and Milford Harris Library in the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences; the Kulas Music Library; and the Astronomy Library. Altogether, collections at the Case Western Reserve libraries encompass more than 1.8 million volumes, nearly 14,000 serials and periodicals, and a wide range of electronic information resources, including a CD-ROM reference database that is accessible through the Case Western Reserve network. These include OhioLINK, a state-funded network that links the libraries of 17 public universities, 23 community/technical colleges, 44 private colleges, and the State Library of Ohio and also offers access to research databases and other information resources.

The Health Sciences Libraries, which consist of the Health Center Library and the Allen Memorial Library, serve as the major libraries for holdings related to nursing, medicine, dentistry, nutrition, and biology. The most current and heavily used books are placed on reserve to insure their availability to students. Faculty also place materials on reserve for use in the library. There are 18 public workstations to access the internet, and the library also provides wireless access for those with properly-equipped laptop computers.

FPB School of Nursing Information Technology Services

The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing (SON) has an assigned Information Technology Services team. This team is a part of the University Technology (UTech) Division; managing and overseeing all computer related operations within the school.  The team assists faculty, staff and students with any computer problems, issues, needs, or equipment purchases. This team manages the Help Desk, provides troubleshooting of problems, and repairs all school-owned equipment. The SON UTech team provides assistance with the School’s website and develops web applications to meet the needs of the school. The team also administers online application, review, and customer relations management systems, as well as a variety of other IT systems and tasks.

At the Health Education Campus (HEC) in the Samson Pavilion, repair and computer support services are provided to our nursing students. The HEC has extensive wireless access for all users, including access to the Internet and University software tools throughout the building. Students also have access to wireless printing kiosk throughout the building. The HEC provides the most advanced technology possible to enhance and accelerate education.

Center for Nursing Education, Simulation & Innovation (CNESI)

The Center for Nursing Education, Simulation & Innovation is located on the second floor of the Samson Pavilion at the Health Education Campus (HEC) and is composed of two labs: Physical Assessment Lab and Clinical Teaching Bed Lab, and a Medication Room.

Physical Assessment Lab:  This ten-bed center is for pre-licensure students (BSN and MN) and graduate nurse practitioner students (MSN) learning basic and advanced physical assessment skills. The room is fully equipped with ten electronic exam tables that have inclining headrests, extending leg supports, storage drawers, and optional stirrups.  To ensure privacy, the lab has custom ceiling-mounted privacy drapes at each bed station. The physical assessment lab has extensive locked storage for 10 Welch Allyn and 16 ADC Diagnostic kits, 20 various-sized blood pressure cuffs, 4 electronic blood pressure cuffs, and 10 single and 6 double headed stethoscopes for student use. Students also have access to human patient simulators, task trainers, breast and prostate models, a DVD library, and a large screen video display board to support our undergraduate and graduate lab sessions. 

Clinical Teaching Bed Lab: This lab is comprised of 10 patient bed stations each with a static Laerdal Medical manikin. The lab simulates an in-patient medical-surgical or step-down unit and has a full-sized ADA hospital bathroom designed to provide students with the opportunity to learn how to transfer a patient in and out of the bathroom, to the shower, and to the commode. The center contains all of the common devices seen in the hospital setting including a Hoyer lift, Geri chair, wheel chairs, canes, crutches, linen carts, ventilators, ceiling-mounted privacy drapes, and head wall units at each patient bed to simulate oxygen delivery and wall suction. Pre-licensure students use this lab to learn and practice every essential nursing skill from hand washing and bed making to wound irrigation and managing a ventilated patient.  The center also has three medication carts, 6 smart IV pumps, and extensive locked storage for IV tubing, IV solutions, dressing supplies, catheters, chest tubes, foley catheters, sterile gloves, sterile gowns, bed pans, urinals, and tracheostomy supplies. The lab also has an extensive DVD library and a large screen video display board to support our undergraduate and graduate lab sessions. 

Medication Room: The medication room is adjacent to the Clinical Teaching Bed Lab and is equipped with an academic version of the Pyxis Medication dispensing system, bar coding techniques, and synthetic medications. The medication room has extensive locked cabinetry, a sink, and counter space to provide a realistic setting for best practices of preparing patient medications.

In the HEC, nursing students have access to the following shared lab spaces that foster interprofessional education:

Acute Care Flexible Simulation Labs: These three labs are set up with portable head walls, one way glass, a large screen video display board, and video/audio capabilities for recording and debriefing and high-stakes testing.  The labs can be set up for any high fidelity simulation with access to a family of Laerdal and Gaumard high fidelity human patient simulators: Sim-Man Essential, Sim-Baby, Sim Child, Sim Newbie, Sim Junior, and Lucinda birthing simulator. All pre-licensure students and nurse practitioner students utilize these labs on a weekly basis throughout each semester for simulation training on human patient simulators; practicing various advanced nursing skills on task trainers; viewing skills and simulation videos; and conducting pediatric and obstetric lab and simulation sessions.

Private Exam Rooms: 20 private exam rooms each equipped with a physician-grade exam table, side chair, exam stool, and built in otoscope and ophthalmoscope provide the opportunity for students to practice and review communication and assessment skills with faculty, peers, and standardized patients. Each room has one way glass, video and audio capability, and a small screen video display board allowing  faculty to record exemplars and provide feedback on student practice, testing, and final examinations. Standardized patients (SPs) are hired for formative, summative, and high stakes testing situations and adjacent small and large debriefing rooms allow for private or class meetings prior to or following SP sessions.

Steris Perioperative Lab:  This interprofessional lab contains a fully functioning Steris 3080 operating room table and fluid/blanket warmer, a full set of surgical instruments, back and gown tables, locked supply cabinets, pulse oximeters, and an educational anesthesia machine, endoscopy, and Bovie machine.  Students learn basic perioperative safety skills including; aseptic technique, patient positioning, handling of surgical instruments, and communication hand-over techniques related to perioperative nursing and nurse anesthesia patient care.  Audio and video capabilities allow for recording of formative and summative simulations and adjacent classrooms allow for pre-briefing and debriefing opportunities.

Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing and Critical Care Transport: Nursing students of all levels including acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) students, specializing in flight nursing at Case Western Reserve University train in the nation's first state-of-the-art simulator built in a full-scale Sikorsky S76 helicopter.  The helicopter simulator allows faculty to input any two flight coordinates in the world, the time of day, weather pattern, and level of turbulence for students to experience the flight as though it was actually occurring. The helicopter features the most advanced medical equipment with authentic aerial views projected within the windows and the motion platform provides 11 degrees pitch and roll that mimics changing altitudes and weather conditions throughout the flight.  The learning environment allows students to experience the physical confines of an actual helicopter while practicing the delivery of patient care to high fidelity human patient manikins to create the most realistic training of caring for critically injured patients from takeoff to landing.  The center also has a static full scale ambulance for students to practice effective patient hand-offs from first-responders including fire, rescue, EMT, and Paramedics. The center is located on the ground floor of the HEC directly below the Steris Perioperative Lab allowing faculty to simulate taking the patient from the helicopter or ambulance up the elevators, directly to surgery. Both the helicopter and ambulance are equipped with video and audio capabilities to capture student interactions during formative and summative evaluations and provide the means for debriefing in the center or in any of the adjacent classrooms or debriefing rooms.